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New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund, HIV/AIDS Branch, . 8 p. (Guidance Brief)This Brief has been developed by the Inter-Agency Task Team (IATT) on HIV and Young People1 to assist United Nations Country Teams (UNCT) and UN Theme Groups on HIV/AIDS in providing guidance to their staffs, governments, development partners, civil society and other implementing partners on community HIV interventions for young people. It is part of a series of seven global Guidance Briefs that focus on HIV prevention, treatment, care and support interventions for young people that can be delivered through different settings and for a range of target groups.
London, United Kingdom, ACF International Network, . 80 p. (Hunger Watch Publication)This report documents the findings of Local Voices, a six month qualitative research project that provided HIV orphans, vulnerable children and their carers with the opportunity to discuss and document the difficulties they face providing food, water and healthcare for their families. Through meetings, detailed interviews and discussions the project initiated and developed an ongoing dialogue with 20 families in four areas of the Kitwe district in the Copperbelt province of Zambia: Chimwemwe, Kwacha, Chipata and Zamtan. The discourse that developed over the course of the project has given Action Against Hunger (ACF-UK) and CINDI insight in two key areas. Firstly, the research has added a household perspective to existing ideas and analysis of food security in an HIV/AIDS context. Secondly, the project highlights the knowledge and learning that can be gained when people living with a positive HIV diagnosis are seen as 'experts' and their experiences are used to help identify and address the problems they face. Through the voices of the project's participants, the testimonies and images that are the core of this document explore the social and economic impact HIV/AIDS has on families affected by the disease. ACF-UK and CINDI pioneered this work because we believe HIV/AIDS can no longer be seen as just a medical issue. Within this report we demonstrate that HIV/AIDS has a direct impact on the economic and social well-being of both households and communities; and as such it must be tackled using an integrated approach where food, livelihoods and social protection are highlighted as solutions alongside access to medical care. This report opens with statistics that outline current rates of HIV/AIDS and poverty in Zambia, focusing specifically on the Copperbelt province and the Kitwe district. The testimonies that form the centrepiece of this report are introduced by a summary of the key social and economic issues that HIV orphans, vulnerable children and their carers face, together with a synopsis of government and community based organisation (CBO) responses. These topics have been selected as they cover the core issues that were raised during the Local Voices project. The document ends with a brief conclusion and the report recommendations.
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective: Violence against women. Towards an effective implementation of international norms to end violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Ertürk.
[New York, New York], Economic and Social Council, 2003 Dec 26. 24 p. (E/CN.4/2004/66)In section I, the report defines the mandate and methods of work of the Special Rapporteur. Section II describes the activities of the Special Rapporteur since she took over the mandate in August 2003. Reference is also made to the activities of the former Special Rapporteur from 2003, until the end of her tenure in July. Section III starts with an assessment of the developments of the past decade in the area of women's human rights and violence against women, and continues with a focus on violence against women, as it manifests within a broad spectrum from the domicile to the transnational arena, in order to capture the persistence of the old as well as the emergence of new sites and forms of violence. Within this context, emphasis is placed on the universality of violence against women, the multiplicity of its forms and the intersectionality of diverse kinds of discrimination against women and its linkage to a system of domination that is based on subordination and inequality. HIV/AIDS is highlighted as the single most devastating epidemic experienced in modern history and that embodies the intersectionality of diverse forms of discrimination. Owing to the magnitude of health, security, development and human rights problems associated with HIV/AIDS and its intricate interplay with violence against women, the Special Rapporteur intends to carry out extensive research on the issue for her annual report for 2005. Finally, section III of the present report elaborates on guidelines for developing strategies for the effective implementation of international standards to end violence against women at the national level and proposes an intervention strategy with three interrelated levels, consisting of the State, the community, and the individual woman. While the State is bound by international human rights law, it is suggested that the human rights discourse at the level of the community and individual women needs to be complemented by a culture and an empowerment discourse, respectively. Section IV contains the conclusions of the report, highlighting the issues raised throughout the report that require further research and analysis. (excerpt)
Journal of Urban Health. 2008 Mar; 85(2):151-153.In the coming decades, the global population will urbanize and age at high rates. Today, half of the world's populations lives in cities.1 By 2030, that proportion will rise to 60%, and urbanization will occur most greatly in developing countries. At the same time, the world's population aged 60 and over will double from 11% to 22% by 2050, and that growth will be concentrated in urban areas in less developed countries. All of these trends challenge public health workers, doctors, researchers, and urban planners to ensure healthy livable cities for older people. (excerpt)
Migrants as transnational development agents: An inquiry into the newest round of the migration - development nexus.
Population, Space and Place. 2008; 14(1):21-42.Migrant networks and organisations have emerged as development agents. They interact with state institutions in flows of financial remittances, knowledge, and political ideas. In the discursive dimension, the new enthusiasm on the part of OECD states and international organisations, such as the World Bank, for migrant remittances, migrant associations and their role in development, is a sign of two trends which have coincided. Firstly, community as a principle of development has come to supplement principles of social order such as the market and the state. Secondly, in the current round of the migration-development nexus, migrants in general and transnational collective actors in particular have been constituted by states and international organisations as a significant agent. In the institutional dimension, agents such as hometown associations, networks of businesspersons, epistemic networks and political diasporas have emerged as collective actors. These formations are not unitary actors, and they are frequently in conflict with states and communities of origin. The analysis concludes with reflections of how national states structure the transnational spaces in which non-state actors are engaged in cross-border flows, leading towards a tight linkage between migration control, immigrant incorporation and development cooperation. (author's)
Do health sector reforms have their intended impacts? The World Bank's Health VIII project in Gansu province, China.
Journal of Health Economics. 2007 May; 26(3):505-535.This paper combines differences-in-differences with propensity score matching to estimate the impacts of a health reform project in China that combined supply-side interventions aimed at improving the effectiveness and quality of care with demand-side measures aimed at expanding health insurance and providing financial support to the very poor. Data from household, village and facility surveys suggest the project reduced out-of-pocket spending, and the incidence of catastrophic spending and impoverishment through health expenses. Little impact is detected on the use of services, and while the evidence points to the project reducing sickness days, the evidence on health outcomes is mixed. (author's)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25 Suppl 1:S60-S65.The World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) African site was Accra, Ghana. Its sample was drawn from 10 affluent residential areas where earlier research had demonstrated the presence of a child subpopulation with unconstrained growth. This subpopulation could be identified on the basis of the father's education and household income. The subjects for the longitudinal study were enrolled from 25 hospitals and delivery facilities that accounted for 80% of the study area's births. The cross-sectional sample was recruited at 117 day-care centers used by more than 80% of the targeted subpopulation. Public relations efforts were mounted to promote the study in the community. The large number of facilities involved in the longitudinal and cross-sectional components, the relatively large geographic area covered by the study, and the difficulties of working in a densely populated urban area presented special challenges. Conversely, the high rates of breastfeeding and general support for this practice greatly facilitated the implementation of the MGRS protocol. (author's)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25 Suppl 1:S53-S59.The World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) South American site was Pelotas, Brazil. The sample for the longitudinal component was drawn from three hospitals that account for approximately 90% of the city's deliveries. The cross-sectional sample was drawn from a community survey based on households that participated in the longitudinal sample. One of the criteria for site selection was the availability of a large, community based sample of children whose growth was unconstrained by socioeconomic conditions. Local work done in 1993 demonstrated that children of families with incomes at least six times the minimum wage had a stunting rate of 2.5%. Special public relations and implementation activities were designed to promote the acceptance of the study by the community and its successful completion. Among the major challenges of the site were serving as the MGRS pilot site, low baseline breastfeeding initiation and maintenance rates, and reluctance among pediatricians to acknowledge the relevance of current infant feeding recommendations to higher socioeconomic groups. (author's)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25 Suppl 1:S66-S71.The World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) Asian site was New Delhi, India. Its sample was drawn from 58 affluent neighborhoods in South Delhi. This community was selected to facilitate the recruitment of children who had at least one parent with 17 or more years of education, a key factor associated with unconstrained child growth in this setting. A door-to-door survey was conducted to identify pregnant women whose newborns were subsequently screened for eligibility for the longitudinal study, and children aged 18 to 71 months for the cross-sectional component of the study. A total of 111,084 households were visited over an 18-month period. Newborns were screened at birth at 73 sites. The large number of birthing facilities used by this community, the geographically extensive study area, and difficulties in securing support of pediatricians and obstetricians for the feeding recommendations of the study were among the unique challenges faced by the implementation of the MGRS protocol at this site. (author's)
Food and Nutrition Bulletin. 2004; 25 Suppl 1:S78-S83.The World Health Organization (WHO) Multicentre Growth Study (MGRS) Middle East site was Muscat, Oman. A survey in Muscat found that children in households with monthly incomes of at least 800 Omani Rials and at least four years of maternal education experienced unconstrained growth. The longitudinal study sample was recruited from two hospitals that account for over 90% of the city's births; the cross-sectional sample was drawn from the national Child Health Register. Residents of all districts in Muscat within the catchment area of the two hospitals were included except Quriyat, a remote district of the governorate. Among the particular challenges of the site were relatively high refusal rates, difficulty in securing adherence to the protocol's feeding recommendations, locating children selected for the cross-sectional component of the study, and securing the cooperation of the children's fathers. These and other challenges were overcome through specific team building and public relations activities that permitted the successful implementation of the MGRS protocol. (author's)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Education Sector, Division for the Promotion of Quality Education, Section for Education for an Improved Quality of Life, 2006. 38 p. (ED-2006/WS/13)This report presents the key points and recommendations that emerged over the course of a two day Technical Consultation on HIV and AIDS Treatment Education held in Paris, France, November 22-23, 2005. The Consultation was co-sponsored by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), and aimed to: Review the current status of treatment education at the global country and community levels and "take stock" of experiences, lessons learned, and good practices in treatment education; Identify needs in the realm of treatment education, with a focus at this Consultation on treatment literacy and community preparedness; Develop an action framework with key priorities for work in the near future for the various partners, including UN agencies, national authorities and civil society, taking into consideration the value added of each and encouraging joint programming; and Identify how the UNESCO-led EDUCAIDS Initiative and the UNAIDS-led campaign on «Universal Access to Prevention, Treatment and Care» can contribute to treatment education. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 2005 Jun.  p.This evaluation does not re-investigate the lessons and conclusions already acknowledged and documented during the past decades. It begins from the perspective that: (a) community ownership improves planning and performance of AIDS programmes, leading to improved population and individual health status; (b) governments and civil society can play a significant role in promoting community ownership; and (c) The joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), including UNHCR, UNICEF, WFP, UNDP, UNFPA, UNODC, ILO, UNESCO, WHO, and the World Bank, can play a significant role in developing the agenda for community ownership of programmes. This evaluation measures the effectiveness and efficiency of the AIDS Competence Programme's process and outcomes. The evaluation's approach relies both on methods used in AIDS programme evaluations, and accepted sociological evaluation methods that define community capacity or the individual capacity (i.e., economic, social, pedagogical and politically related outcomes). The AIDS Competence Programme's potential to achieve impact is also examined. It should be noted that the evaluation of specific community interventions where the AIDS Competence Programme is used, e.g., in prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes, and the evaluation of the global AIDS Competence Programme follow significantly different approaches, as outlined later in this report. (excerpt)
Adolescence Education Newsletter. 2004 Dec; 7(2):19-20.For three years (2001-2003), the approach was pilot-tested in two sites (Kamasakit, Dallah Township and Sarmalauk, Nyaungdone Township), giving rise to a number of communityoperated youth centres. The lessons from these pilot tests were described in a new publication by the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team in Bangkok: The crucial support of community leaders was key to the community-based approach. Advocacy was carried out in the initial stage of implementation with activities targeting both national and local leaders and influencers. Activities were implemented regularly in the form of meetings, orientation and training sessions, participatory training workshops and site visits from high-level officials. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 1997 Apr.  p. (UNAIDS Best Practice Collection; UNAIDS Technical Update)UNAIDS understands a "mobilized community" to have most or all of the following characteristics: members are aware -- in a detailed and realistic way -- of their individual and collective vulnerability to HIV/AIDS; members are motivated to do something about this vulnerability; members have practical knowledge of the different options they can take to reduce their vulnerability; members take action within their capability, applying their own strengths and investing their own resources -- including money, labour, materials or whatever else they have to contribute; members participate in decision-making on what actions to take, evaluate the results, and take responsibility for both success and failure; the community seeks outside assistance and cooperation when needed. (excerpt)
Practical steps to implement shelter strategy taken by Human Settlements Commission - Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000.
UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..The first practical steps to implement the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000, the United Nations blueprint to help solve the alarming world-wide housing crisis, were taken at the twelfth session of the Commission on Human Settlements. Some 350 delegates from 85 countries, meeting in the Colombian seaside town of Cartagena de Indias, agreed on ways to promote and monitor the Strategy, which aims to improve the deteriorating shelter situation throughout the world by the end of this century. Unanimously adopted by the General Assembly on 20 December 1988, the document strongly advocates a wide-ranging social mobilization, rather than exclusive Government intervention, to solve the global housing crisis. It focuses on the disadvantaged and the poor, and stresses the full participation of women. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1990 Mar; 27(1): p..The Year will highlight global awareness of family issues and the improvement of national mechanisms directed at tackling serious family-related problems. Also on 8 December, the Assembly commemorated (44/57) the 20th anniversary of the proclamation in 1969 of the Declaration on Social Progress and Development. The Assembly asked (44/70) for increased international co-operation to implement the World Programme of Action for the UN Decade of Disabled Persons 1983-1992. Margaret J. Anstee, Director-General of the UN Office at Vienna, warned that by the end of the century, the number of disabled people would have risen to 30 to 40 per cent of the population of some countries. (excerpt)
Chinese Primary Health Care. 2000; 14(9):11-14.To set up the research priorities for the broader reproductive health programmes, the World Health Organization (WHO) has given a high priority to planning and programming for reproductive health, which aims at improvement of the delivery of reproductive health services. In 1998, with a financing support by Ford Foundation, the Foreign Loan Office of the China Ministry of Health (MoH) initiated a program in poor rural areas of China entitled reproductive health improvement project (RHIP) in 4 of the 71 World Bank/MoH of China "Health VIII Project" Counties. This paper reports the approaches and entry points of RHIP: (1) Participatory planning; (2) Operations research; and (3) Listening to women's voice at the rural communities. It is expected that these approaches and entry points will be useful for improvement of reproductive health services in other rural areas of China. (author's)
Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1): p..The Women’s Commission of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions (CCRE) in 2004 surveyed municipalities across the European Union to find out whether there were any truly women-friendly cities. No ideal city was found. But they did find many exemplary towns and cities, many with municipal gender policies. The CCRE then asked its national associations to help compile an inventory of best practices. Outlined below are three conditions, which were used for the survey, with examples of towns and cities that are among some 100 on the list of Best Practices. At the pan-European level, the Community programme supporting twinning between towns stipulates respect for gender equality as a prerequisite for financial support from the European Union’s executive arm, the European Commission. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2005 Sep; 11(3):19.Leo Tolstoy famously wrote that all happy families are alike, but each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. If the same can be said about dysfunctional cities, we must be prepared to deal with the unique micro-realities of each ailing community. This can only be done practically by encouraging residents to engage in a form of therapy that begins with local self-discovery. This must be a central aim in monitoring the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In an economically pressurized world where more than 95 percent of all development decisions are made by members of civil society, each acting more or less in their own self-interest, central coordinative systems of governance are failing. Squatters and slumlords everywhere make their choices outside the world of plans and regulations, as do an increasing number of small-scale entrepreneurs. This self-interest promotes unsustainable urban development, inhibiting a cooperative vision for the future that the complex urban ecology demands. The collective future is no-one’s baby and in effect has become an orphan. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2005 Mar; 11(1): p..Cities, towns and villages have not been a priority for women’s action in the last decade. Is this because the Beijing Platform for Action was weak in addressing problems that women face daily where they live and work in human settlements? In the next 10 years, women activists and decision-makers should focus more on the living environment as it affects urban poor women, especially the homeless and slum dwellers. Promoting gender equality, the advancement of women and improving the living environment has never been easy. Moreover, there is some misunderstanding of what the terms human settlements and gender mainstreaming are all about. But this has been addressed in the Habitat Agenda, Beijing Platform for Action, the Declaration of Cities in the New Millennium and other UN documents respectively. Nevertheless, Ms. Jan Peterson, Chair of Huairou Commission, a leading umbrella organisation for grassroots women’s organizations working at community level to improve homes and communities, has on a number of occasions stated that gender mainstreaming as a strategy has in fact hidden women and their concerns and that we should go back to emphasize women. (excerpt)
Habitat Debate. 2002 Dec; 8(4): p..During the darkest days of the Taliban, when women were publicly executed for the most innocent “crimes” and when the gun was the only means of law enforcement, a silent revolution was taking place in cities and towns across Afghanistan. Since 1995, over 80 community-based organizations — many managed by women — in Kabul, Mazar-e-Sharif, Bamyan, Heart, Kandahar, Panjshir and Farah — have been running schools, health clinics and business enterprises, thereby providing a unique system of local self-governance in an extremely difficult and complex environment characterized by violence, fear and intimidation. “Our biggest challenge when we started this community development project was to get women involved in the community meetings,” says Samantha Reynolds, UNHABITAT’s Chief Technical Adviser to Afghanistan. “In consultation after consultation I became increasingly frustrated by the fact that there were no women present.” Ms. Reynolds was invariably the only woman in these meetings. (excerpt)
Africa Recovery. 2004 Apr; 18(1): p..On Senegal's tiny island of Gorée, residents are trying to make several of the objectives in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a reality. A UN-led initiative adopted by the international community in 2000, the MDGs comprise eight specific development targets to be achieved globally by the year 2015, including halving the number of people living in poverty. Located about 20 minutes by boat off the coast of mainland Senegal, Gorée has a population of around 1,500. It was one of the busiest ports during the trans-Atlantic slave trade and is one of Senegal's main tourist attractions. Despite this distinction, Gorée is basically a poor island with few services. Two years ago community residents held a public discussion to develop their vision for the island. Among other things, they projected enrolling in pre-school all children between ages 3 and 5 by 2005 and ensuring that everyone working has "an authorized job," that is, steady employment. They have been making some progress. Thanks to increased parental involvement and some financial donations to help defray school fees, nearly all the island's 200 or so children in the age range are now enrolled. Efforts are under way to create new businesses and help existing ventures, such as restaurants and artistic services that cater to the tourist trade. (excerpt)
Listening to those working with communities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America to achieve the UN goals for water and sanitation.
Geneva, Switzerland, WSSCC, . 80 p.The traditional top-down methods for providing water and sanitation services in poor communities of the developing world have not been successful in reaching out to all. Despite decades of effort and billions of dollars, 1 billion people still lack safe water and almost 2.5 billion lack safe sanitation. The time has therefore come to re-orient national and international efforts in support of a different approach. ‘LISTENING’ is about that new approach. It is an approach which has learnt from the failures of the past and begun to achieve well-documented successes of its own. But it is an approach that is not yet universally accepted because of the many vested interests that stand in its way. In brief, decentralisation and empowerment of people and communities to enable them to take more control of their own lives and to support them in achieving their own development goals must be the method and the aim. But this does not mean that the responsibility to mobilise additional resources for the poor, and to create an enabling environment within which they can move forward, should be abandoned. In fact the responsibility for initiating and supporting community-led approaches means an even greater and more demanding role for government. ‘LISTENING’ attempts to bring these lessons – through the voices of many of those who have been most closely involved – to a wider international audience. (excerpt)
Development. 2004; 47(2):36-42.Manisha Desai looks at the international women's health movement (IWHM). She argues that changing gender relations have engendered the discourse of global health and raised the particular concern of women's health to the forefront of discussions about health. At the same time, because of IWHM the globalization of health and disease have also become pathways to changed gender relations that have led to community level changes in norms and practices that reproduce gender inequalities. (author's)
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1998 Jul-Sep; 4(3):398-403.A recent upsurge of malaria in endemic-disease areas with explosive epidemics in many parts of Africa is probably caused by many factors, including rapidly spreading resistance to antimalarial drugs, climatic changes, and population movements. In Africa, malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum and is transmitted by Anopheles gambiae complex. Control efforts have been piecemeal and not coordinated. Strategies for control should have a solid research base both for developing antimalarial drugs and vaccines and for better understanding the pathogenesis, vector dynamics, epidemiology, and socioeconomic aspects of the disease. An international collaborative approach is needed to build appropriate research in a national context and to effectively translate research results into practical applications in the field. The Multilateral Initiative for Malaria in Africa can combine all of the above strategies to plan and coordinate partnerships, networking, and innovative approaches between African scientists and their Northern partners. (author's)