Your search found 41 Results

  1. 1

    Measuring gender equality.

    Posadas J; Paci P; Sajaia Z; Lokshin M

    Washington, D.C., International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, 2017 Apr. 302 p.

    Gender equality is a core development objective in its own right and also smart development policy and business practice. No society can develop sustainably without giving men and women equal power to shape their own lives and contribute to their families, communities, and countries. And yet, critical gender gaps continue to exist in all countries and across multiple dimensions. The gender module of the World Bank’s ADePT software platform produces a comprehensive set of tables and graphs using household surveys to help diagnose and analyze the prevailing gender inequalities at the country level and over time. This book provides a step-by-step guide to the use of the ADePT software and an introduction to its basic economic concepts and econometric methods. The module is organized around the framework proposed by the World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development. It covers gender differences in outcomes in three primary dimensions of gender equality: human capital (or endowments), economic opportunities, and voice and agency. Particular focus is given to the analysis and decomposition techniques that allow for further exploring of gender gaps in economic opportunities.
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  2. 2

    Evaluation of virtual reality in Africa: an educational perspective.

    Lockwood D

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2004. [52] p. (CI-2004/WS/1)

    UNESCO has, since 2000, supported a number of initiatives with the Naledi3d Factory that have explored the potential of Virtual Reality (VR) as a learning tool in Africa, to date in Ethiopia, South Africa and Uganda (summarized in the box). In order to define a way forward in this project area, UNESCO commissioned this report, which evaluates the comparative advantages of applying multimedia and interactive 3D tools to the learning environment. This project was divided into two parts: 1. An overview of the general practices and approaches to the use of multimedia and interactive 3D tools as learning aids, and 2. An evaluation programme in South Africa and Uganda covering a number of schools and community telecentres. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Internet resources for demographers.

    Gryn TA

    South African Journal of Demography. 1999; 7(1):63-71.

    This paper provides a description of demographic resources available on the Internet. These resources include census data, online databases, and home sites of demographic organizations. The description of demographic Internet resources is divided into five sections: North American demography, international demography, general interest items, health-related sources, and geography-related sources. The paper is followed by two appendices. The first provides a brief introduction to the Internet and to Internet access; the second contains a quick-reference list of Internet sites. Readers who are unfamiliar with the Internet should consider reading Appendix I before proceeding. Because one paper cannot reference every demographic resource on the Internet, this paper should be seen primarily as an attempt to impart enough knowledge for readers to seek out further information on their own, according to their particular research interests. (author's)
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  4. 4

    Optimizing the allocation of resources for HIV prevention: the allocation by cost-effectiveness (ABC) model. Guidelines.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2002 Jul. 12 p.

    In the context of a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic and limited resources for prevention, the Allocation By Cost-Effectiveness Model (ABC Model) is designed to help policymakers decide how to distribute funds between different HIV prevention interventions to achieve the maximum impact on the epidemic. Specifically, policymakers can use the ABC Model to determine the resource allocation that will prevent the maximum number of new HIV infections at any given budget level. These guidelines present the Allocation By Cost-Effectiveness Model and show how it can be applied to a particular country or region. They are meant to be used in conjunction with the ABC Spreadsheet and give a detailed description of how to fill the ABC spreadsheet, how to read the output results, and what issues to consider when interpreting them. For a specific application of the ABC Model, refer to: Optimizing the Allocation of Resources among Prevention Interventions in Honduras. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    Peer Reviewed

    The UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package: a software package to estimate and project national HIV epidemics.

    Ghys PD; Brown T; Grassly NC; Garnett G; Stanecki KA

    Sexually Transmitted Infections. 2004; 80 Suppl 1:i5-i9.

    This paper describes the Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) for estimating and projecting HIV prevalence levels in countries with generalised epidemics. The paper gives an overall summary of the software and interface. It describes the process of defining and modelling a national epidemic in terms of locally relevant sub-epidemics and the four epidemiological parameters used to fit a curve to produce the prevalence trends in the epidemic. It also provides an example of using the EPP in a country with a generalised epidemic. The paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the software and its envisaged future developments. (author's)
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  6. 6

    Country commodity manager. CCM: a computer program for the management and forecasting of reproductive health commodity needs. Instruction manual. Software version 2.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. Technical Support Division

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 2004. 47 p. (E/800/2004)

    The purpose of the Country Commodity Manager (CCM) is to assist country offices in their efforts to assess their reproductive health commodity requirements, stock positions, and possible shortfalls. CCM is an easy-to-use program which can quickly generate models and reports which will: 1) forecast reproductive health commodity requirements based on logistics and inventory data, 2) validate this forecast utilizing demographic data, and 3) warn of future reproductive health commodity shortfalls. CCM also provides a mechanism to readily transmit each country’s data to UNFPA headquarters from their country offices for use in generating global level reports for the purposes of planning, advocacy and resource mobilization. In this latest release of the software, we have added other reproductive health commodities and kits to the list of contraceptives that was managed in the first version. Our goal is to collect global data on all of these commodities. This new release also includes the much requested ability for users to add the names of any other commodities they wish to the data tables to be managed and reported on by CCM. (excerpt)
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  7. 7

    Applications of GIS for population and related statistics (INT/92/P92). Assessment of GIS and desktop mapping software options.

    United Nations. Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis. Statistical Division [UNSTAT]; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] [1994]. ii, 47 p.

    This report reviews a number of popular geographic information system (GIS) packages to provide information about GIS software options to statistical offices and UN agencies involved in the production and use of demographic data. Given the large number of GIS packages on the market and the speed at which the industry develops, this review only reflects the status of the packages as of the end of 1994. The paper discusses how GIS can contribute to the more effective application of population-related data and introduces some important GIS concepts. The evaluation is structured around the fundamental GIS operations of database development and management, data analysis, and output generation. Some issues regarding the institutional framework within which a GIS implementation takes place are also discussed. A number of general conclusions are drawn in a closing section based upon organizational experience with the different packages. Before making a GIS software purchase decision, all vendors should be contacted for information about their latest releases. This review also includes a bibliography of selected GIS references and a list of useful addresses.
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  8. 8

    The application of modelling to control strategies in lymphatic filariasis. Report of a consultative meeting, Geneva, 14-16 February, 1996.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases

    [Unpublished] 1996. 23 p. (TDR/AFR/FIL/97.1)

    An informal meeting was held in Geneva during February 14-16, 1996, under the auspices of the Filariasis Operational Research Task Force of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and the Filariasis Unit of the Division of Control of Tropical Diseases (CTD) to critically review recent advances and the current status of approaches to the epidemiologic modelling of lymphatic filariasis, and to recommend further steps needed to improve the field use of epidemiologic models in the control of lymphatic filariasis in endemic countries. Participants included experts in epidemiologic modelling, clinicians, parasitologists, entomologists, epidemiologists, public health planners, and members of the WHO secretariat. Modelling is a way of organizing information so that the interrelationships of components can be readily understood, and so that data lacking for the complete understanding of a problem can be identified. Progress in modelling and optimizing models for field applications are discussed. A work plan and recommendations are also presented. Meeting participants concluded that both the EPIFIL and LYMFASIM epidemiologic modelling packages have good potential to contribute to lymphatic filariasis control efforts. Although simple models of transmission are most urgently needed by control programs, complex models of pathogenesis are also needed.
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  9. 9

    POPMAP: geographical census software for developing countries.

    Vu DM

    In: Proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on Innovative Techniques for Population Censuses and Large-Scale Demographic Surveys, The Hague, 22-26 April 1996, [compiled by] Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. The Hague, Netherlands, NIDI, 1996. 203-13.

    Decennial censuses are a major source of information needed for effective development planning and the monitoring of population, socioeconomic, and environmental trends. However, census data are typically processed slowly and published after considerable delay. The data are then disseminated inefficiently, barely reaching the various target groups of users. The author discusses the use of census data and mapping that data. PopMap is an integrated software for geographical information, graphics, and maps databases. A UNFPA-funded project designed and developed the software in collaboration with the Viet Nam Institute of Information Technology. The software can help developing countries establish geographical databases. The following experiences with PopMap application development are described: Zimbabwe census geographical database, Uganda 1991 census atlas, Madagascar 1993 census atlas, and the Indonesian geographical database for support of the family planning program. Technical issues and how developing countries can access PopMap are also discussed.
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  10. 10

    Innovative computer methods for demographic enquiries and the dissemination of population information.

    Dekker A

    In: Proceedings of the Expert Group Meeting on Innovative Techniques for Population Censuses and Large-Scale Demographic Surveys, The Hague, 22-26 April 1996, [compiled by] Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute [NIDI], United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]. The Hague, Netherlands, NIDI, 1996. 125-48.

    This paper was written to be used in the context of one of several UN Population Fund-sponsored expert meetings in preparation for the 2000 Round of Population Censuses. A review is presented of recent proven technical developments of interest to developing or newly-emerging countries, beginning with sections on appropriate technology; technical awareness and skills; training, information gathering, and technical assistance; software operating environments; and outsourcing. Computer-supported planning and management, design tools, office communication, and quality management are then discussed with regard to census/survey management and design, followed by mapping and data collection. Office processing is considered in sections on data capture, coding, error scrutiny and imputation, tabulation, meta-data systems, and new storage media. Non-paper dissemination, statistical and demographic databases, and multimedia applications are discussed in closing.
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  11. 11

    UNFPA and NCPEP sign new project to strengthen the population and family planning programme -- project VIE/96/PO1, "Projection and Family Planning Benefits and Savings: a Multi-Sectoral Analysis".


    On April 19, 1996, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), agreed to help fund (US $177,560) a population and family planning project in Viet Nam (VIE/96/PO1) to be implemented by the Centre for Population Studies and Information, of the National Committee for Population and Family Planning Programme (NCPFP), with technical assistance from the Futures Group International, Washington, D.C. The project will focus on capacity building through technical support; in-country and overseas training; workshops for key staff of the NCPFP, the General Statistical Office, the Ministry of Planning and Investment, and the National Economics University; and provision of necessary computer equipment and appropriate software packages. The expected outputs include: 1) to develop the technical capacity of a group of national experts who will be able to use models and data inputs to analyze and evaluate the family planning program; and 2) to help policymakers, planners, and programmers at the central and provincial levels to better acknowledge and appreciate the benefits of the government inputs and efforts in the population and family planning program, especially the savings expected from fertility reduction in other social sectors (health, education). The Vietnamese government will contribute VND 282,600,000 to the project.
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  12. 12

    Training methodologies for integration of population variables into development planning, with particular reference to the UNFPA Global Programme of Training in Population and Development.

    Mazouz M

    In: Population and development planning. Proceedings of the United Nations International Symposium on Population and Development Planning, Riga, Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic, 4-8 December 1989, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Development. New York, New York, United Nations, 1993. 275-82. (ST/ESA/SER.R/116)

    This discussion focuses on a UN Population Fund training strategy as part of the Global Program of Training in Population and Development. This training involves senior officials with a policy and decision-making role, senior professionals, executives and technicians, academics, midlevel government officials, managers, and program administrators. The program was launched in 1986 for developing country candidates within the Catholic University of Louvain at Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; the Center for Development Studies at Trivandrum, India; and the Institute of Social Studies in cooperation with the Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute in the Hague. The discussion of program activities includes teaching methods, the techniques for integrated programs, and support skills. The conclusion after two years of program experience is that the approach is appropriate, offers practical skill building, and opens people up to thinking in new ways about their disciplines. The problems are a lack of data or poor quality of data, endogeneity, behavioral content, user friendliness, and lack of technical background of some participants. Feedback from participants was positive about the concept and practice of integrated population and development programs. Program objectives are building national capacity in integration of population into development strategies, policies, and programs. Individuals are trained to examine the effect of population policy options on development planning and vice versa. Courses are directed to the attainment of functional knowledge, skills, and techniques for implementing basic planning and research and preparing "clear, succinct, and coherent" policy and program statements. Skills are developed for translating policy into programs and implementing policies and programs in a complex context. A variety of teaching methods are used for training.
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  13. 13

    Addendum: Manual IX. The methodology of measuring the impact of family planning programmes on fertility.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1986. viii, 38 p. (Population Studies No. 66; ST/ESA/SER.A/66/Add.1)

    These guidelines pertain to the application of evaluation procedures: the standardization approach; component projection approach I; and path analysis. The application of the standardization approach utilizes the initial year and the last year of the period under study as the basis for decomposition. The input data utilized with the case study of Sri Lanka illustrate various points relevant to the proper definition of input data for the CONVERSE method of the component projection approach. The basic principles of path analyses include the purpose of the path diagram and the basic theorem for decomposing the correlation coefficients into direct and indirect effects. A new methodology for estimating the fertility impact of contraception obtained through a family planning program is called the "prevalence method" because the principal data required for its application are estimates of the prevalence of contraceptive use at a given point in time. It is the objective of the prevalence method to estimate the number of births averted as well as the reduction in the crude birth rate that results from the use of contraception. The basic concepts and variables used in the prevalence procedure are: a) observed fertility, the age-specific fertility rate expressed in births per 1000 women in a given age group; b) natural fertility that would prevail in the absence of contraception; c) potential fertility that would prevail in a population if all program users stopped contracepting. Multi-level analysis, by combining elements from both levels of social reality, permits greater concordance between the theoretical views and the models employed for studying behavior. Multi-level analysis, also called contextual analysis, has a long tradition within certain subfields of called social science, such as voting behavior, school performance, and social deviance.
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  14. 14

    Installation of a computerized EPI information system, Turkey, May 8-19, 1989.

    Wilson E

    [Unpublished] 1989. [2], 10, [30] p. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)

    The Turkish Ministry of Health, Primary Health Care Directorate, Expanded Program on Immunization Division (MOH/EPI), requested technical assistance in the installation of a Computerized EPI Information System (CEIS), which the Resources for Child Health (REACH) Project provided to the MOH/EPI from May 8-May 19, 1989, in Ankara, Turkey. A CEIS was installed to enable the MOH/EPI to process routine vaccination and disease surveillance data and to feed back data to the provinces on EPI vaccine coverage, tetanus toxoid vaccine coverage, and communicable disease incidence. The CEIS provides a standardized format for data entry, report generation, and graph production. It uses FoxBASE+ for the data entry and report production and LOTUS 1-2-3 to produce the graphs. All of the reports, graphs, data entry screens, menus, and prompts were translated into Turkish. Coverage data and disease incidence data for 1988 were entered while the consultant was in Turkey. It was recommended that the MOH/EPI validate the coverage data entered by comparing it with the data contained in its LOTUS 1-2-3 files. The MOH/EPI should enter at least two more years of historical data for both cases and deaths and coverage. This will permit the evaluation of trends in coverage and disease incidence and allow the comparison of intra-year coverage rates and disease incidence. The MOH/EPI should enter current data on a monthly basis and test all of the reporting and graphing capabilities of the system. All of the MDs in the MOH/EPI unit should be trained in the operation of the CEIS. Another technical, assistance visit to Turkey should be made in August 1989 to determine how the CEIS is being used, to correct any flaws in existing programs, and to provide some enhancements identified by the MOH/EPI.
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  15. 15

    Highlights of session presentations. TSS / CST population IEC meeting.


    The great deal of documentation which was prepared for the recent TSS/CST Population IEC (information, education, and communication) meeting from research, field experiments, and action projects will be useful to TSS/CST advisors and individual countries undertaking IEC and population education work. This article summarizes the 12 sessions held during the open forum. To illustrate some of the latest trends in population and health communication, the "enter-educate" approach and use of the interactive computer software called SCOPE (Strategic Communication Planning and Evaluation) were discussed. Next, ways in which to apply research effectively in IEC and population education were considered. Examples were provided of 1) a workshop methodology used to help a multidisciplinary group design a problem-solving communication strategy in Malaysia and Dominica; 2) the counseling training evaluation technique based on the GATHER (greet, ask, tell, help, explain, and return for follow-up) model; and 3) four types of evaluation of population education in schools. The third session was concerned with the program approach used in IEC and population education. Session 4 dealt with the implication of UNFPA support to family planning (FP) IEC. Counseling skills training and interpersonal communication were next on the agenda, followed by a consideration of how knowledge and policies are applied in the area of youth. The seventh session concentrated on ways to involve men in FP and reproductive health and included a discussion of a case study on the attitude and behavior of men with regard to FP which had IEC implications. The next session described the need to reconceptualize population education and what such a reconceptualization would entail. Session 9 was devoted to a consideration of gender issues and the education of girls. The tenth session covered the use of participatory approaches and community involvement in population communication programs. Innovative methodologies for school-based population education were described next, and the last session was concerned with new information technologies such as navigating the Internet and using new software for establishing databases.
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  16. 16

    State of the world 1994. A Worldwatch Institute report on progress toward a sustainable society.

    Brown LR; Durning AT; Flavin C; French HF; Lenssen N; Lowe MD; Misch A; Postel S; Renner M; Weber P

    New York, New York, W.W. Norton, 1994. xvi, 265 p.

    A net 1.5 billion people have been added to world population since the first UN-sponsored International Conference on Population and Development held in Bucharest 20 years ago. 78% of world population lives in developing countries and poverty is widespread around the globe. Papers contained in this report consider some of the critical issues which will face delegates to the 1994 international conference scheduled for September in Cairo. It is of paramount importance that efforts be made to reduce levels of poverty along with population growth and current high rates of resource consumption. The text also considers how the World Bank might be redirected toward efforts to achieve a sustainable society. Different sections consider the Earth's carrying capacity, redesigning the forest economy, safeguarding oceans, reshaping the power industry, reinventing transport, using computers for the environment, assessing environmental health risks, cleaning up after the arms race, rebuilding the World Bank, and food insecurity. Chart and graph data from the report are available on diskette.
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  17. 17

    Population projections for Mongolia: 1989-2019.

    Neupert RF

    ASIA-PACIFIC POPULATION JOURNAL. 1992 Dec; 7(4):61-80.

    The State Statistical Office with the support of UNDESD and UNFPA prepared 3 projections. A standard cohort component method was used to project populations by sex and 5-year age groups for each quinquennium between 1989 and 2019. 3 hypotheses were proposed. In Hypothesis 1, fertility was assumed to stabilize at a level of a TFR of 3.5 children per woman. In Hypothesis 3, fertility was assumed to decline up to the period 1990-2004 and up to the replacement level (2.23 children per woman during that period). Hypothesis 2 represents an intermediate situation between Hypothesis 1 and 3 which was considered as the most plausible future trend of fertility. According to Projection 2 the population of Mongolia will be almost 3.8 million in the year 2019. Projections 1 and 3 give total populations of 4.2 and 3.5 million, respectively. The difference between a TFR of 2.2 and 3.5 for the last quinquennium of the projection period resulted in a difference of around 700,000 people. The difference between Projections 1 and 2 is about 400,000 people. Considering the fertility assumptions adopted for these projections, it is not very likely that the size of the population at the turn of the century will be much smaller than 2.6 million or larger than 3 million. What is more uncertain is the scenario for the 2nd decade of next century. During the next 2 decades, the growth will become gradually more moderate. The main changes will be an increase in the proportion of the population between 15 and 64 years of age, a decline in the proportion of the young population of the young population resulting in a substantial decrease of the dependency ratio and an increase in the median age of the population. According to the 3 hypotheses, the young population will continue growing, albeit at a slower pace. There will be a decline in the proportion of young to old people and an increase in the proportion of the population in the working age groups. Yet, all age groups will continue to increase in absolute terms. International migration may produce some deviations in this expected profile.
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  18. 18

    Population-related software in developing countries: a global survey.

    Vlassoff M; Nizamuddin M

    [Unpublished] 1993. Presented at the International Population Conference / Congres International de la Population, Montreal, Canada, August 24 - September 1, 1993. Sponsored by the International Union for the Scientific Study of Population [IUSSP]. 48 p.

    Findings from a survey on population-related software of institutions worldwide involved in demographic data analysis, in population policy formulation, or in training in population and development are presented. The software packages were developed by UN organizations, UNFPA-supported projects, government offices, universities, nongovernmental organizations and NGOs. In all, 286 questionnaires were received from institutions in 108 countries that reported the possession of 1747 software packages with an average of 6.1 packages/institution. 12 packages were distributed free of charge by the project Computer Software and Support for Population Activities. Only 31% of the 1747 packages were reported as being used frequently, 23% were reported to be seldom used, while 19% were never used and/or not planned to be used. Only MortPak-Lite, ISSA, and IMPS were used frequently in 24-33% of institutions. Less than 5% of institutions owned IMPECC, Blaise, POP-ILO, PopSyn, Recall Analysis, CAPPA, and HOST. UNFPA was directly involved in the development of PopMap which was frequently used at only 10% of institutions. 31% of the packages were mainly used as an aid in teaching demographic concepts in training courses. Target-Cost was found in 43% of the institutions, where it was used mainly for training. The corresponding percentages for some other packages were: MortPak-Lite (26%), PopMap (7%), Pc-Edit (17%), and DemProj (25%). Individually, PC-Edit (37%), ISSA (38%), and IMPS (30%) were used mainly for data entry and analysis. The projection programs DemProj (38%), FivFiv-SinSin (47%), and PEOPLE (55%) were mainly used for general demographic analysis and population projections. The most common reasons for not using packages were insufficient or unclear documentation and/or lack of trained personnel, and user-unfriendliness. Among the 283 institutions, around 6700 micros were reported to be in use, an average of almost 24 micros per institution.
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  19. 19

    Issues and trends in emergency preparedness for technological disasters: moving beyond the "natural" and "technological" labels.

    Parker RS

    In: Environmental management and urban vulnerability, edited by Alcira Kreimer, Mohan Munasinghe. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1992. 237-59. (World Bank Discussion Papers 168)

    Major cities face a potentially serious threat to the environment and public safety with toxins released into the environment by households, small businesses, and the dangers posed by accidents at major industrial complexes. The Bhopal accident resulted in 3500 deaths, although 200,000 to 300,000 survivors also suffer long-term health problems. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development suggested, when drawing up an emergency preparedness plan, to involve elected administrative officials, emergency management or civil defense agencies, fire departments, police, industrial facilities, transportation departments, environmental agencies, emergency medical services, and the media among others. The World Bank suggested that an emergency plan should cover: 1) emergency treatment for the community, facility workers, and emergency responders; 2) medical education for preventing avoidable injury, trauma, and disease; and 3) periodic medical examinations for personnel exposed to hazardous materials. The computer program Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations contains decoded information for chemical synonyms, United Nations identification numbers, DOT Emergency Response Book identification numbers, information on over 3000 commonly transported chemicals, and models the dispersion of chemical clouds and estimates downwind spreads. The Hazardous Materials Information Exchange database provides emergency managers with information on training, resources and technical assistance, federal and state regulations, and on the emergency management of hazardous materials. The Disaster Management Center at the University of Wisconsin provides courses in disaster management. The Emergency Management Institute maintains a library with over 50,000 books and periodicals on emergency management. Environmental officials from developed countries have tried to provide technical advice to developing countries on technological hazards, with meager results. In developing countries the poor who occupy traditional housing suffer far less mortality following earthquakes and storms than the urban poor who live in substandard housing. A UNEP document provides a process that is universally applicable to developing countries.
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  20. 20

    The United Nations Programme for Demographic Microcomputer Software.

    Aquino V; Castillo D; Gerland P; Heligman L; Lackner M

    [Unpublished] 1992. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, Denver, Colorado, April 30 - May 2, 1992. [5] p.

    The Demographic Software developed and copyrighted by the UN Department of Economic and Social Development is described. The available items include a description, RAM, and price for Abacus, MORTPAK-LITE 3.0, QFIVE, PDPM/PC, Recall Analysis, and PC-Edit packages. Abacus (256 K at $100) provides a cohort component method with multiple options for assumption for projecting population by sex and 5-year age groups, or single years. Survival ratios may be obtained from 9 families of model life tables; new life tables may be constructed. A parametric system for model migration may be developed. Output is formatted in tables. MORTPAK (512 K at $130) is capable for generating empirical and model life tables, population projections, stable populations, indirect estimation of mortality and fertility, and other procedures to evaluate census coverage. QFIVE (300 K at $50) produces estimates of infant (1q0) and child (1q4) mortality by using the Trussel version of the Brass method, which is based on the Coale-Demeny model of life tables, or the Palloni-Heligman version, which is based on UN model life tables for developing countries. There is an accompanying Guide. PDPM (640 K at $75) may be available soon for microcomputers to provide population projections for households, school enrollment, employment, income, consumption, savings, and government expenditures using Ordinary Least Squares. Recall Analysis (512 K at $50) is a technique useful in, e.g., analysis of recall lapse between events in birth, death, and household budget data. Computed values of R2 may be examined with graphs and estimators. It accepts inputs and is compatible with Lotus 123 and spreadsheets. PC Edit (256 k at $300) is data entry and editing software capable of generating flat or hierarchical files. It was designed for demographers and statisticians, is compatible with census and vital statistics data, and is user friendly for nonprogrammers. There is interactive rule development with a simple line-oriented keyword language, and the facility to design and process multiple occurrences in 1 record type. File modification, updates, and interactive correction is possible using an optional error listing in batch mode. Batch processing, interactive mode, and multiuser mode (LAN version) are available.
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  21. 21
    Peer Reviewed

    ZOOM: a generic personal computer-based teaching program for public health and its application in schistosomiasis control.

    Martin GT; Yoon SS; Mott KE


    In 1989, staff at WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland developed teaching software that can be used on IBM-PC and IBM-compatible computers to train public health workers in schistosomiasis. They tested in several schools of public health. They then improve it by incorporating a schistosomiasis information file (stack) in ASCII file format and a routine to organize and present data. The program allows the addition of other stacks without abandoning the user interface and the instructor can change data in the stacks as needed. In fact, any text editor such as Word-Perfect can create a stack. This software teaching program (ZOOM) organizes and presents the information (Dr. Schisto). Dr. Schisto is divided into 8 chapters: introduction, epidemiology, parasitology, diagnostics, treatment, data analysis, primary health care, and global database. Users can command ZOOM to communicate in either English, French, Spanish, or Portuguese. Basic hardware requirements include MS-DOS, 8086 microprocessor, 512 Kbytes RAM, CGA or MGA screen, and 2 floppy disc drives. ZOOM can also configured itself to adapt to the hardware available. ZOOM and Dr. Schisto are public domain software and thus be copied and distributed to others. Each information stack has chapters each of which contains slides, subslides, text, graphics, and dBASE, Lotus or EpiInfo files. ZOOM has key words and an index file to access more information. It also can do user defined searches using Boolean logic. Since ZOOM can be used with any properly formatted data, it has the potential to become the standard for global information exchange and for computer assisted teaching purposes.
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  22. 22

    Programme review and strategy development report: Sri Lanka.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, [1991]. ix, 66 p.

    This paper discusses Sri Lanka's population policy with special focus upon UNFPA's role in establishing and implementing a successful multi-sectoral family planning program for the country. Progress made in the past years must continue, while ongoing efforts are made to attain the goal of 2.1 TFR by year 2000. A suitable program must be better coordinated with a view to cutting waste and duplication, guarantee an adequate supply of appropriate contraceptive supplies, streamline research operation, more fully implement its educational programs, and recognize women's centrality in population programs, and recognize women's centrality in population programs. UNFPA assistance should be offered to effect such programmatic change and development, with service delivery needs addressed 1st. The Government of Sri Lanka lacks adequate resources to supply calls for an integrated approach focused upon creating a National Coordinating Council; developing a more sophisticated and targeted approach to information, education, and communication; providing contraceptive supplies, software for service delivery, and client counseling; training providers; and improving coordination with other multilateral programs for child care and human resource development. The present population and development situation, the national population program, proposed sectoral strategies for implementation, the role of technical assistance, and general recommendations for external assistance are discussed in detail.
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  23. 23
    Peer Reviewed

    A micro-computer software for the analysis of menstrual diaries: the menstrual diary system.

    Pinol A; Machin D

    CONTRACEPTION. 1988 Aug; 38(2):157-63.

    A microcomputer software program called the Menstrual Diary System (MDS) is described which analyzes menstrual diaries by the reference period method, according to WHO guidelines. An IBM compatible microcomputer with floppy or hard disk, at least 256K of memory, and an MS-DOS 2.0 or later operating system is used. Menstrual data consist of entries labeling vaginal bleeding as absent, bleeding or spotting. There are optional parameters for the drive, path, and printer used by the system; user-defined symbols for bleeding patterns; screen characteristics; file management by date and length of data collection (maximum 380 days); and subject identifying information. A data management section permits data entry. The data analysis section follows the reference period method, allowing for within-subject analysis and between-subject analysis. Diary data entered in MDS can be transferred onto standard ASCII file to be used by other packages. Examples of output are provided.
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  24. 24

    Methods for measuring programme impact: a review of applications in the last decade.

    Ross JA; Lloyd CB

    [Unpublished] 1989 May. ii, 39 p.

    The chief methods for assessing programme impact on fertility were codified in the 1970's through a collaboration between the U.N. Population Division and the IUSSP Committee on the Comparative Analysis of Fertility and Family Planning. Since then there has been no attempt to review their actual use in 1) programme assessment; 2) target setting, and 3) training. This paper identifies, through an inquiry to numerous institutions and individuals, as well as through a literature search, the ways in which these methods have been used. We also suggest reasons for non-use of certain of the methods, and we discuss their successes and failures in research, training and program evaluation at the country level. Several factors were identified as important in this regard: 1) the growing availability of fertility and family planning surveys drawn from nationally representative samples of reproductive aged women; 2) the improvements in the measurement of program effort; 3) the rapid dissemination of microcomputers, and 4) the growing interest in target setting for policy making at the country level. Conclusion emphasize the value of population-based methods of measuring net program impact (e.g, multivariate techniques and experimental designs), the importance of well designed and documented software and growing interest in family planning evaluation in Africa. (Author's modified)
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  25. 25

    Making do with less: the 1990 round of censuses in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Crowley JG; Hardee-Cleaveland K

    [Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Population Association of America, New Orleans, Louisiana, April 21-23, 1988. [3], 23, [3] p.

    For sub-Saharan countries, population censuses are crucial in obtaining data about local areas, sociodemographic characteristics, and input for development and policy making. Most sub-Saharan countries cannot afford to fund censuses, and external assistance has been provided by UNFPA, the US, the United Kingdom, and France. The World Bank has recently become involved in supporting census work, and coordination between all these groups is critical. 5 critical areas for making effective use of scarce resources are: country commitment; improved donor coordination; management and planning; institutionalization of census capabilities; and improvement of production, dissemination, and use of census data. Country commitment is affected by fund shortages, and political sensitivities. Census work should depend on agricultural seasons, the school year, and migratory movements. Donor coordination in the areas of funding, data analysis, and technical assistance is important. Planning for future censuses should begin 2-3 years before the actual census date, and management of the census should include short-term training and technical assistance from donor countries. The institutionalization of census activities should address the weakest link in census work--data processing. Lengthy delays in processing data because of nonstandardized equipment, limited access, and lack of skilled personnel have hampered census efforts. A fully configured microcomputer system would also address this problem. Publication and dissemination of census data, sometimes delayed as much as 8 years, could be improved by the use of timely microcomputer reports of preliminary results. Attention to these 5 key areas will improve the 1990 round of censuses, and efficiently use the limited resources available.
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