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  1. 1

    Report on organization and conduct of [Sub-Regional] Training Workshop on Census Cartography for English-Speaking Southern and Eastern African Countries. Nairobi, Kenya, 8-19 May, 1989.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa

    [Unpublished] 1989. 9, [9] p. (ECA.STAT/CSAS.1/89/13; RAF/87/P03)

    A recent workshop was organized for the English-speaking countries of Southern and Eastern Africa to use remote sensing materials for census mapping. This included lectures on interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite imagery and its applications to census mapping. The participants were senior statisticians or cartographers in management positions in their countries. the subjects included fundamentals of map interpretation, a laboratory of topographic map reading and scale conversions, census cartography with the definition of census, roles of maps in the census, and planning a census mapping program. The pre- enumeration of cartographic programs and cartographic field work were also covered. The automation of census cartography with the use of micro-computers in the preparation of thematic maps and charts, the delineation and mapping of enumeration and supervision areas, and post- enumeration census mapping activities. This was followed by publication maps, satellite imagery and its uses in census mapping. A field demonstration was then conducted on satellite imagery interpretation and delineation. At the conclusion of the workshop and evaluation was done by questionnaire. The results indicated a need by the participants for more technical documentation on various aspects of computer mapping, especially on equipment, software, and material support. Computer mapping and the publication maps were considered by some as the most important part, and therefore would need additional technical expertise for implementation in their countries.
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  2. 2

    Making do with less: the 1990 round of censuses in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Crowley JG; Hardee-Cleaveland K

    [Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. [3], 23, [3] p.

    For sub-Saharan countries, population censuses are crucial in obtaining data about local areas, sociodemographic characteristics, and input for development and policy making. Most sub-Saharan countries cannot afford to fund censuses, and external assistance has been provided by UNFPA, the US, the United Kingdom, and France. The World Bank has recently become involved in supporting census work, and coordination between all these groups is critical. 5 critical areas for making effective use of scarce resources are: country commitment; improved donor coordination; management and planning; institutionalization of census capabilities; and improvement of production, dissemination, and use of census data. Country commitment is affected by fund shortages, and political sensitivities. Census work should depend on agricultural seasons, the school year, and migratory movements. Donor coordination in the areas of funding, data analysis, and technical assistance is important. Planning for future censuses should begin 2-3 years before the actual census date, and management of the census should include short-term training and technical assistance from donor countries. The institutionalization of census activities should address the weakest link in census work--data processing. Lengthy delays in processing data because of nonstandardized equipment, limited access, and lack of skilled personnel have hampered census efforts. A fully configured microcomputer system would also address this problem. Publication and dissemination of census data, sometimes delayed as much as 8 years, could be improved by the use of timely microcomputer reports of preliminary results. Attention to these 5 key areas will improve the 1990 round of censuses, and efficiently use the limited resources available.
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  3. 3

    Management information systems and microcomputers in primary health care: issues and challenges.

    Schware R

    In: Management information systems and microcomputers in primary health care, edited by Ronald G. Wilson, Barbara E. Echols, John H. Bryant, and Alexandre Abrantes. Geneva, Switzerland, Aga Khan Foundation, 1988. 17-20.

    A wide array of issues must be addressed if the development and use of management information system (MIS) and microcomputers are to improve management of primary health care (PHC) programs and increase the equity and cost-effectiveness of PHC. These issues include: specification of the purpose and objectives of MIS at community and district levels; distinquishing types of information required; the understanding of organizational issues that must be resolved as a result of introducing MIS; the practical definition of the most useful indicators of program effectiveness and efficiency; the specification and monitoring of data collection, compilation, and analysis requirements and procedures; procedures for generating and using processed MIS data and management information; the PHC program's capacity to absorb technological innovations; and personnel requirements. The need for improved data systems must be recognized. Data quality and systematic flow of information must be ensured from the field level upwards, and minimum information requirements need to be defined. The success of any MIS is heavily dependent on feedback of the data collected. Unless staff at all levels of a PHC program understand the importance of the data they are collecting, the value and use of the information system will be negligible. Examples of the Egyptian government's National Health Information System and the role of the World Bank are used to show how MIS and microcomputer can be introduced and used in PHC.
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  4. 4

    The 1980 census data processing exercise and experience and the 1990 census data processing: what should be done.

    Demissie B; Muzeya IN

    [Unpublished] 1985 Nov. 28 p.

    This document is a description of the data processing operation for the 1980 Zambia population and housing census, carried out with the cooperation of the UNFPA. Collecting and checking census books, manual editing and data coding, keypunching operations, transferring information to computer tape, and processing and tabulating the results are described in Part 1. Interview schedules are described. Personal, fertility, and housing data were used, organized into books, and classified in Lusaka according to provinces and districts. Computer training was done by local supervisors and a UNFPA advisor. Editing and coding organization is described, along with difficulties. Data entry definitions and concepts and planning and production are discussed. Machine editing (i.e. checking of value ranges) was next. Programs and procedures are described. The data were finally tabulated. The categories were general population, economic, social, migration, fertility, and housing tables. A program package called COLENTS was used. Census analysis and the use of computer programs, and documenting and data archiving are discussed. Part 2 discusses improvements to be made for the 1990 census, in relation to the shortcomings of the 1980 census. The importance of data processors' early participation, and the need for realistic planning (budgeting, scheduling, organization and staffing, training needs, equipment, and space) are suggested. The questionnaire design should be considered for simplicity and code allocation. The use of microcomputers should be considered, as being deployable regionally, and for other advantages. Appendices detail the projected and actual schedule of the project, and an error study.
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  5. 5

    Learning materials for health workers.

    Dowling MA; Ritson R

    Who Chronicle. 1985; 39(5):171-5.

    The need exists to encourage developing countries to produce their own learning materials to meet the specific requirements of their own health personnel and to create a structure capable of functioning independently after any external funds and technical assistance have been phased out. In 1981, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN National Development Program established a joint Interregional Health Learning Materials (HLM) Program. It began with a small number of pilot projects in selected countries, the intention being to extend it gradually to other countries in the light of experience. The program is aimed at helping developing countries to produce their own teaching and learning materials adapted to their special needs and encouraging them to work together and build up a network for sharing materials and expertise. An HLM project is part of a national program and makes use of local staff and infrastructure. Both teachers and students help in preparing the learning materials. A number of national projects are now in operation, producing teaching aids, manuals, slides, guides for teachers, and textbooks for use in the field, all of which are in line with national health priorities and goals and many of which are shared with other projects. Of the countries in which HLM projects are in operation, all but 1 are in Africa. The only exception thus far is Nepal, although a project has been requested by Fiji. Technical cooperation between the African projects is beginning to make headway, despite initial problems because of differences in language. For national reliance to be achieved, the training of key staff is essential. For this purpose, WHO is collaborating with the African Medical and Research Foundation (AMREF) in Nairobi, a nongovernmental organization with many years of experience in developing teaching materials for health workers in Africa. Special emphasis is now being given to the training of national project staff in the application of microcomputers. The aim is ultimately for external support to be no longer needed. The national plan for each HLM project foresees the withdrawal of external support after 5 years. By that time the project should have a core of trained staff, the necessary equipment, and an established HLM unit within the national system and should be self-reliant in planning, testing, producing, and evaluating teaching and learning materials for its own health personnel. The production of health learning materials must clearly be part of an integrated plan for health manpower development.
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  6. 6

    Report on the evaluation of UNFPA assistance to the Sudan population and housing census of 1983: project SUD/79/P01.

    Kannisto V; McWilliam J

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA], 1985 Mar. xi, 40 p.

    Since the evaluation report of the 1973 Census of Sudan made recommendations on how to improve census implementation for the 1980 round, UNFPA felt it to be important to see if the 1983 census took them into account and if it achieved better results. The project document included 3 objectives concerning data collection and analysis: the availability of accurate and up-to-date information on the total population of Sudan, on the components of population growth, and on demographic, social and economic characteristics; and 2 objectives concerning institution building: the availability of trained statistical personnel and the strengthening of data processing facilities. 2 of the 5 objectives have been achieved--up-to-date information on the total population of Sudan and for all recognized civil sub-divisions is available and a new computer facility with adequate capacity and configuration has been installed and is in operation. The caliber of staff in the census office is high, and the training program overall was adequate. The census communication campaign emphasized the use of mass media. Overall, the publicity for the census was considered by the Mission to have been good. Although the enumeration took longer than scheduled in some areas, the observance of the enumeration timetable can be considered satisfactory. Data preparation and electronic processing have been severely delayed due to the low productivity of the computer staff. The strong points of the project were the high priority given to the census by the government; the better planning for the 1983 census as compared with the 1973 census; and the high quality of technical assistance provided by UN advisors. Weak points have been the lack of long-term resident advisors in general census organization, cartography and data analysis; the delay in the provision of government and UNFPA inputs; and the loss of trained personnel from the Department of Statistics, particularly in data processing.
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  7. 7

    Report on developments and activities related to population information during the decade since the convening of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974.

    Hankinson R

    New York, United Nations, 1984 Jun. vi, 52 p. (POPIN Bulletin No. 5 ISEA/POPIN/5)

    A summary of developments in the population information field during the decade 1974-84 is presented. Progress has been made in improving population services that are available to world users. "Population Index" and direct access to computerized on-line services and POPLINE printouts are available in the US and 13 other countries through a cooperating network of institutions. POPLINE services are also available free of charge to requestors from developing countries. Regional Bibliographic efforts are DOCPAL for Latin America. PIDSA for Africa, ADOPT and EBIS/PROFILE. Much of the funding and support for population information activities comes from 4 major sources: 1) UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA): 2) US Agency for International Development (USAID); 3) International Development Research Centre (IRDC): and 4) the Government of Australia. There are important philosophical distinctions in the support provided by these sources. Duplication of effort is to be avoided. Many agencies need to develop an institutional memory. They are creating computerized data bases on funded projects. The creation of these data bases is a major priority for regional population information services that serve developing countries. Costs of developing these information services are prohibitive; however, it is important to see them in their proper perspective. Many governments are reluctant to commit funds for these activites. Common standards should be adopted for population information. Knowledge and use of available services should be increased. The importance os back-up services is apparent. Hard-copy reproductions of items in data bases should be included. This report is primarily descriptive rather than evaluative. However, given the increase in population distribution and changes in government attitudes over the importance of population matters, the main tasks for the next decade should be to build on these foundations; to insure effective and efficient use of services; to share experience and knowledge through POPIN and other networks; and to demonstrate to governments the valuable role of information programs in developing national population programs.
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