Your search found 146 Results

  1. 1

    Position statement on condoms and the prevention of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2015 Jul 7. [8] p.

    Condoms are a critical component in a comprehensive and sustainable approach to the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are effective for preventing unintended pregnancies. Male and female condoms are the only devices that both reduce the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and prevent unintended pregnancy. Condoms have played a decisive role in HIV, STI and pregnancy prevention efforts in many countries. Condoms remain a key component of high-impact HIV prevention programmes. Quality-assured condoms must be readily available universally, either free or at low cost. Programmes promoting condoms must address stigma and gender-based and socio-cultural factors that hinder effective access and use of condoms. Adequate investment in and further scale up of condom promotion is required to sustain responses to HIV, other STIs, and unintended pregnancy. (Excerpts)
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  2. 2

    Keys to youth-friendly services: Adopting a sex positive approach.

    International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]

    London, United Kingdom, IPPF, 2011 Mar. [8] p.

    Sexuality is a fundamental aspect of human life that refers to gender roles and identities, sexual orientation, intimacy and pleasure. Open, free expression of sexuality is central to every individual's well-being. Accepting these realities is the starting point for adopting a sex-positive approach to youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services.
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  3. 3

    Male latex condom specification, prequalification and guidelines for procurement, 2010.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]; Family Health International [FHI]

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2010. 152 p.

    Consistent and correct use of condoms is vital to achieve the level of protection required to prevent unintended pregnancy and the transmission of HIV and other STIs. Another vital factor is the quality of the product. If condoms leak or break, they cannot offer adequate protection. In many programmes attention tends to be focused on the condom user and the promotion of condoms. Often, inadequate attention is paid to ensuring, as a key component of a comprehensive condom programming strategy, that a quality product is manufactured, purchased, stored, distributed and handled properly. The male latex condom is an important medical device, and its manufacture needs to be regulated and controlled as such.This document describes a technically sound, systematic process to support the manufacture, prequalification, procurement and distribution of a quality product that can meet the needs of different populations in a broad spectrum of challenging environmental conditions. It is intended primarily for any policy-maker, manager or procurement officer who has the responsibility for procuring, supplying and promoting natural latex male condoms.
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  4. 4

    Programmatic and research considerations for hormonal contraception for women at risk of HIV and women living with HIV.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Reproductive Health and Research

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2012 May. [4] p. (Policy Implications; WHO/RHR/12.09)

    Between 31 January and 2 February 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a meeting of experts to discuss recent research on use of hormonal contraception by women at high risk of HIV and those currently living with HIV and its implications. The purpose of the meeting was to review all available published evidence on the relationship between the use of hormonal contraceptives and the risk of HIV acquisition, HIV disease progression, and HIV transmission to uninfected partners, and to determine whether any change in the WHO recommendations on hormonal contraceptive use by women at high risk of, or living with, HIV-infection was needed. During the discussion on the balance of risks and benefits of hormonal contraceptive use among women at high risk of, or living with, HIV infection, multiple programmatic and research issues emerged, including priority knowledge gaps. This brief serves to highlight actions that programmes providing sexual and reproductive health and HIV-prevention services should undertake, in order to complement the Consultation’s recommendations. Directions for future research to address current gaps are noted. (Excerpts)
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  5. 5

    A new investment framework for the global HIV response.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011 Oct. [10] p. (UNAIDS Issues Brief; UNAIDS Policy Document; UNAIDS/JC2244E)

    Over the past 30 years there have been tremendous gains in the global HIV response, but until now there has been only limited systematic effort to match needs with investments. The result is often a mismatch of the two, and valuable resources are stretched inefficiently across many objectives. To achieve an optimal HIV response, countries and their international partners must adopt a more strategic approach to investments. In June 2011 a policy paper was published in The Lancet (Schwartländer et al) that laid out a new framework for investment for the global HIV response. The new framework is based on existing evidence of what works in HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. It is intended to facilitate more focused and strategic use of scarce resources. Modelling of the framework’s impact shows that its implementation would avert 12.2 million new infections and 7.4 million AIDS-related deaths between 2011 and 2020. This modelling also indicates that implementation of the investment framework is highly cost-effective, with additional investment largely offset by savings in treatment costs alone, and enabling the HIV response to reach an inflection point in both investments and rates of HIV infection. (Excerpts)
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  6. 6

    Job aid for NET-EN reinjection. For clinicians.

    Family Health International [FHI]; IntraHealth International

    [Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, 2009. [2] p.

    Clients should be scheduled for NET-EN reinjections every 8 weeks. According to the 2008 WHO guidelines, a client can receive a reinjection if she is up to 2 weeks early or 2 weeks past her scheduled reinjection date, without ruling out pregnancy. Clients arriving after the reinjection window may also be eligible if pregnancy can be ruled out. The steps in this aid should be followed for clients who are returning for reinjection. For clients who want an injection for the first time, "Checklist for Screening Clients Who Want to Initiate NET-EN" should be used.
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  7. 7

    Job aid for DMPA reinjection. For clinicians.

    Family Health International [FHI]; IntraHealth International

    [Research Triangle Park, North Carolina], FHI, 2009. [2] p.

    Clients should be scheduled for DMPA reinjections every 13 weeks. According to the 2008 WHO guidelines, a client can receive a reinjection if she is up to 2 weeks early or 4 weeks past her scheduled reinjection date, without ruling out pregnancy. Clients arriving after the reinjection window may also be eligible if pregnancy can be ruled out. The steps in this aid should be followed for clients who are returning for reinjection. For clients who want an injection for the first time, "Checklist for Screening Clients Who Want to Initiate DMPA".should be used.
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  8. 8

    Donor support for contraceptives and condoms for STI / HIV prevention 2008.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [New York, New York], UNFPA, 2008. 30 p.

    Since 1990, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) has been tracking donor support for contraceptives and condoms for STI / HIV prevention. The Fund publishes an annual report based on this donor database to enhance the coordination among partners at all levels to continue progress toward universal access to sexual and reproductive health, as set forth in the ICPD Programme of Action and, subsequently, the Millennium Development Goals. This report represents the 2008 installment of the series and has three main sections. The first section summarizes patterns and trends—by method, by donor and by region—in donor support from 2000-2008. The second section takes a closer look at donor support for male and female condoms over time and by region. The third and final section compares aggregate donor support to global contraceptive need for 2000-2008 and provides projections of contraceptive needs through 2015. (Excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Prevention is for life. HIV / AIDS: dispatches from the field.

    Leidl P; Gharzeddine O; Ngwa G; Olfarnes T; Plews A

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [2008]. 48 p.

    This advocacy booklet provides real-life examples to illustrate how HIV prevention can save lives in diverse cultural and geographical settings. It includes chapters on youth and HIV, promoting and distributing male and female condoms, protecting women and girls, linking HIV prevention with other sexual and reproductive health care, and empowering populations who are at particular risk. The booklet features stories from Belize, China, Egypt, Ethiopia, Nigeria, the Russian Federation, and Tajikistan.
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  10. 10

    Ghana: the AIDS Response project (GARFUND).

    World Bank. Africa Region. Operations Results and Learning Unit

    Findings Infobriefs. 2007 May; (136):[3] p.

    The specific objectives of this project - financed through an IDA credit of $28.7 million (2002-05) - were to : (i) provide resources that would enable the government to implement a balanced, diversified multi-sector response, engaging all relevant government sectors, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and grassroots initiatives; (ii) to expand contributions made by the Ministry of Health ( MOH ) engage civil society in the fight against AIDS; and (iii) finance eligible activities conducted by civil society organizations, including NGOs, community-based organizations (CBOs), faith-based organizations (FBOs), trade and professional associations, associations of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs), districts, and line ministries to ensure a rapid multisector scaling-up of HIV prevention and care activities in all regions and at all administrative levels. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Achieving the ICPD goals: reproductive health commodity requirements, 2000-2015.

    Bulatao R

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2005. [80] p.

    Contraceptives, drugs, and medical supplies required for reproductive health services in developing regions cost US$1.84 billion in 2000, will cost $2.34 billion in 2005, and will rise in cost to $3.43 billion by 2015. Annual costs will be 86 per cent higher, in constant dollars, in 2015 than in 2000 (Figure 1). These estimates cover contraceptives for family planning, condoms for protection against HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, and drugs and medical supplies for safe deliveries and other reproductive health services. Drugs and medical supplies make up over half the total cost, contraceptives around one-third, and condoms for protection the remaining one-eighth or so. The estimates are detailed in this report, which attempts to assess the overall costs of reproductive health commodities, which UNFPA has traditionally had a major role in helping provide for developing regions. These commodities are essential to achieve the goal of providing universal access to reproductive health care, as mandated in 1994 by the International Conference on Population and Development. The report is not intended to specify the quantities and cost of commodities needed in particular countries but rather tries to arrive at estimates of global requirements. Nevertheless, the calculations are based on detailed consideration of regional and even country data where they are available. The report assesses the number of cases in developing regions of each relevant reproductive health condition, projects these numbers over 15 years, determines the commodities required as part of appropriate treatment, estimates the proportion of cases that do receive such treatment, specifies how coverage should rise in the future, and calculates the commodity costs for all the cases to be covered. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    STI control for HIV prevention.

    Steen R

    Mera. 2006 Jan; (21):5-6.

    HIV is first and foremost a sexually transmitted infection (STI). Like other STIs, HIV has unique characteristics that underlie its epidemiology and help determine its ability to replicate in new hosts and spread to new populations. Sharing a common mode of transmission, HIV also interacts with other STIs in important ways. This paper looks at some of these interactions and implications for HIV prevention. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    The male condom. UNAIDS technical update.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2000 Aug. [10] p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)

    The transmission of HIV and other STDs during sexual intercourse can be effectively prevented when quality condoms are used correctly and consistently. Studies on serodiscordant couples (only one of whom is HIV-positive) have shown that, with regular sexual intercourse over a period of two years, partners who consistently used condoms had a near zero risk of HIV infection. Condoms -- sheaths covering the erect penis -- have existed in one form or another for many centuries, for use in sexual intercourse to prevent both infection and pregnancy. It was only in the 1930s, though, when latex rubber was developed, that mass production of condoms was made possible. Although the use of condoms to prevent pregnancy declined in the 1960s with the introduction of the contraceptive pill, their popularity has risen sharply since the early 1980s, when it was realized that they could prevent transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Addressing gender perspectives in HIV prevention.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002 Feb. 6 p. (HIV Prevention Now Programme Briefs No.4)

    Gender dynamics are understood as the different roles, expectations, identities, needs, opportunities and obstacles that society assigns to women and men based on sex. Girls and boys, women and men, have the same rights, potential and capacities; but discrimination against girls and women based on socio-cultural norms often relegates them to lower status and value. This often places them at considerable disadvantages in terms of their access to resources and goods, decision-making power, choices, and opportunities across all spheres of life. While sex is biological, gender is socially-ascribed. It determines how individuals and society perceive what it means to be male or female, influencing one's roles, attitudes, behaviours and relationships - aspects of personal identity that have a direct bearing in sexual decision-making and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. International commitments have affirmed the need to explicitly address the gender-based inequities and ramifications of the pandemic. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    The MDGs: condoms as disease prevention, not just contraception [editorial]

    Ratzan SC

    Journal of Health Communication. 2005; 10:375-378.

    The review of the UN Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) this fall poses an opportunity to focus on and galvanize interest in health development. The MDGs are a framework of 8 goals, 18 targets, and 48 indicators with a target goal for attainment of 2015. These development goals were adopted by a consensus of experts from the United Nations Secretariat and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the World Bank. While health is directly reflected in three of the eight MDGs and eight of the 18 accompanying indicators, progress is choppy. Of course, the linkage of health as the foundation for the achievement of all the MDGs may seem to be an obvious antecedent as well as a sequela for development. No single pathogen or disease, however, appears to be ravaging unabated more than HIV=AIDS. HIV=AIDS continues to pose a significant drag on development indicators of those countries most affected. It has become a fundamental threat, not only to the health—and survival—of more than 25 million currently infected individuals in Africa, but also to the entire health system and workforce as well as overall governance, security, education, debt relief, economic development, and peace. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    The male latex condom. 10 condom programming fact sheets.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    [Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 1998. 5(1) [93] p. (WHO/RHT/FPP/98.15; UNAIDS/98.12)

    One of the most practical and effective means of preventing unwanted pregnancies and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) is the familiar male natural rubber latex condom. The evidence suggests that, if used consistently and correctly, the latex male condom is: an effective contraceptive which does not have systemic side-effects; an effective means of protection against STDs, including the human immune-deficiency virus (HIV), that causes AIDS. Therefore, natural rubber latex condoms are of prime importance in the fight to stop the spread of AIDS. The dissemination of evidence regarding the efficacy of condoms can be used to promote the use of condoms both as a contraceptive method and as a barrier against the transmission of STDs, including HIV. WHO and UNAIDS have developed this series of fact sheets to summarize the latest scientific evidence, basic concepts and best practices in key areas of condom programming. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    2004 report on the global AIDS epidemic. 4th global report.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2004. 228 p. (UNAIDS/04.16E)

    Every two years, on the occasion of the International Conference on AIDS, this Global Report sets out our current knowledge on the state of the epidemic based on the experiences of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), which comprises nine United Nations system agencies. It makes for sobering reading. Far from levelling off, rates of infection are still on the rise in many countries in Sub- Saharan Africa. Indeed, in 2003 alone, an estimated 3 million people in the region became newly infected. Most alarmingly, new epidemics appear to be advancing unchecked in other regions, notably Eastern Europe and Asia. Countries in Eastern Europe and East Asia are experiencing the fastest growing HIV epidemic in the world. The large, populous countries of China, India and Indonesia are of particular concern. General prevalence is low there, but this masks serious epidemics already under way in individual provinces, territories and states. AIDS is the most globalized epidemic in history, and we are witnessing its growing ‘feminization’. Every year brings an increase in the number of women infected with HIV. Globally, nearly half of all persons infected between the ages of 15 to 49 are women. In Africa, the proportion is reaching 60%. Because of gender inequality, women living with HIV or AIDS often experience greater stigma and discrimination. Yet this is a problem with a solution. As our report indicates, we know what works—successful approaches are evolving locally, nationally and globally. They are being helped by the growing momentum of international political leadership, by business workplace programmes, and by the dynamic mobilization of affected communities themselves—a key element that remains at the heart of our global response. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    Global estimates of contraceptive commodities and condoms for STI / HIV prevention, 2000-2015.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical Support Division. Commodity Management Unit

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [2000]. [21] p.

    This paper contains global estimates for family planning commodities, and condoms for STI/HIV prevention, for the years 2000 to 2015. It combines these two estimates and attempts to show the broad dimensions of commodity shortfalls potentially being experienced for these products in developing countries. It does not include commodities for other components of reproductive health such as maternal care and STI diagnosis and treatment; these estimates will be added to an updated and expanded version of this paper in due course. The estimates of family planning commodities, which do not include costs related to voluntary sterilization, are based on surveys reviewed in a work previously commissioned by UNFPA. The estimates of condoms for STI/HIV prevention were prepared by the Commodity Management Unit of the Inter-country Programmes and Field Support Branch of the Technical Support Division of UNFPA, in conjunction with staff from other Divisions, and in consultation with UNAIDS, the United Nations Population Division and others. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    Donor support for contraceptives and condoms for STI / HIV prevention, 2002.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2004. iv, 17 p. (E/500/2004)

    This report is intended for use in planning contraceptive supply, and for advocacy and resource mobilization. It contains country-specific information provided by donors on the type, quantity and total cost of contraceptives they supplied to reproductive health programmes in developing countries during 2002. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) collected information for this report in 2003; as in earlier years, the UNFPA database is especially useful to illustrate commodity shortfalls and changes in funding by donor and country. The report highlights trends since 1990 and the gap between estimated needs and actual donor support, comparing UNFPA estimates of condom requirements for STI/HIV prevention, and contraceptive requirements for family planning programmes, with actual donor support. It also indicates donor support by region and product, the top ten countries supported by donors and the quantity of male and female condoms supplied. UNFPA tried to collect information on donor support for antibiotics for prevention of STIs/RTIs. In many cases, however, either donors did not record this information or the countries receiving support did not disaggregate information by commodity. UNFPA’s Commodity Management Unit will continue to discuss how to collect this information. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    Prevent HIV now. Partner with UNFPA.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. HIV / AIDS Branch

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. [2] p.

    For over three decades, UNFPA programmes have addressed sensitive issues such as gender relations and sexuality in various cultural settings, often among the most vulnerable populations in some of the least-developed countries. Working with and in partnership with governments, non-governmental organizations and civil society, UNFPA is a strong partner in condom programming for HIV prevention, combining prevention education with access to condoms for those who need them. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    Donor support for contraceptives and condoms for STI / HIV prevention, 2001.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003. [26] p.

    This report was prepared by analysing information from a database generated by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) on Donor Support for Reproductive Health Commodities. The database contains country-specific information reported by donors on the type, quantity and total cost of contraceptives they provided to reproductive health programmes in developing countries during 2001. The information for this report was collected in 2002. This report, the latest in a series of reports, is being used for contraceptive supply planning, advocacy and resource mobilization, as is evident by citations of the UNFPA database in several publications in 2001. As in earlier years, the database is especially useful to illustrate commodity shortfalls and changes in funding by donor and country. The report highlights trends in donor support since 1990 and the gap between estimated needs and actual donor support. For example, the estimated condom requirements for STI/HIV prevention and contraceptive requirements for family planning programmes, prepared separately by UNFPA,1 are compared with the actual donor support figures to examine donor contributions vis-à-vis country needs. This report also indicates donor support by region, support by product, the top 10 countries supported by donors and the quantity of male and female condoms supplied in countries. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    The 108th Congress: more bad news for women.

    International Women's Health Coalition [IWHC]

    New York, New York, IWHC, [2003]. 10 p.

    The United States Congress is pursuing a number of misguided domestic and international policies that have profound—and profoundly counterproductive–impacts on women in the United States and around the world. Each individual action deserves attention; taken together they paint a chilling picture of Congress' willingness to sacrifice women and girls to gain political favor with those on the far right. In tandem with the Bush administration, the Republican-dominated 108th Congress is chipping away at women’s rights and health both at home and abroad. The International Women’s Health Coalition has compiled some of its most egregious actions, as a complement to our ongoing monitoring of the Bush administration (see the Bush’s Other War factsheet at (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    Abstinence goes global: the U.S., the right wing, and human rights.

    Rothschild C

    American Sexuality Magazine. 2003; 1(6):[5] p..

    The right wing has been very effective at melding its domestic and global strategies. Progressive organizations and social movements must do the same, and with urgency. Using a human rights lens to critique abstinence-only programs and the manipulation of valid scientific data would go a long way in fostering effective coalitions. Coalitions of human rights organizations, and sexual and reproductive health and rights organizations, must increasingly take their fight to global and UN levels to protect gains already won. (excerpt)
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  24. 24

    African prevention efforts yield hope for future.

    AIDS Alert. 2003 Feb; 18(2):22.

    HIV prevention continues to offer the world's best hope in stopping the AIDS epidemic, and recent success stories in South Africa and Uganda prove that these work, according to the recent AIDS Epidemic Update report by UNAIDS and the World Health Organization (WHO) in Geneva, Switzerland. (excerpt)
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  25. 25

    Nepal's nightmare: saving its young from AIDS.

    Poudel K

    London, England, OneWorld International Foundation, 2003 Aug 4. 3 p.

    In a recent report on the State of Children's Rights, 2003, by the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Child Workers in Nepal (CWIN), 9.9 percent of the HIV infected population consists of children below 19. "HIV has already infected 41 children below 13 years of age," says CWIN president Gauri Pradhan. Although HIV cases are rising, the government is yet to provide sufficient funds to combat the syndrome. It sanctioned US $5 million for an AIDS prevention and control program in 2002. Donors contributed more than that. Another major hitch is a shortage of test centers. There are only a dozen HIV test facilities in Nepal's major hospitals. (excerpt)
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