Your search found 245 Results

  1. 1

    UNESCO's short guide to the essential characteristics of effective HIV prevention.

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2010. 72 p.

    This booklet identifies the key characteristics of efficient and effective HIV prevention in a user-friendly and accessible format. It explains how programme implementers and project managers can apply, integrate and institutionalize these characteristics in planning and implementing HIV and AIDS responses. The booklet targets programme implementers and project managers developing and implementing activities (largely in the area of HIV prevention) within UNESCO. However, it will also be useful to other stakeholders undertaking similar work, including technical staff, programme implementers and managers in ministries involved in the AIDS response, UN and other development partners, and civil society. As a quick reference guide, users can find out about the key characteristics of a specific approach, check on definitions, identify tools to help put the approach into practice. It is not intended to substitute for the vast amount of existing literature in these areas. Rather, it guides users through the literature via web links and additional reference material for further exploration.
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  2. 2
    Peer Reviewed

    Successful polio eradication in Uttar Pradesh, India: the pivotal contribution of the Social Mobilization Network, an NGO / UNICEF collaboration.

    Coates EA; Waisbord S; Awale J; Solomon R; Dey R

    Global Health: Science and Practice. 2013 Mar; 1(1):68-83.

    In Uttar Pradesh, India, in response to low routine immunization coverage and ongoing poliovirus circulation, a network of U.S.-based CORE Group member and local nongovernmental organizations partnered with UNICEF, creating the Social Mobilization Network (SMNet). The SMNet’s goal was to improve access and reduce family and community resistance to vaccination. The partners trained thousands of mobilizers from high-risk communities to visit households, promote government-run child immunization services, track children’s immunization history and encourage vaccination of children missing scheduled vaccinations, and mobilize local opinion leaders. Creative behavior change activities and materials promoted vaccination awareness and safety, household hygiene, sanitation, home diarrheal-disease control, and breastfeeding. Program decision-makers at all levels used household-level data that were aggregated at community and district levels, and senior staff provided rapid feedback and regular capacity-building supervision to field staff. Use of routine project data and targeted research findings offered insights into and informed innovative approaches to overcoming community concerns impacting immunization coverage. While the SMNet worked in the highest-risk, poorly served communities, data suggest that the immunization coverage in SMNet communities was often higher than overall coverage in the district. The partners’ organizational and resource differences and complementary technical strengths posed both opportunities and challenges; overcoming them enhanced the partnership’s success and contributions.
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  3. 3

    Investing in communities: annual review 2011.

    International HIV / AIDS Alliance

    [Hove, United Kingdom], International HIV / AIDS Alliance, 2012 Jun. [19] p.

    Our vision is a world in which people do not die of aids. For us, this means a world in which communities: have brought HIV under control by preventing its transmission; enjoy better health; and can fully exercise their human rights. Our mission is to support community action to prevent HIV infection, meet the challenges of AIDS, and build healthier communities.We take great pride investing in a community-based response that understands what works in a local context, and that is strengthened by learning from a global partnership of national organisations. In 2011 this approach enabled us to reach 2.8 million people.
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  4. 4
    Peer Reviewed

    Seeing REDD.

    Nature. 2011 Apr 28; 472(7344):390.

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  5. 5

    Supporting community responses to malaria: A training manual to strengthen capacities of community based organizations in application processes of the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.

    Odindo M; Mangelsdorf A

    Cologne, Germany, STOP MALARIA NOW!, 2009 Nov. 53 p.

    This training manual is a product of the STOP MALARIA NOW! advocacy campaign and aims to support community responses to malaria. In particular, this manual aims to improve knowledge and skills of Community Based Organizations (CBOs) in application processes of the Global Fund to Fight HIV / AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The contents are based on results of the needs assessment 'Capacity Needs of CBOs in Kenya in Terms of Application Processes of the Global Fund to Fight HIV /AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM)', conducted in June and July 2009.
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  6. 6

    Community-based HIV interventions for young people.

    UNAIDS. Inter-Agency Task Team on HIV and Young People

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, HIV/AIDS Branch, [2008]. 8 p. (Guidance Brief)

    This Brief has been developed by the Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on HIV and Young People1 to assist United Nations Country Teams (UNCT) and UN Theme Groups on HIV/AIDS in providing guidance to their staffs, governments, development partners, civil society and other implementing partners on community HIV interventions for young people. It is part of a series of seven global Guidance Briefs that focus on HIV prevention, treatment, care and support interventions for young people that can be delivered through different settings and for a range of target groups.
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Community participation: lessons for maternal, newborn, and child health.

    Rosato M; Laverack G; Grabman LH; Tripathy P; Nair N; Mwansambo C; Azad K; Morrison J; Bhutta Z; Perry H; Rifkin S; Costello A

    Lancet. 2008 Sep 13; 372(9642):962-71.

    Primary health care was ratified as the health policy of WHO member states in 1978.(1) Participation in health care was a key principle in the Alma-Ata Declaration. In developing countries, antenatal, delivery, and postnatal experiences for women usually take place in communities rather than health facilities. Strategies to improve maternal and child health should therefore involve the community as a complement to any facility-based component. The fourth article of the Declaration stated that, "people have the right and duty to participate individually and collectively in the planning and implementation of their health care", and the seventh article stated that primary health care "requires and promotes maximum community and individual self-reliance and participation in the planning, organization, operation and control of primary health care". But is community participation an essential prerequisite for better health outcomes or simply a useful but non-essential companion to the delivery of treatments and preventive health education? Might it be essential only as a transitional strategy: crucial for the poorest and most deprived populations but largely irrelevant once health care systems are established? Or is the failure to incorporate community participation into large-scale primary health care programmes a major reason for why we are failing to achieve Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 for reduction of maternal and child mortality?
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  8. 8

    The state of Africa's children 2008. Child survival.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2008 May. 54 p.

    Every year, the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) publishes The State of the World's Children, the most comprehensive and authoritative report on the world's youngest citizens. The State of the World's Children 2008, published in January 2008, examines the global realities of maternal and child survival and the prospects for meeting the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) - the targets set by the world community in 2000 for eradicating poverty, reducing child and maternal mortality, combating disease, ensuring environmental sustainability and providing access to affordable medicines in developing countries. This year, UNICEF is also publishing the inaugural edition of The State of Africa's Children. This volume and other forthcoming regional editions complement The State of the World's Children 2008, sharpening from a worldwide to a regional perspective the global report's focus on trends in child survival and health, and outlining possible solutions - by means of programmes, policies and partnerships - to accelerate progress in meeting the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
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  9. 9

    Good participatory practice guidelines for biomedical HIV prevention trials.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; AIDS Vaccine Advocacy Coalition [AVAC]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2007 Jul. 64 p. (UNAIDS/07.XXE; JC1364E)

    Great strides have been made in reaching communities affected by biomedical HIV prevention trials with information, discussion fora and skills-building that effectively empower them to work as partners with researchers in critical aspects of trial design and conduct. However, there is no existing, standard and internationally recognized guidance that primarily addresses 'Good Participatory Practice' and community engagement in biomedical HIV prevention trials. Increasing the awareness of researchers, funders, trial participants, and community stakeholders of essential good practices for community engagement through these guidelines can help reduce unnecessary conflict, confusion, or non-constructive criticism and ensure that research is meaningful, applicable, and correctly interpreted. Serving as a reference for agreements about basic Good Participatory Practice elements for optimum trial conduct and related investments of necessary human and financial resources, this guidance document for those who conduct, fund, participate in and assess trial conduct can act as a positive incentive for all parties to strive for effective community involvement. (excerpt)
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  10. 10

    Harnessing the UN system into a common approach on communication for development.

    Servaes J

    International Communication Gazette. 2007; 69(6):483-507.

    In the UN system, conflicts and contradictions seldom concern the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as such, but rather the means of achieving them. These differences of opinion about priorities, and about how much and to whom development aid or assistance should be directed, could be explained by analysing the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions underpinning the general perspectives in the communication for development (C4D) field. Theoretical changes in the perspective on development communication (modernization, dependency, multiplicity) have also reached the level of policy-makers. As a result, different methodologies and terminologies have evolved, which often make it difficult for agencies, even though they share a common commitment to the overall goals of development communication, to identify common ground, arrive at a full understanding of each other's objectives, or to cooperate effectively in operational projects. Consequently, it is difficult for development organizations in general and UN agencies in particular to reach a common approach and strategy. (author's)
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  11. 11

    Plan's approach to water and environmental sanitation.

    Baghri S; Wilson T

    Woking, England, Plan, 2004 Oct. 52 p. (Working Paper Series)

    Safe water and environmental sanitation services (by which we mean solid and liquid waste facilities, vector and pest control as well as food hygiene) are vital for people's dignity and health, and are especially important in ensuring the healthy development of children. The lack of such facilities is responsible for over two million child deaths each year. This working paper aims to support Plan staff by looking at the whole issue of water and environmental sanitation and enable the organisation as a whole to direct resources in an integrated and cost-effective way. By doing so, we will be able to play a crucial role in achieving the Millennium Development Goals and in the 'International Decade for Action, Water for Life (2005-15)'. There is a clear link between poverty, poor water quality and a lack of environmental sanitation facilities. This working paper aims to position Plan's approach to water and environmental sanitation within the context of the broader international development goals andwithin Plan's own commitment to child centred community development. From this standpoint, it then looks in more detail at the main challenges linked to water and environmental sanitation and in each case details how Plan staff can put our approach into practice and the main issues to bear in mind while doing so. Further important issues to consider are also included. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Female genital mutilation / cutting in Somalia.

    Mohamud AA; McAntony A

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2004 Nov. 132 p.

    It is estimated that 98 percent of Somali women and girls have undergone some form of genital mutilation. About 90 percent have been subjected to the most drastic form. Since the 1991 collapse of its central government, Somalia has lacked established institutions, infrastructure, human resources and a secure environment suitable for development programs. Despite a harsh and uncertain environment, a vibrant civil society has been born in Somalia. Hundreds of NGOs, including women and youth groups, are actively involved in assisting victims of war, displaced persons, ethnic minorities, orphans, returned refugees, drought-stricken nomads and rural communities. These civil society groups receive significant humanitarian and development assistance from U.N. agencies and 40 international NGOs operating in Somalia. The Somalia Aid Coordination Body (SACB) was established to coordinate and facilitate information sharing among donor agencies, mostly based in Nairobi, Kenya. FGM/FGC eradication programs andactivities are coordinated through the SACB FGM/FGC Task Force, which meets every month. This assessment is aimed at guiding the World Bank, UNFPA and their partners in current and future anti-FGM/FGC initiatives. Programmatic and policy issues which emerged during the assessment are reflected in the relevant sections of the report. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    Reviewing World Bank-financed health projects in Asia.

    Krishnamurthy R

    ARROWs for Change. 2003; 9(3):12.

    The World Bank is financing health sector reforms in low-income and middle-income countries of Asia. A review of community participation and accountability strategies within nine World Bank-financed projects (see table) spanning nine Asian countries reveals that most of them envisage some form of community and NGO participation and accountability. Women constitute an important target group of all the nine projects, with maternal and child health services being a priority in eight and improving access to contraception in five. However, few projects envisage community participation in design and policy formulation, provision of comprehensive sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, and services for adolescents, men and sex workers. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Strengthening health care systems for scaling up HIV and AIDS responses.

    Sadia C

    Contact. 2004 Jan; (177-178):21-22.

    The scaling up HIV and AIDS response as a strategy for improving access to prevention, care and treatment as well as mitigating the socioeconomic impact of HIV/ AIDS is a noble idea. Providing more quality benefits to more people over a wider geographical area more quickly, more equitably and more lasting should be the basic principle. The three by five (3x5) initiative by WHO offers a great opportunity to examine community participation and its nobility cannot be down played yet there are gaps and areas to be addressed in order to achieve the desired objectives. The historical events cannot be left out while considering scaling up strategies. Mobilizing communities is a principle which is well known following the Alma-Ata Declaration in 1979, but which has been applied differently by different stakeholders. Some of the initiatives served the communities well for a good number of years with many benefits, but later the initiatives were difficult to sustain for various reasons. It is therefore imperative that the lessons learnt in the Primary Health Care (PHC) concept be analyzed and used if similar concepts are being used in scaling up. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    EC / UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia: lessons learned.

    European Commission. EC / UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia

    [Brussels, Belgium], EC / UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia, [2002]. 15 p.

    The EC/UNFPA Initiative for Reproductive Health in Asia (RHI) covers seven countries in South and South East Asia. It targets populations with very diverse reproductive health (RH) needs and, therefore, uses a wealth of different approaches. Altogether, the RHI consists of 42 projects, with more than 90 stakeholders. In addition, networks set up by individual projects enlist the collaboration of at least 100 community-based organisations (CBOs). For each country programme, a "country focus" was selected, taking into account the country's most urgent RH needs, the comparative advantage of civil society organisations and the recommendations of UNFPA, which were endorsed by the local advisory group, where existing. As a result three different country focus areas were defined. In Bangladesh, the five projects aim to improve the quality of RH care, in particular that of clinic-based RH services. The programmes in Cambodia, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Sri Lanka and Viet Nam all focus on providing reproductive and sexual health (R&SH) information and services to young people and adolescents. The projects in Nepal and Pakistan concentrate on strengthening community based RH information and services. This report summaries a selection of some of the lessons learned, best practices and success stories resulting from the experience of over three years of implementation of the RHI in the seven countries. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Evaluation of the UNAIDS / UNITAR AIDS Competence Programme.

    Alando C

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2005 Jun. [82] p.

    This evaluation does not re-investigate the lessons and conclusions already acknowledged and documented during the past decades. It begins from the perspective that: (a) community ownership improves planning and performance of AIDS programmes, leading to improved population and individual health status; (b) governments and civil society can play a significant role in promoting community ownership; and (c) The joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), including UNHCR, UNICEF, WFP, UNDP, UNFPA, UNODC, ILO, UNESCO, WHO, and the World Bank, can play a significant role in developing the agenda for community ownership of programmes. This evaluation measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the AIDS Competence Programme's process and outcomes. The evaluation's approach relies both on methods used in AIDS programme evaluations, and accepted sociological evaluation methods that define community capacity or the individual capacity (i.e., economic, social, pedagogical and politically related outcomes). The AIDS Competence Programme's potential to achieve impact is also examined. It should be noted that the evaluation of specific community interventions where the AIDS Competence Programme is used, e.g., in prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes, and the evaluation of the global AIDS Competence Programme follow significantly different approaches, as outlined later in this report. (excerpt)
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  17. 17

    Sex and youth: contextual factors affecting risk for HIV / AIDS.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1999 May. 145 p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection. Key material; UNAIDS/99.26E)

    Since early in the epidemic, enquiry into the factors influencing HIV-related vulnerability has been recognized as essential for prevention efforts. While much early work focused on the individual determinants of sexual and drug-related risk-taking, increasingly the contextual factors which render some groups more vulnerable than others has come to be recognized. Factors as diverse as age, gender, social position, economic status, cultural norms, beliefs and expectations determine the risks faced, and enable and constrain individuals in their actions. It is now widely recognized that both individual persuasion and social enablement are essential for programme success, and increasing numbers of prevention programmes and activities are designed on this assumption. The recent UNAIDS report Expanding the Global Response to HIV/AIDS Through Focused Action recognizes the importance of such an approach and seeks to encourage its application in countries across the world. Yet knowing how to develop and fine-tune programmes requires insight into the often complex determinants of behaviour in specific cultural settings and contexts. Good quality social enquiry has a key role to play in providing this information and in supporting the development of work that is attuned to the needs of particular groups. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    WHO - UNAIDS - UNICEF Technical Consultation on HIV and Infant Feeding: Implementation of Guidelines. Report of a meeting -- Geneva, 20-22 April 1998.

    World Health Organization [WHO]; Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]; UNICEF

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1998. [38] p.

    The Guidelines and Guide recognise that: HIV infection can be transmitted through breastfeeding. Appropriate alternatives to breastfeeding should be available and affordable in adequate amounts for women whom testing has shown to be HIV-positive. Breastfeeding is the ideal way to feed the majority of infants. Efforts to protect, promote and support breastfeeding by women who are HIV-negative or of unknown HIV status need to be strengthened; HIV-positive mothers should be enabled to make fully informed decisions about the best way to feed their infants in their particular circumstances. Whatever they decide, they should receive educational, psychosocial and material support to carry out their decision as safely as possible, including access to adequate alternatives to breastfeeding if they so choose; To make fully informed decisions about infant feeding, as well as about other aspects of HIV, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and reproductive life, women need to know and accept their HIV status. There is thus an urgent need to increase access to voluntary and confidential counselling and HIV testing (VCT), and to promote its use by women and when possible their partners, before making alternatives to breastfeeding available; An essential priority is primary prevention of HIV infection. Education for all adults of reproductive age, particularly for pregnant and lactating women and their sexual partners, and for young people, needs to be strengthened; Women who are HIV positive need to understand the particular importance of avoiding infection during pregnancy and lactation. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    Caring for children orphaned by AIDS [editorial]

    Moy R

    Journal of Tropical Pediatrics. 1999 Apr; 45(2):64-65.

    The Joint United Nation Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) chose 'Children Living in a World with AIDS' as its theme for the 1997 World AIDS Campaign. The overall aim of the campaign was to create 'an increased understanding of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its global dimensions, with an emphasis on promoting action and social policies to prevent HIV transmission and to minimise the epidemic's impact on children, their families and their communities'. Among the facts that emerged in the UNAIDS documentation for this campaign were the following: everyday 1000 children become infected with HIV; of the 1.5 million people worldwide who died of AIDS in 1996, 350 000 were children; AIDS may increase infant mortality by as much as 75 per cent and under-5 child mortality by more than 100 per cent in the regions most affected by the disease by the year 2000; 90 per cent of HIV positive children under the age of 15 years are infected through vertical mother to child Transmission; nearly 1 million children are living with HIV and suffer the physical and psychological consequences of infection; over 9 million children are estimated to have lost one or other or both parents to AIDS. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    Community mobilization and AIDS: UNAIDS technical update.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Apr. [8] p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)

    UNAIDS understands a "mobilized community" to have most or all of the following characteristics: members are aware -- in a detailed and realistic way -- of their individual and collective vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; members are motivated to do something about this vulnerability; members have practical knowledge of the different options they can take to reduce their vulnerability; members take action within their capability, applying their own strengths and investing their own resources -- including money, labour, materials or whatever else they have to contribute; members participate in decision-making on what actions to take, evaluate the results, and take responsibility for both success and failure; the community seeks outside assistance and cooperation when needed. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    Breakthrough: UNDP's response to HIV / AIDS.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, UNDP, 2004 Jun. 34 p.

    Something remarkable is happening in many parts of the world. Faced with a common enemy, people from different countries are discovering a shared goal. These are ordinary men and women who until recently had thought of HIV/AIDS as something that happened to other people. Responding to the epidemic has today become a passionate cause for each one. These individuals and groups are linked by one common factor: They have all been part of UNDP's Leadership for Results programme-- a unique and innovative process that helps to create an enabling environment to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, by fostering hope, generating transformation and producing breakthrough results. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    Address by Mr Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), on the occasion of the launch of the Integrated Sustainable Community Initiative at the Faculty of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, 11 July 2005.

    Matsuura K

    [Paris, France], UNESCO, 2005. [4] p. (DG/2005/115)

    I am very pleased to be with you today for this launch of the Integrated Sustainable Community Initiative. Let me begin by thanking the university authorities for the warm welcome I have received here at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Not all of you were there, so let me tell you what a joy it was to experience the energy and artistic expression of the young people at the opening ceremony of the World Heritage Committee last night. The Millenium Development Goals, which countries have committed themselves to achieve by 2015, have at their core the reduction of poverty. In his address to the first joint sitting of the third democratic Parliament, President Mbeki reiterated this by making the commitment to move South Africa towards the eradication of poverty and under-development, improve the quality of life for all South Africans and address the persistent challenges of racial and gender inequality. Illiteracy is both a cause and result of poverty and, indeed, is seen as an indicator of poverty. The HIV/AIDS epidemic has also been characterized as a disease of the poor. Equally important is addressing the issue of social cohesion caused by decades of deliberately enforced social divisions. Thus, improving literacy, strengthening the coping mechanisms for dealing with HIV/AIDS and strengthening respect for human rights can contribute greatly to addressing the goals that South Africa has set for itself. (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    Responses to AIDS challenges in Brazil: limits and possibilities. [Respuestas a los desafíos del SIDA en Brasil: límites y posibilidades]

    Castro MG; da Silva LB

    Brasilia, Brazil, UNESCO, 2005 Jun. 680 p.

    UNESCO and the National Program on STD/AIDS, of the Brazilian Ministry of Health, once again establish a partnership to carry out an activity, which records and cooperates towards implementing one of the most successful Brazilian public policies in health, worldwide acknowledged: those oriented to the fight against AIDS. This publication, basically addressed to tackle the dynamics of those agencies participating in AIDS-related governance in Brazil, lists and itemizes practices and representations of collective civil society units, at different territories. Furthermore, it records contemporaneous debates, assessments, criticisms and suggestions, aiming at adjusting the path. (excerpt)
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  24. 24

    Changing a harmful social convention: female genital mutilation / cutting.

    Miller M; Moneti F; Landini C; Lewnes A

    Florence, Italy, UNICEF, Innocenti Research Centre, 2005. [53] p. (Innocenti Digest)

    This Innocenti Digest is intended to serve as a practical tool to bring about positive change for girls and women. It: analyses the most current data to illustrate the geographic distribution of FGM/C and outlines key trends; identifies the principal ways in which FGM/C violates a girl’s or woman’s human rights, including the serious physical, psychological and social implications of this harmful practice; examines the factors that contribute to perpetuating FGM/C; and outlines effective and complementary action at the community, national and international levels to support the abandonment of FGM/C. On the basis of analysis conducted, there is good reason to be optimistic that, with the appropriate support, FGM/C can be ended in many practicing communities within a single generation. (excerpt)
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  25. 25

    Tolstoy, community cybernetics, and the MDGs.

    Moor J

    Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):19.

    Leo Tolstoy famously wrote that all happy families are alike, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. If the same can be said about dysfunctional cities, we must be prepared to deal with the unique micro-realities of each ailing community. This can only be done practically by encouraging residents to engage in a form of therapy that begins with local self-discovery. This must be a central aim in monitoring the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In an economically pressurized world where more than 95 percent of all development decisions are made by members of civil society, each acting more or less in their own self-interest, central coordinative systems of governance are failing. Squatters and slumlords everywhere make their choices outside the world of plans and regulations, as do an increasing number of small-scale entrepreneurs. This self-interest promotes unsustainable urban development, inhibiting a cooperative vision for the future that the complex urban ecology demands. The collective future is no-one’s baby and in effect has become an orphan. (excerpt)
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