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SARA: a role model for girls as they face HIV and AIDS in Africa. A review of the Sara Communication Initiative.
Accra, Ghana, UNICEF, . 92 p.The overall goal and general objectives of the SCI are as follows: To promote the Rights of the Child and support their implementation and realization, with special focus on adolescent female children in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESAR), and in other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa where the materials are found to be acceptable and appropriate. General objectives: To research, produce and disseminate a regional communication package on the Rights of the Child in order to: Create awareness and advocate for the reduction of existing disparities in the status and treatment of girls. Support social mobilization processes designed to realize the potential of female children and to foster their participation in development. Produce a dynamic role model for girls that will assist in their acquisition of psychosocial life skills essential for empowerment. Provide a model for improved gender relationships, beginning at an early age. Communicate information regarding the survival, protection and development of children, including specific messages on education, health, nutrition and freedom from exploitation and abuse. Build the capacity of African writers, researchers and artists through the development of the Sara communication packages. (excerpt)
Victoria, Canada, Communication Initiative, 2002 Dec 19. 2 p.Implemented in 2001 by UNICEF-Peru as part of a five-year initiative, this programme addresses the issue of children's, adolescents', and women's rights by bolstering interpersonal communication skills among public services workers, intermediaries between supply and demand (community agents, teachers, and community leaders), and families and individuals. The programme, which includes remote communities of the Andes and Amazon in its reach, draws on the use of culturally relevant and non-threatening messages to increase the participation of communities and families so they can demand that their rights be respected. Other features of the project include providing technical assistance to improve communication among those who provide basic services, and revamping the manner in which the media treats issues related to children and women's rights. (author's)
A dedicated set of viewers. Entertainment-education TV programs can be effective in achieving and sustaining behavioral change.
Integration. 1997 Fall; (53):12-3.This article describes the impact of an entertainment-education television program in Nepal, a country in which high fertility rates (an average of six children per woman) are coupled with high illiteracy rates (77% among women). Along with other forms of entertainment media, the UN Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) in Nepal has been supporting the use of television to increase knowledge on health and social issues, and to promote behavioral change. They have helped produce a weekly television program targeted towards 18 to 25-year- olds that is part documentary, part television soap opera. A monitoring and impact evaluation study was conducted on the program and revealed that two- thirds of the respondents were able to apply the knowledge they have gained from the program. Moreover, approximately 25% of the respondents have learned about the importance of vaccination to prevent childhood diseases and 58% learned the importance of female education. In conclusion, the author, a UNICEF/Nepal communications officer, states that entertainment-education TV programs can be effective ways of achieving and sustaining behavioral change. He stresses that formative research and pre-test focus groups were very important components of the Nepal program’s success.
In: Body, mind, and spirit in sexual health: national conference report, Islamabad, Pakistan, February 13th to 15th, 2001. Organized by Aahung, edited by Shireen S. Issa. Karachi, Pakistan, Aahung, 2001. 81-8.In response to the high fertility rate in Pakistan, the Movement of Sustainable Social Autonomy and Gender Equity (MESSAGE) undertook a UN Children's Fund project that aimed to raise awareness regarding sexual health and initiate a positive change among those involved in high-risk sexual behaviors. The project, which is a nongovernmental organization focusing on human resource development in sexual health, targeted sex workers in the at risk areas of Multan. The project aimed to provide information on health and nutrition related facts especially sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV/AIDS; and increase awareness of about 5000 persons involved in risky behavior such as unprotected sex, drug use, and commercial blood donation. It also aimed to prepare and organize a group of about 50 community members by imparting knowledge rendering them capable of working toward the goals of promoting prevention of STDs and HIV/AIDS. Program activities include service delivery component; strengthening the capacity; advocacy and social mobilization; and creation of STDs and HIV/AIDS awareness. The author notes that despite the fact that MESSAGEs project experienced failure in the first 6 months of its implementation, several lessons were learned with regards to community involvement; long-term program development; inducting behavioral changes; limitation of pilot project; peer educators; and stigmatization.
[Unpublished] . 9 p.This paper provides guidance on key questions or indicators for assessing the value and efficiency of health communication programming. The material covered in this document comes from experiences of the Mass Communication and Mobilization Technical Support Group, which involved several UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) country offices and partner agencies. Over a 2-year period, UNICEF offices and partner agencies worked together to provide support for the development of programming that sought to harness the power of mass communications for gains in health status. In the course of the process, they also distilled some important elements for overall health communication programming such as partnerships, key activities, situation analysis and evaluation questions and case studies. The material that resulted is reflected in the report.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 1997 Jan. , xviii, 73 p. (UNICEF Staff Working Papers DOC-97-001)This paper reviews the communication initiative of UN International Children's Emergency Fund, Facts for Life (FFL) undertaken in 31 countries during 1996. There have been over 15 million copies of the FFL book that have been published in the last 5 years. FFL messages have been used in radio, television dramas, cartoons, comics, storybooks, and literacy primers that benefit children. Although FFL is still considered to be in its initial phase, it has the potential to improve the health and well being of women and children. Also, it has the potential to revolutionize global approaches to health education, upgrade the planning and communication capacity of developing country government and nongovernment agencies, promote high quality intersectoral planning and collaboration. This booklet comprises five chapters, with chapter 1 presenting a historical overview of FFL. Chapter 2 examines the important linkages between levels of interest, sustainability, and the integration of FFL into programs for children. Chapter 3 reviews the potential future use of FFL, the level of field support for future FFL publications and activities, and suggestions for new global FFL initiatives. Conclusions, specific recommendations, and action points are presented in chapters 4 and 5.
DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION REPORT. 1993; (78):1, 4-6.Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school.
Amman, Jordan, UNICEF, Middle East and North Africa Region, 1986 Feb 28. xi, 98 p.This handbook is intended help improve the effectiveness of development programs through the appropriate use of communication and social marketing strategies and techniques. UNICEF developed the handbook in order to better utilize communication and social marketing in the achievement of Child Survival and Development goals. The handbook has 3 functional uses: it can serve as a guide for planning and implementing development programs; it can be used as an evaluation and monitoring tool by both program administrators or outside evaluators; and it can serve as a textbook in training workshops designed to improve communication skills -- particularly with respect to public health issues. The handbook begins with an conceptual discussion of communication and social marketing. The handbook then provides 10 interdependent modules involved in the development of a communication or social marketing program: problem identification, audience analysis, examining social factors, identifying obstacles, setting objectives, developing a strategy, material production, pretest and piloting, launching and monitoring, and evaluation. Additionally, the handbook contains the following appendices that can be useful in fulfilling one the handbook's 3 functions: exercises, a sample of a survey questionnaire, a sample of a pretest questionnaire, a sample of a moderator's guide for a focus-only group, request for proposals, a sample request for proposals, a sample of a proposal evaluation sheet, audit of evaluation research, an assessment checklist for research and evaluation reports or proposals, a checklist of contract provisions, media selection and mix matrix, and other additional aids.
In: Materiales del "Segundo Seminario de Comunicacion en Poblacion" organizado por AMIDEP, Lima, 23-27 de marzo de 1987, [compiled by] Asociacion Multidisciplinaria de Investigacion y Docencia en Poblacion [AMIDEP]. Lima, Peru, AMIDEP, 1987. 71-84. (Cuadernos de Comunicacion AMIDEP No. 1)The UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) has substituted the infant mortality rate for per capita income in determining its plans for cooperation with poor countries. More than 15 million infants under 1 year die each year from such causes as dehydration during diarrhea, malnutrition, illnesses preventable by immunization, and immunological deficiencies caused by early weaning. In 1984 a 4-pronged approach to control of infant mortality was announced by UNICEF. It called for treatment of dehydration by oral rehydration therapy, immunization against 6 killing diseases, use of growth charts by mothers, and promotion of breast feeding. UNICEF based the strategy on a number of elements not directly related to public investment, including a high level political commitment, consensus of the most dynamic social forces, intense social mobilization of the priority sectors for application of the strategy, and full support of the mass media. Most of the interventions in which UNICEF has cooperated have been of the campaign type, raising questions about the permanence of the actions. Compromises were believed to be needed to ensure that activities go on in circumstances that would otherwise overwhelm the public health services. The job of communication in such circumstances is to find ways of guaranteeing that the new health behaviors become routinized and incorporated into the everyday life of the target population. The communication program for the vaccination campaign in Peru in 1985 faced specific challenges: understanding the relationship between mass communication and social mobilization, and providing mass media for a single campaign that would be valid for the entire country in its geographic and social diversity. Although no formal pretesting was done of the mass communication materials, the impact of the messages, music, slogans, and images was informally measured in the early phase of diffusion. Messages for the 1st vaccination day were created for radio, television, and the press that tried to maintain a festival atmosphere while attracting parents of infants and children under 5, dispelling their resistence, furnishing information on the location of vaccination posts, and emphasizing the date. Themes stressed for the 2nd vaccination day were the need to attend all 3 days to be fully protected, changes in location of posts, and continuing need to overcome fear of side effects. It became clear that more stress was also needed on the risks and consequences of not being vaccinated. The festival atmosphere was maintained in the numerous social mobilization activities held at the local level to publicize the vaccination days.
[Children's health. 40. Unacceptable that 14 million children die every year] Borns sundhed. 40. Uacceptabelt at 14 millioner born dor hvert ar.
SYGEPLEJERSKEN. 1987 Oct 7; 87(41):30-1.The 40th annual report of the UN Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) states that about 7 million of the 14 million children who die throughout the world each year could be saved by modern methods of health care and food supply. UNICEF's executive director James Grant points out that 40 years ago little international attention was given to mass death from starvation, but today any such crisis attracts the mass media, and people and governments act to avoid mass death. Undernourishment and epidemics continue to threaten the world's children and more than 280,000 children die from these causes each week. Even with the crises of the past two years in Africa there have been more deaths among children in India and Pakistan than in all of Africa's 46 countries together. Existing knowledge on cheap methods of improving the health of children in underdeveloped countries is sufficient to save at least 7 million children's lives each year. Many millions more could have a normal growth with better information on replacements on mother's milk, vaccinations and access to supplies of water, sugar, and salt for oral rehydration therapy. Just as important are the new technologies of the communications revolution which is taking place in underdeveloped countries. Most homes have a radio, and televisions are available in most villages and in many small communities there are schools and health workers.
DEVELOPMENT FORUM. 1988 Mar-Apr; 16(2):11, 14.Facts for Life is a 50-page compilation of priority messages focussed on infant and child health and designed to reach parents directly, so that they will have the facts they need to keep their children alive and healthy. The "Facts for Life" initiative is expected to reach the parents through a grand alliance of communicators -- nongovernmental organizations and individuals -- who come directly into contact with parents. The initiative has the backing of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). It is also supported by nongovernmental networks such as the Children, Rotary, and Junior Chambers of Commerce as well as officials of the International Pediatrics Association, London University Institute of Child Health, and the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. Topics covered in the "Facts for Life" messages include safe motherhood, breast feeding, immunization, acute respiratory infections, malaria, timing births, promoting child growth, diarrhea, home hygiene, and AIDS. The booklet is available in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic for 25 cents (US) a copy from UNICEF.
New York, New York, United Nations Children's Fund, 1987 Jun. 62 p.Worldwide, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) still claims only a modest niche in the market alongside a vast array of modern drugs and traditional treatments of diarrhea, the majority of which are either ineffective or harmful. Often, ORT is used as an adjunct therapy for drugs, instead of as a replacement. Drugs are also several times more expensive than ORT. ORT is not yet seen for what it rally is: the most effective treatment for a major killer disease in the developing world. Recent research has identified a total of 25 different virsues, bacteria, and parasites that cause diarrhea, and more are still being found. Cholera accounts for <1% of all types of accute diarrhea. It can usually be treated with ORT alone. The progressive symptoms for diarrhea are identified, and how ORT replaces salt and water is explained. A 2-tier strategy is recommended by WHO and UNICEF--90-95% of patients can be treated with ORT alone; the remainder require intravenous therapy. Continuation of feeding during diarrhea and additional feeding afterward is recommended. A review of antibiotics, absorbents, antimotility drugs, and anti-emetics shows why they do not work or should not be used. Training in diarrhea management for doctors, nurses, and midwives is inadequate. Supply problems are significant. Yet because OR solution needs no refrigeration and local production is more feasible than vaccines, logistic do not have to be complicated. Effective use of ORT needs to be promoted through communication. Social marketing and information campaigns in Gambia, Haiti, and Egypt are reviewed. The issues concerning use of standardised ORT formula. Salt-and-sugar solution are addressed. The future for ORT includs finding a better formula that would also reduce the volume and duration of the diarrhea itself.
Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):267-72.The Regional Program on Early Stimulation, initiated by UNICEF in Central America and later extended to Latin America, was designed as an educational child rearing program for families in the lowest income group and based on nonformal methods to be used outside the scope of official education programs. The program started with the preparation of a series of booklets with information on illnesses, immunization, nutrition and on the stimulation children require at each stage of their development if they are to achieve their maximum potential. A simple, universal, easy-to-read vocabulary was used. The next step was to introduce some of the concepts contained in the booklets into newspapers and radio programs. In Guatemala, a phone-in program was broadcast with enormous success by a commercial radio station. As a result, a television program was planned. It was decided that a film should be made to illustrate the basic concepts underlying the integral development of the child. In Costa Rica, the film was broadcast by a national television station and seen by almost the entire country. With the help of these materials, and the use of teacher-training courses, group dynamics and special techniques, over 6000 people were trained in early stimulation in Central America. A more comprehensive strategy was devised to make further use of the mass media in Central America. A number of film scripts, television and radio programs were developed in El Slavador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. In other countries radio and television have been used to teach the care required to improve children's biological, psychological and social development. Throughout Central and Latin America, use of the mass media for educational purposes is welcomed. Many of the projects undertaken during the International Year of the Child have been established on a peermanent basis in Central American countries.
Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):37-42.The potential for the Child Survival and Development Revolution (CSDR) can only be realized, and a significant reduction in the infant mortality achieved, if all forces are mobilized worldwide. In industrialized countries, it is essential that the general public become aware of the recent breakthroughs in social development, and that the potential only now exists to reduce infant mortality and to improve child development on the basis of a combination of new knowledge and communication capacities that now exist in developing countries. National Committees for UNICEF, meeting in Rome in October 1984, developed lines of action for disseminating the CDSR message to the public in their respective countries and in mobilizing public opinion, NGOs and governments. A 3-point action plan was drawn up, to include awareness-raising through the diffusion of the CSDR message to target groups (media, opinion leaders); through an assessment in each of their countries of immunization levels, breastfeeding, and growth monitoring practices and advocacy with NGOs working on behalf of children in developing countries so that the measures recommended by UNICEF are included in their projects.
Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):13-20.The central idea behind UNICEF's rubric of the Child Survival and Development Revolution (CSDR) is to enable parents to protect their children from preventable death an disablement. The CSDR strategy takes the demand approach, which opens the possibilities for parents to see what they should and could do to "grow" their children better. The concept of demand implies supply and therefore goes 1 step further than the concept of needs, spoken of for years in the development literature. Demand is often latent demand. The "demand" for good health and survival of a child is covered over by a widespread perception o fFate, the only explanation available to most people to help them bear their suffering. It is possible to change the climate of fatefulness through the media and the influential members of the community and to communicate the mssage that Fate is not Destiny, thus introducing the possibility of acting to change that Fate. What is therefore needed is to communicate the information and knowledge needed to bring about that change, thereby converting latent demand into articulate and effective demand to which supply is the response. 3 fronts are identified to carry out such a CSDR program: 1) training effective communicators of the CSDR message; 2) producing adequate program communication materials of sensitive and direct relevance to particular communities and 3) responding to the demand raised by hving supplies at hand. To make good on the promise of the CSDR, society needs to be mobilized, the political will stimulated and the professional will, active. Social mrketing is a new idea which is being adopted by UNICEF. It is an integral element of its program of social communication as are also public information and program communication. All 3 elements are integral to UNICEF's main programs of child development and survival.