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The impacts of the HIV/AIDS pandemic and socioeconomic development on the living arrangements of older persons in sub-Saharan Africa: a country-level analysis.
American Journal of Community Psychology. 2009 Sep; 44(1-2):136-47.This study investigates whether socioeconomic development and the HIV/AIDS pandemic are associated with living arrangement patterns in older persons in 23 sub-Saharan African countries. Country-level aggregate data were taken from previous household surveys and information provided by the United Nations, the World Bank, and the World Health Organization. Results showed that 13.5% of older persons (aged 60 years or over) were living with grandchildren but not adult children (i.e., skipped generation households). Countries higher in HIV/AIDS prevalence had more skipped generation households, and also more older persons living with spouse only and fewer older persons living with other relatives. Countries with higher socioeconomic development had fewer older persons living with children younger than 25 years old and more living with spouse only or with other relatives and unrelated persons. The pandemic and socioeconomic development combine to accelerate the breakdown of the extended family structure so that older persons are less and less likely to reside with, and to receive support from, their children.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Sep. 36 p.Defined as the second decade of life, adolescence is filled with great possibilities even in times of crisis, both for the individual child and for the community as a whole. Investing in adolescents is an urgent priority not only because it is their inalienable right to develop to their full potential but also because interventions during this period can lead to lasting social and economic benefits to the larger community. Time and again, adolescents and young people around the world have proved that they can provide innovative solutions in the midst of complex humanitarian crises. When given the opportunity to influence the plans and decisions that affect their lives, adolescents in emergency situations have spoken out against abuse or neglect, have joined hands with planners and managers in designing appropriate community programmes, and have initiated actions to support their peers. In each of these situations, they have brought their vision, idealism and sense of justice to the social agenda and have contributed to cohesion, peace-building and community reconstruction. At the same time, as experience from many countries shows, this participation has raised their confidence and self-esteem, given them citizenship and livelihood skills, and empowered them to protect their own rights. (excerpt)
In: Global appeal, 2003. Strategies and programmes, [compiled by] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees [UNHCR]. Geneva, Switzerland, UNHCR, 2003. 36-51.Ensuring equal rights and access by refugee women to all aspects of protection and assistance provided by UNHCR, is central to the Office’s refugee protection mandate. This policy commitment is grounded in international agreements and standards, such as the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, and the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). UNHCR employs various strategies to make good this commitment, including: elaborating policy guidelines and training materials; providing technical advice and support to operational units; pursuing consultations and partnerships with refugees, particularly women; piloting innovative approaches to empower refugee women; and monitoring and evaluating field-related activities. During the global consultations with refugee women in 2001, the High Commissioner made five commitments: the promotion of women’s equal participation in leadership and decision-making; equal participation in the distribution of food and non-food items; individual registration and documentation of refugee women; support for integrated sexual and gender-based violence programmes at national levels; and the inclusion of sanitary materials within standard assistance packages provided to refugees. These commitments continue to be implemented in practical and measurable ways. (excerpt)
Development Bulletin. 2002 Jul; (58):16-19.It is commonly accepted among development agencies that poverty and environmental degradation are intricately linked. All donor or development agencies have recently made that link explicit, and accepted a concept of poverty that is more than simply cash-based or economically defined. Like other development banks and development assistance agencies, the World Bank and AusAID have a policy focus on reducing poverty, which they define in terms of income generation, vulnerability and other aspects of livelihood or well-being. Marjorie Sullivan (2001) undertook a brief analysis of how the links between poverty and environment can be addressed through development assistance. She concluded that it is not possible to undertake an adequate poverty analysis as a basis for identifying project interventions without considering long term (post project) sustainability, nor without fully considering resource use. That analysis must include the explicit links between poverty and environment, and the more contentious issue of ecological sustainability (to address ecosystem services concepts), and how these can be incorporated into the management of development assistance programs. (excerpt)
Journal of Community Psychology. 1999 Jul; 27(4):393-404.In many Third World countries there is a large population of street children. The causes of this phenomenon are diverse; for example, rapid urbanization, worsening economic trends, and rampant population growth. This study reveals the range of difficulties that plague projects for street children in Nairobi, Kenya. The data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews. In total, seven projects were visited and 68 street children were interviewed. Recommendations to improve assistance to and care of street children in Nairobi are presented. (author's)
Mid-term review report: 1997-2000 Programme of Cooperation, Government of the Sultanate of Oman-UNICEF.
Muscat, Oman, Ministry of Social Affairs, Labour and Vocational Training, 1999. 65 p.The Mid-Term Review of the 1997-2000 Programme of Cooperation between the Government of Oman and UNICEF was held - after a long and productive process of consultation - in May 1999, in Muscat, under the coordination of the Ministry of Social Affairs, Labour and Vocational Training. A total of 55 participants from Government ministries and national bodies attended, along with representatives from UNICEF Muscat, Regional Office for the Middle East and North Africa, and New York headquarters. Discussions were wide-ranging and productive, with frank appraisals of programme processes and achievements and useful intersectoral perspectives on programme cooperation. (excerpt)
Planning a future for children. PLAN International worldwide annual report, 1995. Planifier un avenir pour les enfants. PLAN International rapport annuel mondial, 1995. Planificando un futuro para los ninos. PLAN International informe anual mundial, 1995.
Woking, England, PLAN International, 1995. , 28,  p.This annual report, written in English, Spanish, and French, describes the work of PLAN International during the period July 1994-June 1995. The report opens with a message from the chairman and international executive director which notes that PLAN International continues its original mission by collaborating with local communities to focus on the needs of the child. The next section relates some of the facts which govern the lives of children in developing countries such as the major causes of child mortality, the incidence of maternal mortality, and the poverty which results from 20% of the world's population existing on 1.5% of the world's income. Given this framework, the report goes on to describe how PLAN is structured in general and how it specifically addresses issues like family assistance, health, AIDS awareness, education, community development, and resources and skills development. Examples are provided of specific PLAN activities in Central America and the Caribbean, eastern and southern Africa, southeast Asia, South America, south Asia, and west Africa. The remaining portions of the report highlight people working for PLAN and relay the financial activities of the agency, a brief history of PLAN, and a statement which describes PLAN's identity, vision, mission, and commitment to quality. Appended to the report are a list of specific locations in which PLAN operates, and a financial statement which includes a combined statement of field expenditures worldwide for Foster Parents PLAN.
Karachi, Pakistan, APWA, .  p.The All Pakistan Women's Association (APWA), established in 1949 and granted consultative status with the UN in 1952, seeks to further the moral, social, economic, and legal status of Pakistani women and children. On the international level, APWA has played a leading role in promoting collaboration and a sharing of experiences on women's and children's issues among nongovernmental organizations. In addition, the APWA campaigns for international security conflict resolution and disarmament and was the 1987 recipient of the UN Peace Messenger Certificate. Within Pakistan, the provision of health care services to women and children in rural areas, urban slums, and squatter settlements is a priority. 56 family welfare centers have been established by APWA to provide family planning education and services, prenatal care, maternal-child health referrals, immunization, oral rehydration, breast feeding promotion, basic curative care, and group meetings. No other family planning services are available in the areas where these centers are located. The centers are staffed by a female health visitor, who provides a range of contraceptive methods and follows up acceptors, and motivators, who provide family planning education in the community. The motivator also recruits a volunteer in each community who opens her home as a place for weekly group meetings and contraceptive distribution. APWA's strategy, however, is to introduce family planning through community development projects aimed at income generation, child care, nutritional education, and primary and adult education. Since 1987, comprehensive rural development projects have been carried out in 20 villages in all 4 provinces. Another emphasis has been the improvement of women's status through legal action. The APWA was instrumental in having an equal rights for women clause inserted in the 1972 Interim Constitution and succeeded in preventing passage of an ordinance that would have made compensation for the murder of a woman half that for the murder of a man.
Towards developing a community based monitoring system on the social and economic impact of AIDS in East and Central Africa.
[Unpublished] 1991. 4,  p.Proposed is a short-term, initial study of the potential of a community-based system to monitor the social and economic impact of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Eastern and Central Africa. The study was requested by the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Its initial phase, which will be conducted in the UK, will consist of a literature review and preparation of a proposal for a pilot project. Particular emphasis will be placed on poor households in which family survival is threatened by the death from AIDS of an economically active adult. Assessed will be the extent to which a community-based monitoring system can aid households and communities in coping with the excess mortality created by AIDS and also provide information to national leaders that can be used to guide the formulation of national AIDS policy. Components of such a monitoring system are the regular collection of data, processing of the data into a form where they can be used as the basis for initiating actions, and definition of a set of interventions. Such an activity assumes the existence of both institutions that can collect and process the data and agencies capable of initiating interventions. Examples of successful monitoring systems exist in the areas of food security and child malnutrition. Their success appears to have been based on the availability of data at the points where action is to be taken, involvement of existing community institutions, a convergence of community and external agency objectives, and a common perception of problems and their relative importance. The pilot project is expected to involve a small number of areas in one or two countries of East and Central Africa with a high incidence of AIDS.
Brunswick, GA, MAP International, Learning Resource Center, 1987 May. 64 p.This guide is a complete revision and expansion of a select, annotated bibliography prepared by MAP International in 1980. The bibliography gives a reading list of key books and periodicals in health and development. Resources have been selected to introduce concepts that are current in the field. Several changes have been made in the format, such as incorporating the periodicals into the subject sections and providing author/title indexes. A new section on Social Marketing has been added, along with over 25 books and 8 periodicals. All price, availability and organization information has been updated. Resources are included which are reasonably priced so that field workers can develop their libraries of practical information. The contents are grouped under the following headings: adult learning; appropriate technology; church and social responsibility; crosscultural information; development; evaluation; health; social marketing; and organizations.
New York, UNFPA, 1980 May. 64 p.This report reviews and analyzes the type of projects the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) has been supporting in the field of women, population, and development during the 1969-1979 period. After screening 180 projects for possible review from the almost 2000 projects funded by UNFPA between the 10 year period, 106 were selected because they satisfied the following criteria: they either addressed women specifically or women were the primary project focus. To follow the historical development in UNFPA funding of women's projects as well as to arrive at a descriptive overview, the 106 projects were analyzed in 2 different ways. For overview purposes they were divided into Direct Women's Projects (DWP)--68 items--and Indirect Women's Projects (IWP)--32 items. For the historical perspective, only the 68 DWPs were studied. These were separated into 3 groups: projects funded before the World Conferences on Population and Women in 1974 and 1975; projects funded during the conference years; and projects funded after the conferences. The overview, which included all 106 projects, revealed some noteworthy characteristics of the UNFPA funding process. DWPs were more likely to be designated "Status of Women" (54%) and to be more research oriented, and were more likely to be country specific. IWPs had no "Status of Women" projects, and were more training oriented (37%). From an historical perspective in analyzing only the 68 DWPs, the crucial turning point in UNFPA's funding of Women's Projects was the 2 World Conferences. Following the conferences, women funded projects increased to 47 from the preconference level of 17. This period's most salient feature was its emphasis on raising the awareness of women and communities. During the conference related period, several projects were funded principally to prepare data on women and to provide support services for the conferences. There was a shift to research-action combination projects during the post-conference period.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-17. (Series 1, Pt. 4)The main theme of all the materials that were abstracted and reviewed in the area of population education in literacy is that literacy programs and population education in the non-formal setting must be linked with the real problems and needs of the people if they are to be effective. Highlighted in the abstracts presented are the strategies, guidelines, procedures and the processes used in making population education in literacy programs acceptable to the millions of illiterates, out-of-school youths and adults throughout the Asian region, who are preoccupied with satisfying their immediate needs for food and water. Two successful experimental functional literacy-population education projects carried out by the Adult Education Division of the Ministry of Education in Thailand and the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement are reported. Most of the documents reviewed have been both enhanced and enriched by the extensive work and experiences of the UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania and by the materials of the World Education which are a result of 18 years of practical field work in literacy.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 1-14. (Series 1, Pt. 1)Abstracts of 8 national case studies on the out-of-school population education programs in the Asian countries of Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Pakistan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka and Thailand are presented. Provided is the total picture and the framework upon which the population education in the out-of-school sector in these countries are being conducted. The case studies show that the majority of the out-of-school population education programs have developed by means of a process of evolution rather than as a result of strict systematic planning. To some extent this evolution has been facilitated by several governmental and nongovernmental organizations which initiated the integration of population education into their own development oriented programs such as welfare, literacy, agriculture and labor. The objectives and activities for out-of-school population education have become an organic part of the development programs, many of which are family planning oriented. This situation has brought some confusion regarding how to define population education in the out-of-school sector and what its boundaries are.
Proceedings of the joint UPM/UNESCO Workshop on Planning and Coordinating Non-Formal Education Programme on Population Education, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, May 28-30, 1979.
Serdang, Selangor, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Center for Extension and Continuing Education, 1979. 62 p.Objectives of the joint Universiti Pertanian Malaysia/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UPM/UNESCO) Workshop on Planning and Coordinating Non-Formal Education Program on Population Education were the following: to invite all the government and nongovernmental agencies to share their programs and experiences with each other; to identify common needs and problems; to develop an interagency national program for out-of-school education and to identify the activities within; to identify the agency which can provide the necessary leadership in this area; and to discuss how population education can be integrated into the agency programs within the scope of the other interagency national programs. Included in this report of the Workshop proceedings are reports of the following agencies: Fisheries Division; Community Development Division; the National Extension Project of the Department of Agriculture; the Veterinary Division; Population Education Unit of the Curriculum Development Center; Federation of Family Planning Association; Rubber Industry Smallholder Development Authority; National Family Planning Board; Ministry of Health; Universiti Pertanian Malaysia; Farmers Organization Authority; and the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports. Working papers on the subjects of planning and developing out-of-school population programs in Asia and Oceania and the potentials and strategies for integrating population elements in non-formal education programs are also included. It was determined that the integration of population education elements into non-formal education programs could be realized by leading agencies initiating programs such as organizing seminars and by training staff to be well-equipped in population and extension development.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 1977. 28 p. (OCP/STAC/77.2)The STAC (Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee) is evaluating the feasibility for economic development in the Volta River Basin. The main obstacle is the danger of onchocerciasis which could lead to blindness. The onchocerciasis control program hopes to reduce the disease to a low enough level that it no longer poses a major health problem or an obstacle to socio-economic development as well as to maintain the disease at a tolerable level. Therefore, studies, plans, and recommendations on insecticides are being made. The program is treating waterways with Abate, a biodegradable larvicide, in addition to undertaking parasitological surveillance. Blackflys are captured and their larvae are analyzed; data is recorded; and tests are conducted to detect any insecticide resistance. The STAC also examined villagers to diagnose human microfilariae in their skin and determine if eye lesions were present. Treatment currently used to combat the disease is either by nodulectomy and/or chemotherapy, but neither is fully effective and mass treatment is difficult. Metrifonate is a promising drug which affects the microfilariae in the cornea without irritating the anterior segment of the eye. Although there are some difficulties in overcoming onchocerciasis, reclamation of the valleys will benefit the population.
A manual and resource book for popular participation training. Volume two. Selected examples of innovative training activities.
New York, New York, United Nations, 1978. iv, 21 p. (ST/ESA/66 (Vol. II))This manual (volume 2) produced by the UN illustrates the efficacy of the process of information dissemination on innovative training activities to promote popular participation in the national, institutional and cultural development programs. Included also in this volume are examples of successful training conducted in various countries. The six items used to evaluate innovative training activities include field and country, identification of resources, sponsor, methods used, comments and specific techniques related to popular participation training. Chapter 1 presents the community development in the Central African Empire. Chapter 2 highlights the community development in Canada. Community development in Saudi Arabia is presented in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the functional education for family life planning program in Turkey, while chapter 5 introduces the family planning program in Indonesia. Chapter 6 presents the rural development in Honduras. Lastly, the Rural Women's Development and Participation program in the Philippines is evaluated.
Lancet. 1999 Sep 18; 354(9183):1005.The World Bank reports that localization and globalization will be the two primary forces that will dominate the trend in the next millennium. These trends could either revolutionize human development or lead to greater chaos and suffering. The report further examines three aspects of globalization: trade, capital flows and environment; and three aspects of localization: decentralization, cities and making livable cities. It focuses on the impact of these two forces on the poor and their health. It stated that economic growth in the past 30 years had little impact on indicators of real development such as political stability, education, life expectancy, and gender equality. Moreover, a weak correlation between income and standard of living exists because countries and communities placed different priorities on education and health. The recommendations of the bank include the need for macroeconomic stability and a socially flexible sustained development.
[Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999  p.This is a statement concerning the UNESCO monograph "Education and Population Dynamics: Mobilizing Minds for a Sustainable Future" as an important contribution to the fifth anniversary of International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). The monograph focuses on the achievement of balance between population/development and the capacity of the social/natural environment and on the issue of the impact of education on women. The international community is called to mobilize resources and talent toward the goal of allowing every person to live a peaceful and productive life. UNESCO invites all governments, UN institutions, and NGOs to analyze its contribution and to reinforce the international social contract on education as a force of the future.
HABITAT DEBATE. 1996 Mar; 2(1):20.Zambian communities in 21 settlements have developed partnerships with District Councils and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) with the aid of the Community Development Programme. A Training Programme for Community Participation in Settlements Improvement was implemented by the government from 1984 to 1994 with the support of the UN Centre for Human Settlements (UNCHS) (Habitat). Although seed money for physical settlement improvements was not included, integrating training with the actual process of upgrading enabled the participating communities to make the improvements. The selected communities, with the support of District Council staff, produced project documents to solicit the support of NGOs. The partnerships consisted of three groups; 1) Resident Development Committees, which represented the communities; 2) NGOs; and 3) District Councils. The first group mobilized the communities in the identification of priority needs and in action planning. The second group supplied equipment and funds. The third group provided technical services and created a legal framework in the form of a memorandum of understanding, which was signed by all partners. Sustainability, maintenance, and management of services after the phasing out of NGO support were defined in the memorandum. Schools, clinics, storm-water drainage, and road improvements were some of the benefits obtained from this tripartite partnership.
COUNTDOWN TO ISTANBUL: HABITAT II. 1996 May; 1(7):18.In 1994, the Super Coalition on Women, Homes, and Community was formed from four worldwide networks so that women working on community development could be involved in Habitat II planning and could incorporate human settlement issues into the Fourth World Conference on Women (WCW) and it attendant NGO (nongovernmental organization) Forum. The Super Coalition paved the way for grassroots women to contribute ideas to the Preparatory Committee for Habitat II. When the women discovered that many of the gains achieved at the WCW were not reflected in the Habitat agenda, they drafted amendments that were later discussed by official bodies. The women also lobbied delegations and governmental groups on gender issues and found that many of their concerns were included in bracketed paragraphs for further consideration during Habitat II. Another success occurred when the Secretary-General of Habitat II appointed many women to the newly-created Huairou Commission, which will offer advice on gender issues and highlight women's concerns during Habitat II.
Super Coalition highlights women's perspective on housing: our practices take center stage in Istanbul.
GROOTS NETWORK NEWS. 1996 May; 5(1):1, 9.The Women, Homes, and Community Super Coalition, a network of NGOs (nongovernmental organizations) accepted responsibility for organizing the NGO Coalition program for Habitat II. The goals of the Super Coalition are to 1) highlight the role of women's leadership in the building of sustainable communities, 2) establish a consensus on common problems and priorities of grassroots women and other activists, and 3) discuss action strategies to address these problems and assert these priorities. The Super Coalition maintains that a socially responsible design of housing and communities will emerge when 1) women's household-based income is valued as an important form of economic activity, 2) grassroots people are empowered to participate in all negotiations affecting their lives and communities, 3) it is recognized that communities must be sustainable and culturally viable, and 4) mere shelters become homes offering safety and sustenance for children, the aged, and the ill.
Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1998. 131 p. (Focus on Nutrition)Over 200 million children in developing countries under 5 years of age are malnourished and malnutrition contributes directly or indirectly to 55% of the 12 million deaths in this group each year. Improvements in maternal and child nutrition have the potential to decrease the burden of chronic and degenerative diseases, malaria, AIDS, and maternal mortality. Although the technology to end malnutrition is available, preventable causes such as premature cessation of breast feeding, inattention to children's special nutritional needs, poverty, lack of access to preventive and curative health services, and discrimination against women and children perpetuate this emergency. This comprehensive UNICEF report outlines the causes, consequences, and solutions to child malnutrition. It describes the successes of programs aimed at improving women's access to education, fortifying staple foods with essential nutrients, targeting specific nutritional deficiencies (iodine, vitamin A), monitoring child growth, supporting small-scale food production, and increasing government social sector spending on nutrition in several countries. Overall, experience suggests the superiority of solutions that involve those most directly affected by poverty and malnutrition, combine a balance of approaches and sectors, and recognize nutrition as a human right. Communities can be trained to assess their own nutritional priorities and monitor program effectiveness. The report also includes statistical tables on nutrition, health, education, demographic factors, economic indicators, women, and the rate of progress by country.
New York, New York, UNIFEM, 1992. , 28 p.The UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) provides direct financial and technical support to low-income women in developing countries and funds activities designed to incorporate women into mainstream development decision-making. This annual report for 1991 opens with messages from the administrator of the UN Development Programme and the UNIFEM director. The report continues with a discussion of progress for women in the post-Cold War era where reform was instituted without the input of women. UNIFEM actions on behalf of women on the international, national, and local levels are described, and key findings are reported from the publication "The World's Women: Trends and Statistics 1970-1990" (sponsored by UNIFEM and other agencies). The report also describes UNIFEMs actions on behalf of refugees, 75% of whom are women and children. The regional report for Africa highlights programs in Mail, where women were instrumental in organizing a water and environmental sanitation project, and in Mozambique, where UNIFEM set up a community-based credit system for farmers. Programs in Asia and the Pacific included the organization of workshops on the topic of women and pesticides and the provision of special training for census workers in India that resulted in the recognition of the economic activity of women in census data. In the Latin American and Caribbean region, a Bolivian program to increase the nation's milk production led to improvements for 500 peasant women in eight communities while, in Chile, UNIFEM has been conducting research and training designed to improve the lives of the indigenous Mapuches. The report lists UNIFEM's sources of support and the organization's management priorities, financial reports, and advisors and representatives.
CHILDHOOD. 1994 Feb-May; 2(1-2):41-55.Children constitute nearly half the population of the South. They are the worst affected victims of resource degradation and environmental pollution. They are also increasingly deprived of the mechanisms for acquiring knowledge, values, and survival skills, as parents have less time to devote to their care and nurturing and schools are either inaccessible or ill-equipped for providing relevant education. At UNCED, world leaders and NGO representatives have emphasized the necessity for human-centered, poverty-focused approaches to environment and development. Agenda 21 endorsed the goals agreed upon at the World Summit for Children and appealed for ratification of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. As follow-up, UNICEF is adopting the "primary environmental care" approach to enable children and women to meet their basic needs by using and protecting natural resources optimally. Priority is given to the poorest groups living in environmentally vulnerable areas, to fostering opportunities for enhanced livelihood, and to building partnerships with NGOs. (author's)
AIDS HEALTH PROMOTION EXCHANGE. 1993; (4):9-10.In December 1991, the UN Development Program (UNDP) organized the African Informal Consultation on Behavior Change as it relates to the HIV pandemic. Community-based organization and government representatives attended from Australia, Ghana, India, Jamaica, Malawi, Malaysia, Norway, Senegal, Sweden, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, the United Kingdom, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Participants strongly endorsed the possibility for individuals and communities to change their attitudes and behaviors in response to HIV and AIDS, and stressed the importance of evaluating and documenting these changes and sharing lessons learned. The group concluded that research in the field of HIV should be action-oriented and participatory; new research methods and ways of presenting data are called for. Participants in the 2nd consultation held in the Asia/Pacific region in November 1992 also stressed the importance of developing community-based monitoring, evaluation, and program development methodologies. The UNDP responded by launching a number of initiatives in Africa, Asia and Central America to explore ways in which communities may be helped to document ongoing changes, assess their impact and efficacy, and share them with others. New approaches to evaluation are also being explored based upon processes of assessment and redesign already occurring in the communities.