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  1. 1

    [Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.

    Senegal. Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation

    Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)

    This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
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  2. 2

    Comparative results of UNFPA evaluations.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1986 May. [3], 27 p.

    In response to a request from the Governing Council of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) the Evaluation Branch at UNFPA reviewed evaluations undertaken between 1979-85 (covering over 70 projects) by independent consultants on maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) and the status of women. Under Technical Cooperation Among Developing Countries (TCDC) it was suggested that Democratic Yemen draw on a field manual prepared for field health workers in Swaziland; Mozambique utilize a training program in administration of MCH/FP services developed in Colombia; and other African countries capitalize from the Kenya project in vital statistics and civil registration. The work plan category of basic data collection accounted for 15.4% of all UNFPA project expenditures in 1969-84. The 1979 evaluation of the African Census Programme (ACP) covered experience in 7 country projects. Reports on civil registration and vital statistics projects in Africa were based on in-depth evaluations in Kenya and Sierra Leone and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. Village chiefs and traditional birth attendants provided information for an active registration system. MCH/FP project accounted for 44% of UNFPA expenditures in 1979-84. The UNFPA budgetary contribution to training averaged less than 10%. Population education and communication (PEC) projects amounted to about 12% of UNFPA project expenditures in 1979-84. 11 independent evaluations and 4 internal evaluations were carried out covering more than 40 PEC projects in more than 20 countries as well as those of the Regional Advisory Teams in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Bangladesh and Democratic Yemen population topics featured primary and secondary schools for dropouts. Projects on the role and status of women facilitated women's participation in population programs (Indonesia and Nepal) and in UNFPA-supported country programs (Democratic Yemen, Haiti, Indonesia, and Rwanda). This role was examined in Democratic Yemen, Haiti, Indonesia, and Rwanda indicating that the project documents lacked an assessment of women's needs. The Indonesian Women, Population and Development projects succeeded in helping women earn more income and improve welfare of their families. The women's projects in Nepal somewhat improved women's access to paid employment and to agricultural extension services.
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  3. 3

    Developing communication strategies and programs: a systematic approach.

    Elkamel F

    Amman, Jordan, UNICEF, Middle East and North Africa Region, 1986 Feb 28. xi, 98 p.

    This handbook is intended help improve the effectiveness of development programs through the appropriate use of communication and social marketing strategies and techniques. UNICEF developed the handbook in order to better utilize communication and social marketing in the achievement of Child Survival and Development goals. The handbook has 3 functional uses: it can serve as a guide for planning and implementing development programs; it can be used as an evaluation and monitoring tool by both program administrators or outside evaluators; and it can serve as a textbook in training workshops designed to improve communication skills -- particularly with respect to public health issues. The handbook begins with an conceptual discussion of communication and social marketing. The handbook then provides 10 interdependent modules involved in the development of a communication or social marketing program: problem identification, audience analysis, examining social factors, identifying obstacles, setting objectives, developing a strategy, material production, pretest and piloting, launching and monitoring, and evaluation. Additionally, the handbook contains the following appendices that can be useful in fulfilling one the handbook's 3 functions: exercises, a sample of a survey questionnaire, a sample of a pretest questionnaire, a sample of a moderator's guide for a focus-only group, request for proposals, a sample request for proposals, a sample of a proposal evaluation sheet, audit of evaluation research, an assessment checklist for research and evaluation reports or proposals, a checklist of contract provisions, media selection and mix matrix, and other additional aids.
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  4. 4

    Training in management of population communication programmes.

    Mathur KB; Bhatia B

    [Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the ICOMP Biennial International Conference, San Jose, Costa Rica, May 1-4, 1986. 11, [1] p.

    Communication is a basic part of population and development programs and is necessary to ensure that people participate and improve their quality of life. The management of the communication process in these programs requires not only knowledge and comprehension of the process, but also the structure of media and local organizations. The direction of management has shifted from a vertical to a horizontal communication structure. To be an effective manager, the following traits are needed: The ability to understand policy, develop strategies, provide and seek support, produce unique messages, make media choices, mobilize personnel, prepare training activities and work plans, and be able to implement research. The skills needed are the ability to foresee and act on problems, communicate and listen effectively, motivate and persuade, and adapt to changing demands of a program. Based on these and other needs a 2 week pilot training program was developed containing 3 modules. After evaluation of the pilot program the course was lengthened to 3 weeks with additional time for special needs asked for by the students. Unesco together with the Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development developed courses in the management of population communication programs and also with the Arab States Broadcasting Union. These programs are the beginning of an integrated effort for population and development management training.
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  5. 5

    Features of the 1982 China census from international standpoint.

    Kannisto V

    In: A census of one billion people. Papers for International Seminar on China's 1982 Population Census, edited by Li Chengrui. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1986. 37-52.

    This paper examines how the 1982 China census met the standards prevalent in the world at large and formulated by the international community into recommendations under UN guidance. It also examines to what extent the China census met the recommendations, what alternatives were adopted and why, and what methods it used to carry them out. China's 1982 census met the criteria of individual enumeration, universality, simultaneity, and defined periodicity. The 1982 census was a register-based de jure census in which the field interview and its checks determined the final content of census information. It was necesary to restrict the number of census questions to fewer than would have been desirable. The questionnaire included 5 household and 13 individual topics. Questions on live births and deaths in the household since 1981 were included, although not generally recommended. Age data is unusually accurate due to people's awareness of what animal sign they were born under. Housing questions were not asked in this census, but may be included in the next census. Sampling was used only in the small-scale post-enumeration survey. In China, the administrative network is so complete and reaches down to so small a unit that no further subdivision for census purposes is needed at all. A most unconventional feature of the censuses of China has been the virtually complete absence of mapping. An extensive program of 4887 pilot censuses ensured the success of the full census. The publicity effort involved 2-way communication from the national office to the public and back. The issue of confidentiality was felt to be problematical in China and best solved by not asking questions that people would be reluctant to answer. The method of enumeration differed greatly from the usual ones in that it centered on enumeration stations with home visits used to a lesser extent. Several questions were precoded, but the enumerator had to write in the number as well as circle the correct item. 10% advance tabulations were made for all units and found to be very representative.
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