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American Mock World Health Organization: An Innovative Model for Student Engagement in Global Health Policy.
Global Health: Science and Practice. 2017 Mar 24; 5(1):164-174.The American Mock World Health Organization (AMWHO) is a model for experiential-based learning and student engagement in global health diplomacy. AMWHO was established in 2014 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill with a mission to engage students in health policy by providing a simulation of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the policy-forming body of the World Health Organization that sets norms and transforms the global health agenda. AMWHO conferences are designed to allow students to take their knowledge of global health beyond the classroom and practice their skills in diplomacy by assuming the role of WHA delegates throughout a 3-day weekend. Through the process of developing resolutions like those formed in the WHA, students have the unique opportunity to understand the complexities behind the conflict and compromise that ensues through the lens of a stakeholder. This article describes the structure of the first 2 AMWHO international conferences, analyzes survey results from attendees, and discusses the expansion of the organization into a multi-campus national network. The AMWHO 2014 and 2015 post-conference survey results found that 98% and 90% of participants considered the conference "good" or "better," respectively, and survey responses showed that participants considered the conference "influential" in their careers and indicated that it "allowed a paradigm shift not possible in class."
The evaluation of comprehensive sexuality education programmes: a focus on the gender and empowerment outcomes.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2015. 64 p.Repeated evaluations have demonstrated that comprehensive sexuality education does not foster earlier sexual debut or unsafe sexual activity. By contrast, programmes that teach only abstinence have not proved to be effective. Additionally, recent research demonstrates that gender norms are a “gateway factor” for a range of adolescent health outcomes. Comprehensive sexuality education curricula that emphasize critical thinking about gender and power – the empowerment approach – are far more effective than conventional “gender-blind” programmes at reducing rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended early pregnancy. These studies also indicate that young people who adopt more egalitarian attitudes about gender roles, compared to their peers, are more likely to delay sexual debut, use condoms and practise contraception. They are also less likely to be in relationships characterized by violence. This report, The Evaluation of Comprehensive Sexuality Education Programmes: A Focus on the Gender and Empowerment Outcomes, represents an important milestone in our understanding of advances in the field of comprehensive sexuality education evaluation. It offers an extensive review and analysis of a wide range of evaluation studies of different comprehensive sexuality education programmes, at different stages of development and from different contexts and setting across the globe. It enriches our knowledge of new methodologies, available questionnaires and instruments that can be applied in future assessments and evaluations, most particularly to measure the gender empowerment outcome of comprehensive sexuality education programmes. It addresses the adaptation of the methodology to various contexts and age-specific groups of young people and children. This report is co-sponsored by UNFPA, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, the World Health Organization and the International Planned Parenthood Federation.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2016. 12 p.Gender inequalities and harmful gender norms are important drivers of the HIV epidemic, and they are major hindrances to an effective HIV response. While access to HIV services for women and girls remain a concern, a growing body of evidence also shows that men and adolescent boys have limited access to HIV services. Current effort to advance both gender equality and sexual and reproductive health and rights as key elements of the HIV response do not adequately reflect the ways that harmful gender norms and practices negatively affect men, women and adolescent body and girls in all their diversity. This in turn increases HIV-related vulnerability and risk among all of these groups.
Improving health, social welfare, and human development through women's empowerment in developing countries: The 2016 Girl Up Leadership Summit, Washington, DC, USA.
International Journal of MCH and AIDS. 2016; 5(2):87-91.The United Nations Foundation’s Girl Up campaign, an initiative dedicated to promoting the health, education, and leadership of adolescent girls in developing communities around the world, hosted its annual Girl Up Leadership Summit in Washington, DC from July 11-13 and welcomed more than 275 girl empowerment and women empowerment proponents to take part in leadership training, listen to and learn from influential figures like United Nations Deputy High Commissioner for Human Rights Kate Gilmore and Treasurer of the United States Rosie Rios, and engage in an official lobby day in the nation’s capital. Topics ranged from the issue of child marriage and sexual and reproductive health rights to intersectional feminism and the importance of the next generation of global girl advocates. The purpose and, later on, achievement of the conference was the development of such leaders and Girl Up representatives. Summit attendee and Girl Up Campus Leader Janel Mendoza shares her experience as a longstanding Girl Up supporter and reflects on the preeminent conversations held during and following the summit.
Fast track to ending AIDS. 2016 High-Level Meeting on Ending AIDS, United Nations General Assembly, New York, 8-10 June 2016.
[Geneva, Switzerland], Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2016.  p. (No. HLM2016AIDS)This document from the United Nations (UN) General Assembly announces a High-Level Meeting on Ending AIDS, to convene June 8-10, 2016 at the UN headquarters in New York. The meeting responds to the need for UN member states to take a "Fast-Track" approach during the next five years to reach the goal of ending the HIV epidemic by 2030, and to achieve global goals for sustainable development. Achieving these goals will require not only increased investment in outreach, care, and treatment, but broader commitment to a rights-based approach to HIV programming that includes participation from civil society. Meeting attendees will draft a new Political Declaration on Ending AIDS. The UNAIDS Fast-Track approach aims to achieve ambitious targets by 2020, including: fewer than 500,000 people newly infected with HIV, fewer than 500,000 people dying from AIDS-related illnesses, eliminating HIV-related discrimination.
Lancet. 2016 Mar 19; 387:1147.WHO convened a multidisciplinary consultation last week to identify the tools and interventions needed to outsmart the Zika epidemic. Towards the end of the meeting, delegates representing the major regulatory agencies in the USA, Europe, and Brazil, committed to putting Zika-related products on a regulatory fast-track. They also agreed that instead of waiting, as they usually do, for manufacturers to approach them, they would take the initiative and approach companies working on promising products. Their gesture, in a sense, encapsulates the success of the meeting in bringing together so many minds from so many disciplines to focus, for 3 intensive days, on a single issue of vital importance. (Excerpts)
Dissemination of WHO guidelines and recommendations on micronutrients: policy, practice and service delivery issues. Report of a regional meeting, Bangkok, 14-16 October 2014.
New Delhi, India, WHO, Regional Office for South-East Asia, 2015.  p. (SEA-NUT-195)The public health implications of micronutrient deficiencies are very important since these deficiencies adversely affect fetal and child growth, cognitive development of infants, children and adolescents, women of reproductive age and the elderly, and lower their resistance to infection. Of all the micronutrient deficiencies, anaemia is the most common in the South-East Asia Region and an estimated 55% of preschool children, 45% of pregnant women and 40% of women of child-bearing age are anaemic. Low intake of iron and other important nutrients in the diet, parasitic infections and low bioavailability of iron from plant-based diets are considered to be the causative factors. In recent years, WHO has produced or updated several evidence-based guidelines and recommendations on a large number of nutrients of public health importance. These evidence-based guidelines for nutrition action will assist the Member States to focus on key areas of intervention and develop a harmonized monitoring framework to assess the impact of such interventions on the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies. A regional meeting on dissemination of WHO guidelines and recommendations on micronutrients: policy, practice and service delivery issues, was organized by the World Health Organization’s Regional Office for South-East Asia in collaboration with the Department of Nutrition for Health & Development, WHO Headquarters, the Institute of Nutrition – Mahidol University, Thailand and the Micronutrient Initiative, in Bangkok, Thailand from 14-16 October 2014. The overall objective of the meeting was to discuss the effective dissemination and incorporation of WHO guidelines and recommendations on micronutrients in national control and prevention programmes highlighting the following topics: i) dissemination of current WHO guidelines and recommendations on micronutrients; ii) overview of recent strategies and approaches for addressing anaemia in different population groups; and iii) review of national protocols for the control and prevention of micronutrients deficiencies, with particular focus on anaemia.
Meeting of the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, April 2013 - conclusions and recommendations.
Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 2013 May 17; 88(20):201-6.Add to my documents.
WHO / World Bank convene ministerial meeting to discuss best practices for moving forward on universal health coverage. Joint WHO / World Bank statement.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2013 Feb 19.  p.Top officials from health and finance ministries from 27 countries joined other high-level health and development stakeholders at a two-day meeting this week in Geneva to discuss ways that countries are progressing towards universal health coverage. The meeting was convened jointly by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank and took place just weeks after the United Nations General Assembly adopted a resolution supporting universal health coverage. Delegates at the Geneva meeting expressed strong support for the ideas underlying universal health coverage: that everyone, irrespective of their ability to pay, should have access to the health services they need, without putting their families at financial risk. The meeting also discussed strategies to ensure an adequate supply of good quality and affordable essential medicines and technologies, noting the value of using financial incentives to promote efficiency and quality of health services. The participants agreed on the importance of improving information systems and holding governments and health care providers more accountable for delivering results. The importance of monitoring progress towards universal health coverage was also a recurrent theme, as was the important role played by researchers, civil society, and international agencies. The WHO and the World Bank are working together at global, regional and country levels, and stand by ready to help countries confront the numerous challenges that the meeting highlighted in accelerating progress toward universal health coverage. In response to country demand, the WHO and the World Bank are already developing a monitoring framework that will help countries track their countries’ progress toward universal health coverage in a way that explicitly captures the potential importance of universal health coverage in achieving better health and higher living standards for everyone. The framework will be available for consultation with countries and other partners later this year. The UN General Assembly resolution urges Member States to develop health systems that avoid significant direct payments at the point of care. It further encourages them to establish mechanisms for pooling risks to avoid catastrophic health expenditures that drive households into poverty. (Excerpts)
Where are we in achieving the goals of the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health? Taking stock of progress and developing next steps for 2013, 19-20 November 2012, Geneva. Stakeholder meeting report.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2012.  p.The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) co-chaired a two day meeting in Geneva of more than 70 representatives from national governments, the UN, civil society and the private sector. The meeting provided the first opportunity for partners to jointly discuss the independent Expert Review Group (iERG) recommendations and progress towards the multi-stakeholder program of work facilitated by WHO. Participants also discussed how to accelerate accountability and harmonize efforts in support of the Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health. The overall objectives of the meeting were: to critically review progress in the implementation of the Global Strategy and the 10 recommendations of the Commission on Information and Accountability (CoIA); to provide strategic direction on implementing the iERG recommendations; and to explore synergies in the implementation of the different initiatives under the Global Strategy;
[Unpublished] 2012 Sep 11.  p. (A/RES/66/288)Recalling its resolution 64/236 of 24 December 2009, in which it decided to organize, in 2012, the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development at the highest possible level, as well as its resolution 66/197 of 22 December 2011, 1. Expresses its profound gratitude to the Government and the people of Brazil for hosting the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in Rio de Janeiro from 20 to 22 June 2012, and for providing all the necessary support; 2. Endorses the outcome document of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, entitled “The future we want”, annexed to the present resolution. (Excerpt)
Rio+20. United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 20-22 June 2012. Agenda item 10. Outcome of the conference. The future we want.
[Unpublished] 2012 Jun 19.  p. (A/CONF.216/L.1)We, the Heads of State and Government and high-level representatives, having met at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 20 to 22 June 2012, with the full participation of civil society, renew our commitment to sustainable development and to ensuring the promotion of an economically, socially and environmentally sustainable future for our planet and for present and future generations. (Excerpt)
Social determinants of health: Outcome of the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, October 2011). Report by the Secretariat.
[Geneva, Switzerland], World Health Organization [WHO]. 2012 Mar 22.  p. (A65/16)In 2009, the Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA62.14 on reducing health inequities through action on the social determinants of health. It requested the Director-General to provide support to Member States in measures that included convening a global event, with the assistance of Member States, before the Sixty-fifth World Health Assembly in order to discuss renewed plans for redressing the alarming trends of health inequities through actions on the social determinants of health. This report describes the process and outcome of the resulting event, the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October 2011), and also summarizes progress on the implementation of resolution WHA62.14. (Excerpt)
Expert Review of Vaccines. 2011 Sep; 10(9):1271-80.The major public health consequences of malaria in pregnancy have long been acknowledged. However, further information is still required for development and implementation of a malaria vaccine specifically directed to prevent malaria in pregnant women and improve maternal, fetal and infant outcomes. The WHO Malaria Vaccine Advisory Committee (MALVAC) provides guidance to the WHO on strategic priorities and research needs for development of vaccines to prevent malaria. Here we summarize the discussions and conclusions of a MALVAC scientific forum meeting on considerations in the development of vaccines to prevent malaria in pregnant women. This report includes brief summaries of what is known, and major knowledge gaps in disease burden estimation, pathogenesis and immunity, and the challenges with current preventive strategies for malaria in pregnancy. We conclude with the formulation of a conceptual framework for research and development for vaccines to prevent malaria in pregnant women.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2011 Nov; 19(38):35-41.This paper explores the actors who replaced the agreements about the global development agenda made in the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo 1994 and the 4th UN World Women's Conference in Beijing in 1995 with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It also surveys the processes which shape and affect the exercise of power, which can lead to radical changes.
Statement on the Heffron et al study on the safety of using hormonal contraceptives for women at risk of HIV infection.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2011 Oct.  p. (WHO/RHR/11.28)In light of the study by Heffron and colleagues, as well as the public health concerns it raises, WHO is convening a Technical Consultation on 31 January - 1 February 2012 to re-examine the totality of evidence on potential effects of hormonal contraception on HIV acquisition, disease progression, and infectivity / transmission to sexual partners. The review will build upon the previous meetings of the MEC Guidelines Committee on this subject in 2003 and 2008, as well as the recommendations from a 2007 WHO Technical Consultation that focused on developing a research agenda of key priorities on these issues. The technical consultation will bring together a multi-disciplinary group of experts to evaluate the available scientific evidence in this area. Through a consensus-based process, current WHO recommendations on contraceptive use for women at risk of HIV, women with HIV infection or AIDS, will be assessed to determine whether they remain consistent with the updated body of evidence or whether modifications need to be made. Recommendations from the consultation will be applied to WHO’s clinical guidance and guide the development of a consensus on key research priorities for research in this area. WHO will issue a statement on recommendations for contraceptive use in high HIV incidence and prevalence settings after a consensus has been reached at the conclusion of the consultation. (Excerpt)
Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 21 October 2011.
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, 2011.  p.The Rio Political Declaration on Social Determinants of Health expresses global political commitment for the implementation of a social determinants of health approach to reduce health inequities and to achieve other global priorities. It will help to build momentum within WHO Member States for the development of dedicated national action plans and strategies. On 15 August 2011, the text was circulated to Geneva-based Permanent Missions of Member States. The first meeting of Member States, convened by the Government of Brazil, was held at WHO headquarters on 7 September, 2011. This was followed by a series of informal consultations attended by representatives of Permanent Missions. The text of the declaration was finalized during the conference in Rio de Janeiro on 19-21 October, 2011.
Closing the gap: Policy into practice on social determinants of health. Discussion paper to inform proceedings at the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 19-21 October, 2011.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO}, 2011.  p.This discussion paper aims to inform proceedings at the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health about how countries can implement action on social determinants of health, including the recommendations of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Evidence from countries that have made progress in addressing social determinants and reducing health inequities shows that action is required across all of five key building blocks, which have been selected as the five World conference themes: 1. Governance to tackle the root causes of health inequities: implementing action on social determinants of health; 2. Promoting participation: community leadership for action on social determinants; 3. The role of the health sector, including public health programmes, in reducing health inequities; 4. Global action on social determinants: aligning priorities and stakeholders; 5. Monitoring progress: measurement and analysis to inform policies and build accountability on social determinants. (Excerpt)
Education, youth and development: UNESCO in Latin America and the Caribbean. Educación, juventud y desarrollo: acciones de la UNESCO en América Latina y el Caribe.
Santiago, Chile, Gráfica Funny, 2010 Aug.  p.This publication is produced by UNESCO's Regional Bureau of Education for Latin America and the Caribbean (OREALC/UNESCO Santiago). This document analyses the Millennium Development Goals and the Education for All (EFA) goals from the perspective of youth. The publication is the result of a joint effort by UNESCO Offices and Institutes in the region, which provided information on four key issues important to youth in Latin America and the Caribbean: quality education for all youth, education for peaceful coexistence, sexuality education, and HIV prevention and education for sustainable development. Innovative experiences described in the publication include UNESCO's assistance in drafting public policy in Brazil, the implementation of a post-earthquake educational model in Haiti, and teacher training on HIV/AIDS prevention and reduction of the effects of violence in Mexico.
Meeting summary: Protecting and Empowering Adolescent Girls: Evidence for the Global Health Initiative. Sponsored by the Interagency Youth Working Group (IYWG), Thursday, June 3, 2010.
[Washington, D.C.], Interagency Youth Working Group, 2010.  p.The third annual meeting of the Interagency Youth Working Group (IYWG) highlighted examples of innovative programs that address girls’ vulnerability to HIV and reproductive health (RH) risks in more than 15 countries. These programs have used a variety of approaches, including school-based interventions, advocacy, empowerment, targeting of especially vulnerable girls, physical activity, and male involvement. One of the main purposes of the meeting was to formulate recommendations on women- and girl-centered approaches within the U.S. Government’s Global Health Initiative. (Excerpt)
Postpartum Family Planning: Sharing Experiences, Lessons Learned and Tools for Programming -- Meeting report, 12 May 2009, Washington, D.C.
Baltimore, Maryland, Jhpiego, ACCESS, Family Planning Initiative [ACCESS-FP], 2009.  p.On May 12, 2009, more than 76 experts and leaders in reproductive health (RH) and maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) from more than 22 global health organizations and programs convened in Washington, D.C., for the “Postpartum Family Planning: Sharing Experiences, Lessons Learned and Tools for Programming” meeting. The meeting had three objectives: 1. Present and discuss experiences and lessons learned in implementing PPFP in a variety of settings; 2. Share tools and other resources to support PPFP programming; and 3. Discuss progress, continuing priorities for research and advancing MNCH / FP integration. (Excerpts)
Entre Nous. 2009; (68):6-7.The WHO Regional Office for Europe has been promoting family and community health (FCH) interventions since 1992, including biennial meetings for FCH focal points in Member States. Our FCH activities follow a holistic approach, focusing on the health and development of individuals and families across the life course. For sexual and reproductive health (SRH) this means focusing on overall SRH, health of mothers and newborns, children and adolescents, as well as healthy aging. In recent years, the contribution of health systems to improve health has been re-evaluated in many countries. The WHO European Ministerial Conference on Health Systems “Health Systems, Health and Wealth” in Tallinn, June 2008 has discussed the impact of people’s health and economic growth, and has taken stock of recent evidence on effective strategies to improve the performance of health systems. In line with these developments, the WHO Regional Office for Europe held the FCH focal points meeting in Malta, September 2008 with the aim of contributing to the improvement of FCH in a health systems framework.
International consultation on the criminalization of HIV transmission: 31 October-2 November 2007, Geneva, Switzerland. Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) Geneva, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), New York, 2007.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2009 Nov; 17(34):180-6.Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, some jurisdictions have applied criminal law to the transmission of HIV. In 2002, UNAIDS issued a policy options paper on this issue. In light of renewed calls for the application of criminal law to HIV transmission and concerns raised in this regard by the UNAIDS Reference Group on HIV and Humans Rights and others, UNDP and the UNAIDS Secretariat decided to bring together a number of legal experts and other concerned stakeholders to discuss this issue in the context of an effective human rights and public health response to HIV. The discussion would inform a UNAIDS/UNDP policy brief on this subject. It was clarified that the consultation would focus primarily on HIV transmission through sexual contact, although it was noted that concerns exist in relation to applying criminal law to HIV transmission in other contexts. This Bookshelf article consists of excerpts from the report of the meeting.
Country experiences in the scale-up of male circumcision in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region: Two years and counting. A sub-regional consultation, Windhoek, Namibia, June 9-10 2009.
[Unpublished] 2009. 24 p.This report on a sub-regional consultation held in Windhoek, Namibia, 9-10 July 2009 summarises progress reports, lessons from programme experience, and priorities for the next year from nine countries.
WHO / USAID / FHI Technical Consultation: Expanding Access to Injectable Contraception, 15-17 June 2009, Room M405, WHO, Geneva.
[Unpublished] 2009. 5 p.The agenda for the consultation is presented. The objectives of the consultation were: To review systematically the evidence and programmatic experience on interventions designed to expand access to / provision of contraceptive injectables, focusing on non clinic-based services and programs; To reach conclusions on issues: (a) for which evidence is consistent and strong; (b) for which evidence is mixed; and (c) for which evidence is marginal or entirely lacking and, thus requires additional research; To document discussions and conclusions of the Consultation, including policy and program implications, and to disseminate these widely.