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Washington, D.C., PAHO, 2017. 38 p.This document provides technical content on ZIKV, its manifestations, complications, modes of transmission, and prevention measures to be used in answering frequently asked questions and conveying messages in information and communication materials, community talks, press conferences, etc. Recommendations for the preparation of risk communication and action plans to respond to ZIKV are included. This guide to activities and recommendations for managing risk communication on ZIKV is designed for spokespersons, health authorities and health workers, other sectors, and partners inside and outside the health sector to assist them in tailoring communication initiatives to the needs of each country and target audience. The elimination of mosquito breeding sites remains the most important strategy for the prevention and control of ZIKV (as well as dengue and chikungunya) infection. Therefore, communication plans for the response to ZIKV should include intersectoral action and community engagement to modify behaviors and encourage sustained practices to eliminate breeding sites and control the mosquito, as well as to inform and educate target audiences about the steps they can take to prevent ZIKV transmission. The fourth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations agreed that, “due to continuing geographic expansion and considerable gaps in understanding of the virus and its consequences, Zika virus infection and its associated congenital malformations and other related neurological disorders, ZIKV continues to be a public health emergency of intenational concern.
Consultation on strategic information and HIV prevention among most-at-risk adolescents. 2-4 September 2009, Geneva. Consultation report.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2010. 65 p.The Consultation on Strategic Information and HIV Prevention among Most-at-Risk Adolescents (MARA) focused on experiences in countries where HIV infection is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), injecting drug users (IDUs), and those who sell sex. The meeting facilitated the exchange of information across regions on country-level data collection regarding MARA; identified ways to use strategic information to improve HIV prevention among MARA; and suggested ways to build support for MARA programming among decision-makers.
Repositioning family planning: Guidelines for advocacy action. Le repositionnement de la planification familiale: Directives pour actions de plaidoyer.
Washington, D.C., Academy for Educational Development [AED], 2008. 64 p.Countries throughout Africa are engaged in an important initiative to reposition family planning as a priority on their national and local agendas. Provision of family planning services in Africa is hindered by poverty, poor access to services and commodities, conflicts, poor coordination of the programmes, and dwindling donor funding. Although family planning enhances efforts to improve health and accelerate development, shifting international priorities, health sector reform, the HIV/AIDS crisis, and other factors have affected its importance in recent years. Traditional beliefs favouring high fertility, religious barriers, and lack of male involvement have weakened family planning interventions. The combination of these factors has led to low contraceptive use, high fertility rates in many countries, and high unmet needs for family planning throughout the region. Family planning advocates must take action to change this situation. Family planning, considered an essential component of primary health care and reproductive health, plays a major role in reducing maternal and newborn morbidity and mortality and transmission of HIV. It contributes to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals and the targets of the Health-for-All Policy for the 21st century in the Africa Region: Agenda 2020. In recognition of its importance, the World Health Organisation Regional Office for Africa developed a framework (2005-014) for accelerated action to reposition family planning on national agendas and in reproductive health services, which was adopted by African ministers of health in 2004. The framework calls for increase in efforts to advocate for recognition of "the pivotal role of family planning" in achieving health and development objectives at all levels. This toolkit aims to help those working in family planning across Africa to effectively advocate for renewed emphasis on family planning to enhance the visibility, availability, and quality of family planning services for increased contraceptive use and healthy timing and spacing of births, and ultimately, improved quality of life across the region. It was developed in response to requests from several countries to assist them in accelerating their family planning advocacy efforts.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007. 51 p. (World Bank Working Paper No. 120)The UN Millennium Development Goals call for not only greater financial commitment in international assistance programs but also innovative strategies to tackle the serious economic, health, education, and other basic human rights problems in the developing world. This paper is organized as follows: Chapter 2 is an overview of key theoretical models of development communication. Chapter 3 describes the characteristic patterns of recent empirical studies in development communication in terms of theoretical models and types of communication strategies. Chapter 4 presents some outstanding evidence of the impacts of communication on development initiatives. Chapter 5 discusses weak spots in the evidence. The concluding chapter will make suggestions for further research by drawing attention to the theoretical, methodological and empirical gaps in the existing academic research in development communication.
Journal of Health Communication. 2007; 12(8):705-706.Global health seems to be more firmly established, with a variety of organizations, professional publications, governments and foundations increasing the emphasis. Some of the increase in awareness can be attributed to recent concerns of health security- avian flu, SARS, bioterrorism, MDR-TB-as well as the moral imperatives to address the inequalities pervasive in the 21st Century. In the past five years alone, aid for health as more than doubled. Yet, there is a clouded leadership and approach-there is one truly global health organization-the World Health Organization with 191 member states. Yet, there are over 90 global health agencies, 40 bilateral donors, 26 UN agencies, and 20 global and regional funds. Countless foundations and others have entered the fray-some employing evidence informed approaches, with others based on ideology and multiple sources for engagement. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation has a budget dwarfing many governments as well as multilateral institutions dedicated to health. The Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) have helped galvanize and provide funding for specific diseases. Recently, the new UK Prime Minister Gordon Brown launched the International Health Partnership, another initiative to accelerate progress on health globally. (excerpt)
International Communication Gazette. 2007; 69(6):483-507.In the UN system, conflicts and contradictions seldom concern the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as such, but rather the means of achieving them. These differences of opinion about priorities, and about how much and to whom development aid or assistance should be directed, could be explained by analysing the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions underpinning the general perspectives in the communication for development (C4D) field. Theoretical changes in the perspective on development communication (modernization, dependency, multiplicity) have also reached the level of policy-makers. As a result, different methodologies and terminologies have evolved, which often make it difficult for agencies, even though they share a common commitment to the overall goals of development communication, to identify common ground, arrive at a full understanding of each other's objectives, or to cooperate effectively in operational projects. Consequently, it is difficult for development organizations in general and UN agencies in particular to reach a common approach and strategy. (author's)
Journal of Black Studies. 2002; 32(6):615-653.The HIV/AIDS pandemic has afflicted Africa more than any other region of the world. In the United States, the AIDS scourge has disproportionately affected African American communities. In their tragic experiences with HIV/AIDS, both African states and African American communities can benefit from the new communication framework that the United Nations Global AIDS Programme and the Pennsylvania State University have developed to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The framework contains five universal values that are recommended for AIDS intervention programs across the world. The five values are incorporation of government policies, socioeconomic status, culture, gender issues, and spirituality. There are six additional values, two of which apply uniquely to each of the three world regions of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. For Africa, the two unique values are community-based approaches and regional cooperation. The situation in Africa presents valuable lessons for African Americans in the United States. (author's)
Communication for immunization campaigns for maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination. A guide to mobilizing demand and increasing coverage.
Washington, D.C., Save the Children, Saving Newborn Lives, 2006.  p. (Saving Newborn Lives: Tools for Newborn Health)The purpose of this guide is to describe how to design and carry out a social mobilization program to create demand and increase participation during immunization campaigns and routine immunizations, and thereby improve the health of communities in developing countries. The approach described here was developed and used by the Saving Newborn Lives initiative (SNL) of Save the Children/USA in maternal and neonatal tetanus (MNT) immunization campaigns in Ethiopia, Mali, and Pakistan. Communication and social mobilization activities helped these countries achieve high coverage by building community demand. This guide has collected the best practices and lessons learned from designing and carrying out the campaigns, focusing on communication activities, and presents these lessons here so they can be used in other immunization programs for women and children. (excerpt)
Ford Foundation and Elton John AIDS Foundation join Caribbean broadcasters and the Kaiser Family Foundation to advance the Caribbean Broadcast Media Partnership on HIV / AIDS, as part of a global mobilization of media. Partnership includes regional PSA campaign, HIV-themed programming, and other informational resources.
Toronto, Canada, Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 2006 Aug 16. 2 p.Today, the Ford Foundation and Elton John AIDS Foundation announced they would be joining the Kaiser Family Foundation in together providing one million USD to support the operations of the Caribbean Broadcast Media Partnership on HIV/AIDS, the region's first media-led initiative on HIV/AIDS. Kaiser, which helped initiate and create the Partnership, will also provide ongoing operational and public health expertise. The Partnership -- which responds to U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan's call-to-action to media under the Global Media AIDS Initiative (GMAI) -- promotes collaboration and leverages resources among media in the region with the goal of expanding AIDS programming. The Caribbean region has the highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in the world outside sub-Saharan Africa. According to the latest UNAIDS statistics, AIDS is now the leading cause of death among adults in the region ages 15-44 years. Stigma and homophobia have been identified as major contributors to the spread of HIV/AIDS in the region. (excerpt)
New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], . 70 p.Achieving gender equality and equity through the empowerment of women is a crucial strategic goal of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). As population and development thinking has evolved to include a sound understanding of gender, so, too, have the UNFPA mandate, policies, programmes and organizational structure. Numerous publications and training materials produced by UNFPA organizational units have aimed at facilitating an understanding of gender-related concepts. Yet, the subject of gender remains challenging for UNFPA staff. Many reviews and evaluations mention the need for more clarity and practical guidance on gender mainstreaming (see glossary) in programming. This assessment set out to help meet that need. Its objectives were as follows: To assess the quality, packaging and design of gender-related messages being communicated to UNFPA staff; To assess the utility and utilization of these materials by interviewing stakeholders in UNFPA headquarters and the field; To identify good practices to improve the communication of gender concepts and their mainstreaming into all UNFPA materials; and To promote a common understanding of what should be done at the organizational level to institutionalize strengths and achievements in current practice. (excerpt)
Cambridge, Massachusetts, Management Sciences for Health [MSH], Guinea PRISM II Project, 2005 Oct. 59 p. (Development Experience Clearinghouse DocID / Order No: PD-ACH-471; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. 675-A-00-03-00037-00)The PRISM project (Pour Renforcer les Interventions en Santé Reproductive et MST/SIDA) is an initiative of the Republic of Guinea as part of its bilateral cooperation with the United States of America designed to increase the utilization of quality reproductive health services. The project is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and is implemented by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) in collaboration with the John Hopkins University/Center for Communication Programs (JHU/CCP) and Engenderhealth. The project's intervention zones correspond to the natural region of Upper Guinea as well as Kissidougou prefecture, thus covering all of the 9 prefectures of Kankan and Faranah administrative regions. This annual report covers the activities and results of PRISM over the fiscal year 2005, October 1, 2004 to September 30, 2005. Like all of PRISM's activity reports, the present report is structured according to the 4 intermediate result areas: (1) increased access to reproductive health services and products, (2) improved quality of services at health facilities, (3) increased demand of reproductive health services and products (4) improved coordination of health interventions. The report consists of three parts. The first part presents the introduction, an executive summary, and the summary of the principal results attained over the course of the year in each of the four intermediate results (IR). The second part presents in detail for each IR the project's strategies and approaches, the implemented activities and the results attained over the course of the year. The third part presents the operational aspects having had an impact on the project over the course of the year. (excerpt)
HIV / AIDS and Communication for Behaviour and Social Change: Programme Experiences, Examples, and the Way Forward. International Workshop, UNAIDS, Dept. of Policy, Strategy and Research, Geneva, Switzerland, July 25 to 27, 2000.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2001 Jun. 65 p. (UNAIDS/01.39E)The present report synthesises the deliberations of a workshop on "Communication for Behaviour and Social Change: Programme Experiences, Examples, and the Way Forward", organised by UNAIDS' Department of Policy, Strategy and Research (PSR) and the Secretariat of the International Partnership Against AIDS in Africa (IPAA) in Geneva in July, 2000. The workshop's objectives were (1) to map out strategies for implementation of communication programmes for behaviour and social change, using newly-emerging directions from UNAIDS, Co-sponsors, and other organisations, (2) to strengthen linkages between communication programmes and priority issues in HIV/AIDS in developing countries, and (3) to increase technical soundness in communication programmes, projects, and strategies of organisations working in the realm of HIV/AIDS. Some 67 participants with responsibility for communication-related programmes from UNAIDS, its Co-sponsors, other UN agencies, and other international, regional and in-country organisations, including policy-makers, programme managers, technical advisors, scholars, and Foundation officials participated in the workshop. (excerpt)
Committing to results: improving the effectiveness of HIV / AIDS assistance. An OED evaluation of the World Bank's assistance for HIV / AIDS control.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Operations Evaluation Department, 2005.  p. (Operations Evaluation Studies)The global AIDS epidemic has profoundly affected the quality of life and progress toward poverty alleviation in many of the poorest developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Since the late 1980s, but particularly over the past decade, the World Bank has launched efforts to prevent HIV/AIDS and to mitigate its impact through participation in global programs; financing analytic work; engaging in policy dialogue; and providing loans, credits, and grants for HIV/AIDS projects. As of June 2004, the World Bank had committed $2.46 billion in credits, grants, and loans to 62 low- and middle-income countries for 106 projects to prevent, treat, and mitigate the impact of HIV/AIDS, of which about $1 billion had been disbursed. (excerpt)
UN Chronicle. 1987 Aug; 24: p..Reducing by half the rates of infant and child deaths by the year 2000 was among the targets set for the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) by its 41-member Executive Board at its 1987 session. The Board, in endorsing the programme objectives of its 1986-1990 medium-term plan, asked the Fund to give continued priority in both rural and urban areas to the "Child Survival and Development Revolution"--an initiative undertaken by UNICEF in 1983--through such measures as child immunization, oral rehydration therapy and diarrhoeal management, promotion of breast-feeding, improved nutrition and health education, and birth-spacing. The Fund should "work towards the retention of the child and its needs on the political agenda'. Special attention should be given to actions directed against the "causal roots of child and infant mortality'. Basic services should be stressed and child survival and development activities should be integrated into primary health care systems. (excerpt)
Global AIDSLink. 2003 Apr-May; (79):12-13.The media plays a unique role within society either to denounce or to perpetuate the bias and moral judgments against people with HIV/AIDS. Sometimes journalists can underestimate how influential their portrayal of HIV/AIDS is in shaping people's attitudes, especially when society fails to distinguish between people and the disease they suffer from; when denial is so pervasive that the infected are ostracized by their families. In addition, reporters, editors and producers constantly grapple with ways to find fresh angles to discuss HIV, and ensure their viewers and readers remain engaged by a topic that never appears to grow old. To address these and other key topics concerning the media and its treatment of HIV/AIDS, the World Bank organized a distance-learning course from June to November 2002 that simultaneously brought together journalists and HIV/AIDS project managers from Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Nigeria and Malawi. The course, entitled Fighting the HIV/AIDS Pandemic through Information and Strategic Communication, recognizes the role that successful communication campaigns can play in increasing understanding of the disease and promoting life-saving behaviors. Each program stream consisted of eight video-conferenced modules, which were followed up through in-country work. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004 Mar. 2 p. (Brief)Young people (10-24 years) are at the centre of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in terms of transmission, impact, vulnerability and potential for change. They are an important group for where the virus is, and also for where the virus is going. Despite the fact that there is now good consensus about what needs to be done, it is estimated that more than 2 million young people continue to become infected with HIV every year, two thirds of them female. Young people form a large percentage of particularly vulnerable groups, such as injecting drug users and sex workers. They represent a significant proportion of the parents of the estimated 2000 children who are infected every day through vertical transmission, and a large percentage of AIDS orphans are adolescents. Global goals and targets on HIV/AIDS among 15-24 year olds provide direction in relation to impact (decreasing prevalence), the coverage of key interventions (increasing young people’s access to information, skills and services), and decreasing young people’s vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. These goals have been endorsed at the ICPD+5 and the UN General Assembly Special Sessions on AIDS and Children, and are reflected in the Millennium Development Goals. There is a clear need for an expanded response to achieve these ambitious goals and targets, and this will necessitate different sectors strengthening their own specific contributions. (excerpt)
In: Towards adulthood: exploring the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents in South Asia, edited by Sarah Bott, Shireen Jejeebhoy, Iqbal Shah, Chander Puri. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2003. 223-226.Representatives from governments, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international agencies participated in a panel discussion entitled “Enhancing Adolescents’ Reproductive Health: Strategies and Challenges”, moderated by Dr Iqbal Shah. The objective of this discussion was to share information about adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) programmes from different sectors and different countries. Panellists were asked to draw from their personal and institutional experiences in discussing strategies and approaches used by ASRH programmes, as well as challenges and opportunities confronting those who work in this area. Panellists included government representatives from India, Nepal and Sri Lanka, as well as NGO representatives from Bangladesh and Pakistan, and representatives from international agencies with a wide regional presence, including UNAIDS (the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS) and the World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia (WHO/ SEARO). (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2003.  p.This manual is designed to assist national UNFPA officers in planning, designing, implementing and evaluating communication interventions for HIV prevention among adolescents that integrate advocacy, behaviour change communication and education with other policy and service components. The manual provides a series of checklists to guide the programme or project officer in addressing key questions related evidenced-based communication programming for HIV prevention among adolescents. The checklists follow a stepwise decision-making process and serve as menus of options to conduct thorough needs assessments, analyse programmatic responses, and handle strategic programming decisions. The first chapter sets the tone in relation to UNFPA’s support at the county level. It describes the three main communication approaches, HIV prevention, adolescent reproductive health, and explains how they relate to the UNFPA programming cycle. The second and third chapters review the situation of HIV among adolescents from the viewpoint of their priority needs and government policies and intended response. Beneficiary needs and state policies become the set of priority issues that communication will need to address. The fourth chapter assesses the ability of organizations involved in HIV prevention among youths to identify needs for capacity development and to help UNFPA determine its role vis-à-vis implementing partners. The fifth chapter compiles a set of desirable programme results in advocacy, behaviour change communication and education that focus on HIV prevention among young people. It also provides tips for selecting among them. The sixth chapter provides information and suggestions for selecting the communication strategy that will be most effective, based on assessed adolescent communication and health needs. The seventh chapter reviews issues to strengthen partnerships, management and coordination in programme implementation. Chapter eight provides tips and tools for monitoring and evaluating processes and outcomes. (author's)
In: Programming for male involvement in reproductive health. Report of the meeting of WHO Regional Advisers in Reproductive Health, WHO / PAHO, Washington DC, USA, 5-7 September 2001. Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2002. 85-87. (WHO/FCH/RHR/02.3)The World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa has identified reproductive health as a priority area in the delivery of health care services in the African region. This is in response to the persistently high levels of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The long-term vision of the Organization in the region on reproductive health is to ensure that every woman goes safely through pregnancy and childbirth and infants are born alive and healthy. In pursuance of this vision, the reproductive health strategy for the African region was developed in 1998. The strategy is aimed at assisting member states and partners to identify priorities and plan their programmes and interventions at various levels, particularly at the district level. Male involvement and participation is one of the strategic directions of the reproductive health strategy for the African region. The opportunities and challenges for the involvement of men in reproductive health programmes in the African region are described and the future perspectives highlighted. (author's)
Rwanda Population and Development Review. 2003 Jun; (38):21-27.Although pockets of understanding and experience exist in Rwanda, the term sustainable development is sometimes unknown, or misunderstood. Sustainable development will not happen until its concepts and practices are better understood and more widely accepted. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 2002. 86 p.This document gives an overview of the issues debated at the Eighth Roundtable on Communication for Development. This biannual event represents an opportunity for UN agencies, other international organisations, donors and senior communication practitioners from different regions and backgrounds to share information and experience, coordinate efforts and add to the growing knowledge base within Communication for Development. As the “voice” of the meeting, this report will be shared with donors, policy-makers, academics and practitioners in the hope that the lessons and experience from this forum can benefit the broader development community. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1994. ix, 59 p. (Rapport d'Evaluation No. 7)This evaluation was made at the request of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) with the goal of evaluating strategies of information, education and communication (IEC) in support of the Family Planning Program (FP) financed by this organization, in order to improve the planning and implementation of future strategies. This evaluation took into consideration a broad number of projects implemented in different countries and regions, and separated them into two categories. The first category includes projects regarding FP or an IEC component (integrated approach); the second category includes projects that refer exclusively to IEC (independent approach). Generally speaking, those projects contributed to raising the level of knowledge about the utilization of family planning methods. In every country we visited, we found a difference between the level of knowledge, which is relatively satisfactory, and the level of practice, which is weaker. The analysis of performances per type of configuration shows that the projects with an IEC integrated component reinforce the capacity of the services to accomplish their functions by giving them resources and necessary means, elaborating tools and methods of investigation, realization and evaluation. The knowledge and the use of FP services are amplified by the information, the sensitization and the education of the populations. The intersectorial and multi-disciplinary coordination of the participants involved in the performance and the IEC activities is even better because this coordination takes place in an environment that integrates MCH (Maternal and Child Health)/ FP/ IEC services. (excerpt)
London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 2001 Jul. 61 p.This document offers a framework for achieving an effective advocacy campaign in the field of SRH by family planning associations, the International Planned Parenthood Federation, and other nongovernmental organizations.
In: Population studies (lectures on population education), [compiled by] Sri Venkateswara University. Population Studies Centre. Tirupati, India, Sri Venkateswara University, Population Studies Centre, 1979. 81-90.In this paper, communication strategies adopted in conveying population education in India are discussed. It briefly discusses the virtual explosion of population in the country, termed as “populosion”. Finally, the five sectors of communication strategy in the Indian context are presented, namely: audience, message, communicators, media, and behavioral change.