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[Knowledge, attitudes and condom use skills among youth in Burkina Faso] Utilisation du preservatif masculin : connaissances, attitudes et competences de jeunes burkinabè.
Sante Publique. 2017 Mar 06; 29(1):95-103.Introduction: Condom use is recognized by the WHO as the only contraceptive that protects against both HIV / AIDS and unwanted pregnancies. But to be effective, condoms must be used consistently and correctly. The objective of this study was to assess young people's skills in male condom used, to identify the challenges faced by them when using condoms to better guide future interventions.Methods: Based on a two-level sampling representing 94,947 households within Bobo-Dioulasso municipality, 573 youth aged between 15 and 24 were interviewed. This data collection was conducted from December 2014 to January 2015 in the three districts of the municipality. A questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge and attitudes of the youth.Results: Only 24% of surveyed know how to accurately use condoms despite their knowledge of condom effectiveness and although some of them are exposed to awareness-raising and information campaigns. Indeed, various handling errors and usage problems (breakage, slippage, leakage and loss of erection) had been identified during the oral demonstration performed by the surveyed. The older youth and with the highest level of education were the most likely to demonstrate increased skills in condom use. Moreover, girls were less competent than boys in terms of condom use.Conclusion: It is important to increase awareness-raising and information campaigns, adapting the content to the real needs of young people so as to transmit the skills required for effective prevention particularly in regard to condom use.
Population-level impact of an accelerated HIV response plan to reach the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target in Cote d'Ivoire: Insights from mathematical modeling.
PLoS Medicine. 2017 Jun; 14(6):e1002321.BACKGROUND: National responses will need to be markedly accelerated to achieve the ambitious target of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). This target aims for 90% of HIV-positive individuals to be aware of their status, for 90% of those aware to receive antiretroviral therapy (ART), and for 90% of those on treatment to have a suppressed viral load by 2020, with each individual target reaching 95% by 2030. We aimed to estimate the impact of various treatment-as-prevention scenarios in Cote d'Ivoire, one of the countries with the highest HIV incidence in West Africa, with unmet HIV prevention and treatment needs, and where key populations are important to the broader HIV epidemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: An age-stratified dynamic model was developed and calibrated to epidemiological and programmatic data using a Bayesian framework. The model represents sexual and vertical HIV transmission in the general population, female sex workers (FSW), and men who have sex with men (MSM). We estimated the impact of scaling up interventions to reach the UNAIDS targets, as well as the impact of 8 other scenarios, on HIV transmission in adults and children, compared to our baseline scenario that maintains 2015 rates of testing, ART initiation, ART discontinuation, treatment failure, and levels of condom use. In 2015, we estimated that 52% (95% credible intervals: 46%-58%) of HIV-positive individuals were aware of their status, 72% (57%-82%) of those aware were on ART, and 77% (74%-79%) of those on ART were virologically suppressed. Reaching the UNAIDS targets on time would avert 50% (42%-60%) of new HIV infections over 2015-2030 compared to 30% (25%-36%) if the 90-90-90 target is reached in 2025. Attaining the UNAIDS targets in FSW, their clients, and MSM (but not in the rest of the population) would avert a similar fraction of new infections (30%; 21%-39%). A 25-percentage-point drop in condom use from the 2015 levels among FSW and MSM would reduce the impact of reaching the UNAIDS targets, with 38% (26%-51%) of infections averted. The study's main limitation is that homogenous spatial coverage of interventions was assumed, and future lines of inquiry should examine how geographical prioritization could affect HIV transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Maximizing the impact of the UNAIDS targets will require rapid scale-up of interventions, particularly testing, ART initiation, and limiting ART discontinuation. Reaching clients of FSW, as well as key populations, can efficiently reduce transmission. Sustaining the high condom-use levels among key populations should remain an important prevention pillar.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2016.  p.Efforts to reach fewer than 500 000 new HIV infections by 2020 are off track. This simple conclusion sits atop a complex and diverse global tapestry. Data from 146 countries show that some have achieved declines in new HIV infections among adults of 50% or more over the last 10 years, while many others have not made measurable progress, and yet others have experienced worrying increases in new HIV infections.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016 May 30.  p. (WHO/ZIKV/MOC/16.1 Rev.1)This document is an update of guidance published on 18 February 2016 to provide advice on the prevention of sexual transmission of Zika virus.The primary transmission route of Zika virus is via the Aedes mosquito. However, mounting evidence has shown that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible and more common than previously assumed. This is of concern due to an association between Zika virus infection and adverse pregnancy and fetal outcomes, including microcephaly, neurological complications and Guillain-Barre syndrome. The current evidence base on Zika virus remains limited. This guidance will be reviewed and the recommendations updated as new evidence emerges.
Position statement on condoms and the prevention of HIV, other sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy.
[Geneva, Switzerland], UNAIDS, 2015 Jul 7.  p.Condoms are a critical component in a comprehensive and sustainable approach to the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and are effective for preventing unintended pregnancies. Male and female condoms are the only devices that both reduce the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and prevent unintended pregnancy. Condoms have played a decisive role in HIV, STI and pregnancy prevention efforts in many countries. Condoms remain a key component of high-impact HIV prevention programmes. Quality-assured condoms must be readily available universally, either free or at low cost. Programmes promoting condoms must address stigma and gender-based and socio-cultural factors that hinder effective access and use of condoms. Adequate investment in and further scale up of condom promotion is required to sustain responses to HIV, other STIs, and unintended pregnancy. (Excerpts)
UNAIDS ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator: Promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases.
Global Health Action. 2014; 7:23103.UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS’s ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person’s risk of contracting HIV / AIDS / STIs is merely a function of his / her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner’s sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual’s risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person’s risks can be misleading, especially because HIV / AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator.
Hormonal contraception and risk of HIV acquisition: a difficult policy position in spite of incomplete evidence.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2012 Dec; 20(39 Suppl):14-7.Injectable hormonal contraceptives are the most widely used modern contraceptive method in many countries, and are especially popular in sub-Saharan Africa. Some studies have suggested that women using injectable contraception are at a higher risk of acquiring HIV infection that non-users, although other studies have not shown any significant increase in risk. In settings where the risk of HIV infection is high, these conflicting findings present a difficult choice. Modern contraceptive methods, including injectable hormonal contraceptives, are critically important for preventing unintended and mistimed pregnancies, reducing maternal mortality and avoiding the consequences of unsafe abortion. Women and contraceptive providers who advise women in settings where there is a risk of HIV infection are faced with a complex balance of risks regarding contraceptive choice, complicated by the fact that the evidence of whether or not there is an increased risk is far from certain. Furthermore, although additional research has been promised, it may not resolve the question in the near future.
New York, New York, World Youth Alliance, .  p.The World Youth Alliance’s White Paper on HIV / AIDS proposes evidence-based and person-centered treatment, such as the provision of antiretroviral drugs, and prevention strategies, such as a reduction in concurrent partners and a delay in sexual debut. These strategies reflect the capacity of the person to make responsible decisions and to stop the high-risk behavior that exposes him or her to HIV. The paper ends with an evaluation of UNAIDS' harm reduction strategies and a call for UNAIDS to start emphasizing a person-centered response that reflects science and culture.
Guidance on couples HIV testing and counselling including antiretroviral therapy for treatment and prevention in serodiscordant couples: Recommendations for a public health approach.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of HIV / AIDS, 2012 Apr.  p.These guidelines recommend increasing the offering of HIV testing and counselling (HTC) to couples and partners, with support for mutual disclosure. They also recommend offering antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV prevention in serodiscordant couples. Recommendations include: 1.Couples and partners should be offered voluntary HIV testing and counselling with support for mutual disclosure (Strong recommendation, low-quality evidence). 2. Couples and partners in antenatal care settings should be offered voluntary HIV testing and counselling with support for mutual disclosure (Strong recommendation, low-quality evidence). 3. Couples and partner voluntary HIV testing and counselling with support for mutual disclosure should be offered to individuals with known HIV status and their partners (Strong recommendation, low-quality evidence for all people with HIV in all epidemic settings / Conditional recommendation, low-quality evidence for HIV-negative people depending on country-specific HIV prevalence). 4. People with HIV in serodiscordant couples and who are started on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for their own health should be advised that ART is also recommended to reduce HIV transmission to the uninfected partner (Strong recommendation, high-quality evidence). 5. HIV-positive partners with >350 CD4 cel ls/µL in serodiscordant couples should be offered ART to reduce HIV transmission to uninfected partners (Strong recommendation, high-quality evidence. (Excerpts)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011.  p.30 years into the AIDS epidemic, 30 milestones, thoughts, images, words, artworks, breakthroughs, inspirations, and ideas in response.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011 Aug.  p. (UNAIDS/ JC2112E)This report shows that these global commitments will be achieved only if the unique needs of young women and men are acknowledged, and their human rights fulfilled, respected, and protected. In order to reduce new HIV infections among young people, achieve the broader equity goals set out in the MDGs, and begin to reverse the overall HIV epidemic, HIV prevention and treatment efforts must be tailored to the specific needs of young people.
Estimating the level of HIV prevention coverage, knowledge and protective behavior among injecting drug users: what does the 2008 UNGASS reporting round tell us?
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. 2009 Dec; 52 Suppl 2:S132-42.OBJECTIVES: The 2001 Declaration of Commitment from the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) set the prevention of HIV infection among injecting drug users (IDUs) as an important priority in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. This article examines data gathered to monitor the fulfillment of this commitment in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) where resources to develop an effective response to HIV are limited and where injecting drug use is reported to occur in 99 (of 147) countries, home to 75% of the estimated 15.9 million global IDU population. METHODS: Data relating to injecting drug use submitted by LMICs to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) in the 2008 reporting round for monitoring the Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS were reviewed. The quality of the data reported was assessed and country data were aggregated and compared to determine progress in HIV prevention efforts. For each indicator, the mean value weighted for the size of each country's IDU population was determined; regional estimates were also made. RESULTS: Reporting was inconsistent between countries. Forty percent of LMIC (40/99), where injecting occurs, reported data for 1 or more of the 5 indicators pertinent to HIV prevention among IDUs. Many of the data reported were excluded from this analysis because the indicators used by countries were not consistent with those defined by UNAIDS Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group and could not be compared. Data from 32 of 99 countries met our inclusion criteria. These 32 countries account for approximately two-thirds (68%) of the total estimated IDU population in all LMICs.The IDU population weighted means are as follows: 36% of IDUs tested for HIV in the last year; 26% of IDUs reached with HIV prevention programs in the last year; 45% of IDUs with correct HIV prevention knowledge; 37% of IDUs used a condom at last sexual intercourse; and 63% of IDUs used a clean syringe at last injection. Marked variance was observed in the data reported between different regions. CONCLUSIONS: Data from the 2008 United Nations General Assembly Special Session reporting round provide a baseline against which future progress might be measured. The data indicate a wide variation in HIV service coverage for IDUs and a wide divergence in HIV knowledge and risk behaviors among IDUs in different countries. Countries should be encouraged and assisted in monitoring and reporting on HIV prevention for IDUs.
Washington, D.C., Population Action International, 2008.  p.This report was developed through review of the early literature on HIV/AIDS policies and programs in non-industrialized countries and of media material promoting prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV in those countries. Material from the early days of the epidemic was difficult to obtain. Most materials were long ago archived or are in personal files in "basements". While the report focuses on the experiences of three countries, it also examines the early responses of international organizations to HIV in many other developing countries. Additional data were obtained using a snowball sampling technique through which the authors contacted people who had worked in HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. The pool of respondents is not intended to be exhaustive, but the respondents provide important voices of those working in the developing world at the beginning of the epidemic.
AIDS. 2008 Jul; 22 Suppl 1:S51-7.Because full funding for HIV/AIDS prevention interventions is unlikely to occur in the near future, it is essential that the resources available are spent in the most effective way possible. This paper presents a matrix of effectiveness coefficients for HIV/AIDS-related prevention interventions that can be used as an integral part of the coordinated strategic planning process currently underway by the World Bank and UNAIDS, as the interventions in the matrix are harmonized with the interventions in that process. Coefficients for four types of sexual behavior change (condom use, partner reduction, sexually transmitted infection treatment-seeking behavior, age at first sex) across three different risk groups (high, medium, low) are presented, along with their interquartile ranges. Results indicate that: (1) impacts seem greater when an intervention includes interpersonal contact, rather than targeting a more general audience; (2) although significant impacts are observed in the columns measuring changing condom use, other impacts are lower, and sometimes are actually (measured) zero; and (3) additional studies have evaluations of the number of sexual partners and have found a greater impact than previous studies. Although progress has been made in increasing the number of evaluation studies that can be utilized in this impact matrix, particularly in the area of youth interventions, there are still empty cells in which no studies report impacts. Finally, it is important to note that issues such as quality differences and synergies between programmes could have an effect on the impacts calculated for a particular strategic plan.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, 2008 Mar.  p. (ST/ESA/SER.A/270)The AIDS epidemic remains one of the greatest challenges confronting the international community. In countries with a large number of people living with HIV, all population and development indicators are affected by the epidemic. Governments often cite HIV/AIDS as their most significant demographic concern. For more than two decades, the rapidly expanding HIV/AIDS epidemic has triggered a wide array of responses at the national, regional and global levels. The goals established by the United Nations General Assembly in the 2000 Millennium Declaration and through the adoption of the 2001 Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS reflect widely-held concerns about the impact of the epidemic on development and human well-being. More recently, at the 2006 High Level Meeting on AIDS, Member States adopted a Political Declaration focusing on how to attain universal access to comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention programs, treatment, care and support by 2010. (excerpt)
New York, New York, OSAGI, .  p.Her name is Joyce Puta, a 48-year-old Zambian army colonel on secondment to the United Nations. An unabashed fighter, her enemy for the last ten years has been HIV/AIDS. Her latest battleground is Liberia, and by all accounts she has been waging a successful campaign. Working with the United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), Colonel Puta points out that any environment requiring peacekeepers is also a risky one for the spread of HIV/AIDS. In post-conflict situations, social structures crumble and economies are unstable. In order to survive, desperate young women may turn to commercial sex work, often around military bases. So how did a career Zambian army officer find herself on the frontlines in the fight against HIV/AIDS? Joyce Puta joined the army at eighteen. Six years later she became a registered nurse and midwife, and then nursing services manager for Zambia's main military hospital. (excerpt)
Washington, D.C., Advocates for Youth, 2005.  p. (Issues at a Glance)Clinical considerations for the pediatrician: Help ensure that all adolescents have knowledge of and access to contraception, including barrier methods and emergency contraception supplies. Pediatricians should actively support and encourage the use of reliable contraception and condoms by adolescents who are sexually active or contemplating sexual activity. In the interest of public health, restrictions and barriers to condom availability should be removed. Schools are an appropriate site for the availability of condoms in a community program because they contain large adolescent populations. Health professionals have an obligation to provide the best possible care to respond to the needs of their adolescent patients. This care should, at a minimum, include comprehensive reproductive health services, such as sexuality education, counseling...[and] access to contraceptives. (excerpt)
Integrating sexual health interventions into reproductive health services: programme experience from developing countries.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2005.  p. (Sexual Health Document Series)In 1994, at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD, 1994), 184 countries reached a landmark consensus on the need for a broad, integrated approach to sexual and reproductive health. Since that time, countries have been struggling to put the concept into practice. The first challenge has been to understand the broad concept of sexual and reproductive health, in order to identify the service interventions that should be added to an existing reproductive health (RH) or maternal and child health (MCH) programme to make it a sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programme. The second, more difficult, challenge has been to develop feasible, acceptable and cost effective strategies for providing these services within the existing, poorly resourced, primary health care programme base. To create SRH programmes, reproductive health services have to be expanded to better address sexual health. SRH programmes need to give attention to broader determinants of healthy sexuality and well-being. A recent WHO publication, Conceptual framework for programming in sexual health, offers a sexual health approach to service design and implementation. It stresses the need to recognize that not all sexual activity is for reproduction, and that other motivational factors, such as pleasure or a sense of obligation, are often more important determinants of individual sexual health and well being. To improve sexual health, programmes must address sexuality throughout the lifespan, from adolescence to old age, for both men and women. They must also recognize the role of power in sexual relationships and how it affects people's ability to make decisions about their own bodies and sexual life, free from violence, discrimination and stigma. Individual decision-making and the ability to make informed choices can also be limited by social, cultural and legal barriers. Broad sexual and reproductive health care services must recognize and begin to address these constraints through targeted interventions. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2006 Sep. 68 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS/06.25E)Sex between men occurs in all societies. For a variety of reasons, it is often stigmatized by society. Awareness of male-male sex varies considerably from one country to another and may be lower when stigmatization is common. The term 'men who have sex with men' (MSM) describes a behavioural phenomenon rather than a specific group of people. It is generally the preferred term because, in the context of HIV, the important issue is risk behaviour rather than sexual identity. It includes not only self-identified gay and bisexual men, but also men who engage in male-male sex and self-identify as heterosexual, or those whose sexual identity is but a part of their cultural self identification. In some contexts, 'males who have sex with males' is more accurate, since programmes may target males who are not yet adults (the United Nations defines children as those under 18). The term includes those who desire male-male sexual relations and who have such relations forced upon them. Sex between men frequently involves anal intercourse which, if unprotected, carries a high risk of HIV transmission for the receptive partner, and a significant risk for the insertive partner. At least 5-10% of all HIV infections worldwide are due to sexual transmission between men, though this figure varies within countries and between regions considerably. In Central and Eastern Europe, HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men is much higher than that of the general population. In Asia, men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by HIV. It is estimated that HIV prevalence is as high as 14% in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; 16% in Andrha Pradesh, India; and 28% in Bangkok, Thailand. Less information is available in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world where men who have sex with men typically do not identify as gay, homosexual or bisexual. Circumstances such as incarceration or military service may also encourage male-male sex among men who would not do so in other contexts. (excerpt)
New York, New York, IPPF, WHR, 2005 Jan.  p. (IPPF / WHR Spotlight on Youth)Extreme poverty, discrimination, and lack of familial support often force young people to spend their lives on the streets of urban centers in developing countries, working in the informal sector--begging, selling trinkets, shining shoes, or resorting to petty theft and prostitution--and struggling to survive. These vulnerable youth face high rates of police beatings, sexual assault, alcoholism, substance abuse (especially glue sniffing), and gang involvement, often resulting in a high number of unintended pregnancies, clandestine abortions, sexually transmitted infections, especially gonorrhea, herpes and HIV/AIDS. Traditionally, mainstream public health organizations and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) service providers have not been successful in reaching the very poor and marginalized. Few materials have been developed that target street kids and little is known about their service needs, or even their numbers. Local organizations do not have the infrastructure to provide services and determine their costs, and most SRH service providers have not been sensitized to the needs of street youth. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2000 Aug.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)The transmission of HIV and other STDs during sexual intercourse can be effectively prevented when quality condoms are used correctly and consistently. Studies on serodiscordant couples (only one of whom is HIV-positive) have shown that, with regular sexual intercourse over a period of two years, partners who consistently used condoms had a near zero risk of HIV infection. Condoms -- sheaths covering the erect penis -- have existed in one form or another for many centuries, for use in sexual intercourse to prevent both infection and pregnancy. It was only in the 1930s, though, when latex rubber was developed, that mass production of condoms was made possible. Although the use of condoms to prevent pregnancy declined in the 1960s with the introduction of the contraceptive pill, their popularity has risen sharply since the early 1980s, when it was realized that they could prevent transmission of HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2001 Jan. 204 p.UNAIDS has decided to create a Global Directory of Condom Social Marketing Projects and Organisations to provide information and data on social marketing for countries, institutions and organisations working in HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease programmes, especially in the area of condom programming. The information contained in the directory demonstrates the different ways in which social marketing complements and supports HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. The directory, which covers different models of condom social marketing programmes, specifically intends to: Show the contribution of social marketing in HIV/AIDS programmes; Stimulate new ideas and developments in social marketing for HIV prevention; Serve as an advocacy document to encourage policy makers and implementers to adopt the social marketing approach for condom programming in HIV/AIDS, when possible and for health promotion in general; Constitute a database of social marketing organisations and programmes that reflects activities in different countries regarding HIV/AIDS and social marketing; Provide important information on social marketing. The condom social marketing organisations, profiled in Section 4, were closely involved in providing the necessary information to create the Directory. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2000 Jul. 47 p. (UNAIDS Case Study; UNAIDS/00.18E)Thailand was the first Asian nation to recognize that it had a major HIV/AIDS problem, a problem so serious as to deserve priority on the national agenda. While sporadic testing among female sex workers, injecting drug users (IDUs), and men having sex with men detected little HIV through the end of 1987, the rapid growth of HIV infections among IDUs in early 1988 spurred efforts to monitor the epidemic systematically. By mid-1989, a national sentinel serosurveillance system had been established. In the first round of testing in 14 provinces conducted in June 1989, high infection levels were detected among sex workers in the country's northern provinces, especially among sex workers in brothels. By June 1990, with the system expanded to include all 73 provinces, HIV prevalence among brothel-based sex workers had risen from 3.1 per cent in June 1989 to 9.3 per cent nationally (provincial median) and was climbing fast. By June 1991, it had grown to 15.2 per cent. Prevalence was also growing rapidly among young Thai men - who were tested when conscripted into the military at age 21 - from 0.5 per cent in November 1989 to 3.0 per cent in November 1991. Studies of behaviour and HIV infection among these conscripts and other populations soon demonstrated that most new HIV infections in Thailand were occurring through commercial sex. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 2005 Dec;  p..Secretary-General Kofi Annan highlighted in a BBC interview that the largest demographic group to be targeted by the HIV/AIDS pandemic was women. Taking stock of this reality, he stated: "We've seen women's organizations at the grass-roots level and this is very important, because today in Africa AIDS has a woman's face.... Often they are the innocent victims." The United Nations Children's Fund reported that in sub-Saharan Africa, where prevalence of the disease is most severe, two girls for every boy (aged 15 to 24) are newly infected with the virus, while in the most affected countries the ratio is five to one among the 15-to-19-year-olds). The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) reported in 2004 that worldwide women comprised nearly 50 per cent of adults living with the virus, almost 60 per cent of them in sub-Saharan Africa. In his report "In Larger Freedom: Towards Development, Security and Human Rights For All", Mr. Annan emphasized two imperatives: mobilization of greater political will to formulate and expedite policy decisions related to the disease; and increased financial support for the Global Fund to Fight HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Appropriate actions are therefore required to achieve the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of combating HIV/AIDS and other diseases. Their reversal and eradication, as well as the overall reduction in mortality rates worldwide, by 2015 is the main goal. The report also encourages Member States to prioritize HIV/AIDS-related initiatives, which would require furthering awareness of the disease while attacking stigmatization. "If there is anything we have learned in the two decades of this epidemic, it is that in the world of AIDS, silence is death", the Secretary-General reflected at the launch of the Global Media AIDS Initiative in January 2004. Silence equals death has become something of a catchphrase with regard to AIDS awareness. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, International Organization for MIgration, 2005. 47 p. (IOM-UNAIDS Reports on Mobile Populations and HIV / AIDS No. 2)This report addresses HIV risk and programmes for one particular category of mobile worker: truck drivers. Truck drivers are not migrants: the word “migrant” designates a person who, voluntarily and for personal reasons, moves from his or her place of origin to a particular destination with the intention of establishing residence. Nor are truck drivers forced to move, as are refugees or internally displaced persons. They do not change their place of permanent residence. But truck drivers do undertake regular travel for professional reasons, in common with other mobile workers such as seafarers, members of armed forces, airline personnel and traders or business people. (excerpt)