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In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 19 p. (Series 1, Pt. 7)The population education documents and materials abstracted in this section focusing on curriculum and instructional materials are primarily meant for practitioners--teachers, trainers, extension workers, curriculum and material developers, whose role of disseminating population education concepts via the face-to-face approach is greatly enhanced by the use of the more impersonal forms of communication. The materials were selected to provide practitioners with a recommended list of teaching/learning tools and materials which they can use in their work. These materials come in the form of handbooks, manuals, guidebooks, packages, kits and reports. They cover all aspects of materials development, including the procedures in developing various types of materials and showing how population education concepts can be integrated into the various development themes. They also describe teaching/learning and training methods that are participatory in nature--games and simulations, role playing, problem solving, self-awareness exercises, communications sensitivity, human relations, projective exercises, programmed instructions and value clarification. In addition the abstracts provide a general summary of what curriculum areas can be used as entry points for population education concepts.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 15 p. (Series 1, Pt. 5)A compendium of abstracts of selected handbooks, case studies and monographs is presented. These abstracts describe how youth programs of various development agencies all over the region have innovatively involved the out-of-school youth in learning population education concepts and practices. A comprehensive inventory of case studies of organizations involved in educating the out-of-school youth on population education concepts in many Asian countries is provided. A variety of alternative strategies and approaches have been tried and tested in many pilot projects. The range of alternatives includes summer camps, vocational and income-generating activities, parents and youth clubs, and youth organizations via the medium of music, sports, education, work and others. A more significant feature of the abstracts is the consolidation of lessons learned from these activities as well as guidelines from these lessons which can be used for planning, designing, implementing and evaluating out-of-school population education programs.
Population education in the nineties: a quest for a regional programme strategy in Asia and the Pacific.
POPULATION EDUCATION IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC NEWSLETTER AND FORUM. 1991; (34):12-7.In 1990, Asia and the Pacific constituted 59% of the world's population and this percentage has been estimated to climb to 61.76% by 1995. In addition to rapid population growth, some of the other problems plaguing the region in the early 1990s included illiteracy, absolute poverty, environmental pollution, and low status of women. Population education can play a key role in an intervention strategy for fertility decline. Schools should include population education because, if girls attend school, it can improve girls' chances for employment and affect future family sizes, and both male and female students are most apt to occupy important private sector and government positions and be leaders. UNESCO has proposed a 1992-1995 regional population education and communication program and hoped to gain UNFPA support for the program. UNESCO has heeded UNFPA's plea for more formidable and intensive backstopping to country programs. It proposed to create regional advisory teams that will provide technical assistance, organize study tours and workshops, facilitate intercountry sharing, and identify new areas of development. This team would also be population education advocates. It has also proposed a workshop in population communication for staff of rural oriented nongovernmental organizations and religious groups to close the UNFPA identified gap in information, education, and communication (IEC). Other similar proposed activities to close the IEC gap included workshops on audiovisual (AV) aids development and use and maintenance of AV equipment and on communication strategies to reach male family planning acceptors and intercountry research studies. UNESCO has also planned to place more emphasis on management, development of prototype population education materials, and other needed population education activities.
Final report: First Caribbean Health-Communication Roundtable, St. Philip, Barbados, 16-18 November 1987.
[Unpublished] 1987. , 30,  p.To create a mechanism from which to mobilize communications media as a force for health in the Caribbean, the 1st Caribbean Health Communication Roundtable was held in 1987. Organized and initiated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and cosponsored by UNESCO and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the summary of the objectives discussed at the roundtable are presented in this report. Objectives include sensitizing the media to the health concerns of AIDS, disaster preparedness, nutrition and chronic diseases, and the examination of different types of health communication methodologies. Roundtable participants drafted a series of recommendations for submission to all relevant national, regional, and international agencies. 6 major recommendations covered various aspects of health communication. Workshops at the national and sub-regional level to train media and communications specialists were a suggested means of improving information techniques for health educators. Improvements in coordination and cooperation between Ministries of Health and Ministries of Information, requested by CARICOM, was recommended to strengthen health communication. The addition of an information specialist to the staff of the PAHO office was recommended, as well as the promotion of alternative communication methods and practices. Establishing a regional center for the identification, collection, cataloging, and dissemination of communication ideas, experiences and other resources was another major recommendation. In addition, evaluation of regional communication projects was suggested. Pre- and post-Roundtable questionnaires are reproduced in the Appendices, as are the program schedule, rationale, and list of participants.
Assessment of the experience in the production of messages and programmes for rural communication systems: the case of the Wonsuom Project in Ghana.
GAZETTE. 1988; 42(1):53-67.In 1983 there was a rural broadcast and newspaper project called the Wonsuom Project sponsored by UNESCO in Ghana. This project was centered around the Swedru district, in a Fante speaking area of 18 villages and towns with a population of 90,000, with the main industries fishing and farming. The broadcast part of the project started producing programs with farmers, fisherman, village nurses, and cultural groups. The second part of the project was a rural newspaper in Fante, with the purpose of supplying useful and timely information and news on health, agriculture, civic education, culture, and entertainment to areas around the town of Swedru. The goals of the rural broadcasts are to create awareness of the Wonsuom Project, promote all types of adult education, to assist people in the area to improve their quality of life, and to work in cooperation with any local organizations in relation to the project. The paper contains information on everything from crop planting information to agricultural loan information. There were also Wonsuom clubs formed that have become involved in many projects to help develop their communities. The newspaper was divided into 3.95% health items, 8% on agriculture, 6.3% on religion, 9% on education, 7% on politics, 7.2% on economics, 24.3% on social issues, 19% on the project itself, 15.7% on entertainment, and 5.8% on culture. The government is not continuing the regular radio broadcast relay station, but going to FM broadcasting which may be a problem since few people can afford FM receivers. The other problems include illiteracy and the financing available to continue and maintain the project. By using advertising and government support the project could continue.
[Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the ICOMP Biennial International Conference, San Jose, Costa Rica, May 1-4, 1986. 11,  p.Communication is a basic part of population and development programs and is necessary to ensure that people participate and improve their quality of life. The management of the communication process in these programs requires not only knowledge and comprehension of the process, but also the structure of media and local organizations. The direction of management has shifted from a vertical to a horizontal communication structure. To be an effective manager, the following traits are needed: The ability to understand policy, develop strategies, provide and seek support, produce unique messages, make media choices, mobilize personnel, prepare training activities and work plans, and be able to implement research. The skills needed are the ability to foresee and act on problems, communicate and listen effectively, motivate and persuade, and adapt to changing demands of a program. Based on these and other needs a 2 week pilot training program was developed containing 3 modules. After evaluation of the pilot program the course was lengthened to 3 weeks with additional time for special needs asked for by the students. Unesco together with the Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development developed courses in the management of population communication programs and also with the Arab States Broadcasting Union. These programs are the beginning of an integrated effort for population and development management training.
Nairobi, Kenya, Unesco Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, . 19,  p. (XA/01471/00)The Experts Group, made up of 17 communicators and trainers from international agencies and leading communication training institutions from throughout the Africa continent, met in September 1978 met to consider a background paper bases on replies to questionnaires concerning country requirements for 1980 and 1985 as well as 5 technical papers. The technical papers focused on population communication program requirements for 1980, communication needs for the 1980s, population communication requirements in Zambia for the 1980s; communication research needs in the 1980s; and research priorities in the 1980s. In their deliberations, the experts proceeded from the assumption that the purpose of all communication activities in the African region must be the enhancement of the quality of life of the majority of the people and the creation and sustenance of an environment conducive to the promotion of social development. The experts emphasized the need for cooperation and coordination of the efforts of all UN specialized agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the promotion of communication programs for social development. The meeting also called for intergovernmental cooperation based on a definite commitment and political will of all African governments, to enable their recommendations to be quickly and effectively implemented. The recommendations were accompanied by strategies for implementation to help to meet the identified priority needs for communication in support of social development for the 1980s. The recommendations and strategies focused on 4 areas -- media development, training, research, and institution building. The goal of all of these recommendations and strategies is to develop the ability of the African region to become self reliant at various levels. The Experts Meeting concluded that steps toward the realization of that goal could begin in the 1980s, if the needed resources were made available early enough for phased planning of individual projects and the stimulation of regional activities. Having reviewed the media situation, the Experts Meeting recommended that a combination of mass media with group and traditional modes of communication would be the most realistic approach and should receive priority in the 1980s. In the area of training, the meeting gave priority to the training of trainers at all levels. In the research area the critical need is for reliable data. Finally, additional support is required in the area of institution building to enable specified institutions to expand and intensify their training programs to meet the various regional and national needs. The Experts Meeting held the view that the strengthening of disadvantaged groups through appropriate and judicious use of communication strategies should include youth and young adults and women.
Meeting information needs for population education: using materials for population education, Booklet 1. Trial edition.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 95 p.This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials service, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it deals with some basic techniques of using and processing population education materials. The focus of the booklet is on activities that usually lie within the domain of librarians, documentalists and information officers, which nevertheless are useful to others involved in this field; for example staff of population education programs are frequently required to respond to requests for information. The 3 learning modules contained here are: 1) Assessing the quality of population education materials; 2) Literature searches, bibliographies and request for materials; and 3) Writing abstracts for population education materials. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. This booklet has a sequel, Booklet 2, which deals with other areas of population education information.
Meeting information needs for population education: information services for population education, Booklet 2. Trial edition.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 96 p.This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials services, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education programme Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it focuses on the wide range of supplementary information activities that are provided to promote the success of the program. The supplementary activities include preparation of a newsletter and the distribution of background information to key leaders. The booklet contains 5 learning modules. The 1st module deals with the processing or transformation of materials, the 2nd examines more sophisticated materials services such as the selective dissemination of information and production of packages as well as basic survey technics, the 3rd examines methods of popularizing population education programs, the 4th analyses the nature and potential of networks as distribution and communication channels, and the 5th touches upon the evaluation of an information program and development of training workshops or materials for these programs. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. The preceding booklet, Booklet 1, covers other areas of population education.
[Unpublished] 1972 Sep 20. 15 p. (COM/72/CONF.32/A/5)The widely differing opinions concerning the effects of mass media on behavior suggests the need to question some strongly held beliefs among population communicators. On the basis of this awareness the discussion reviews some of the existing major communication studies in the areas of voting behavior, purchasing behavior, and smoking behavior as well as family planning communication research studies to shed some light on what effects one might expect the mass media to have on contraceptive behavior. Little is known about the effects of mass media on voting behavior. Research has provided few definitive answers. All studies suggest that most voters in the US and the UK vote for the party label rather than the candidate. It has been noted that mass media does not change attitudes and behavior and reinforces existing behavior and attitudes. Exposure to mass media ishighly selective. Most people have an exaggerated fear of the persuasive power of advertising campaigns. The effects of an advertising program, among other variables, depends upon the skill of the advertiser in reaching the right audience with the most persuasive messages over the proper media mix, with a useful product at the proper competitive price. Advertising can announce the availability of a product, shape brand images, create positive attitudes toward a product, and reinforce existing attutudes--all of which are steps toward a trial purchase of a new product. Efforts to reduce cigarette consumption in the US via the mass media have been substantial. A random telephone survey concluded that only those individuals predisposed to giving up smoking reported that commercials persuading cigarette smokers to cut down or quit had any significant effect on them. A review of the history of family planning communications research is difficult for several reasons: several hundred studies have been completed which relate to family planning; the quality of these studies varies greatly; and most are relevant only to specific cultural areas. The result of such dissimilarity is that generalizations are almost impossible. A few of the better known and more successful studies are reviewed. The majority of these studies are concerned with communication campaigns using a wide variety of media ranging from wall writings to television. It seems that as far as short-term, general, large scale behavioral effects are concerned, a mass media campaign is ineffective in increasing clinic attendance and is ineffective in increasing nonclinic sales of contraceptives.
[Unpublished] 1973 May 7. Paper prepared for Unesco as background to 1974 Population Conference in Rumania. 34 p.Some major obstacles to the success of national family planning programs are: 1) lack of commitment by public officials, 2) control of programs by physicians, and 3) unwillingness to attempt innovative approaches. Barriers to the success of communication programs include inadequate and uncoordinated funding and improper training of staff. Development efforts have included a wide variety of approaches to the application or communication and by the late 1960s several factors focused attention on communication as an undeveloped resource in population and family planning. These factors included unsatisfactory acceptance rates among women of reproductive age, underutilization of available services, lack of continuation of methods once they were adopted, and the spread of rumors based on isolated, false reports of contraceptive experience. A conference in 1967 identified 3 stages of developing family planning strategy: 1) voluntary agencies which are solely responsible for conducting family planning with no official recognition or government support, 2) family planning is recognized tacitly but with lack of official policy, and 3) family planning is a full-fledged government policy. The author suggests a scheme for classifying population communication efforts of countries along these lines, as countries with autonomous family planning coordinating bodies, countries which carry out the communication component of family planning programs from within health ministries, and countries in which the family planning communication program is carried out outside health ministries. Communication approaches need to involve an integration of developmental messages and media and proper research into attitudes towards family planning. In early family planning programs, family planning education was done through adult education programs. Objectives for family planning communicators include information, education, motivation, legitimation, and reinforcement. In most developing countries there is a system of training institutes going from local to national centers. Recommendations regarding use of folk media and administration of communication programs are included.
[Unpublished] 1972 Dec. 15. 23 p. (SEA/Comm. and Educ. Consult/FP/5)This document states Unesco's approach to family planning communication and shows the dimension of family planning communication projects in Unesco. On the basis of work initiated by Unesco and the World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that during the period 1973-78 assistance to family planning communication programs in 25 member states would be made available and nearly 400 communicators from member states trained. Recommendations of 4 expert meetings on integrated family planning and development programs, research, folk media, and training are included, and these would form the basis of Unesco action during the 1970s. Some of the areas which are included in these recommendations and which have implications for collaboration and cooperation between the Unesco and WHO are: 1) preparation of the guidelines of training courses in family planning communication and education on regional bases; 2) promotion of itinerant family planning communication and education training teams for regions; 3) dissemination of research findings to family planning administrators, communicators, and educators; 4) promotion of mobile regional research teams to help initiate research programs and development of corps of researchers at regional/national levels; 6) promotion of studies on the economics of family planning communication and education programs, deployment of resources between various components of such programs and development of guidelines for evaluation of such programs; 7) inclusion of folk media as a crucial part of family planning education and communication strategies; and 8) assistance in making available communication and media hardware to supplement the meagre mass media channels in developing countries and to increase the reach of conventional mass media.
Paris, France, Unesco Press, 1981. 29 p.UNESCO's population program involves communication. Since 1974, the program has stressed the importance of studying the interrelationsihps between demographic and socioeconomic factors and of integrating population activities with overall development efforts. The Regional Advisor's Offices play a vital role in the program. These advisors and their staff are currently in Bangkok, Thailand; Beirut, Lebanon; Dakar, Senegal; Nairobi, Kenya; and Santiago, Chile. 2 groups require training in population communication; those who are communications and media specialists, and those who are in population-related activities. To train these people, UNESCO organizes courses and workshops; inserts courses into the curricula of universities that train communication specialists; sends people abroad on fellowships; and organizes study tours. UNESCO supports research with implications for population communication. The agency's assistance in planning, administration and evaluation areas takes 2 main forms: providing advisory services; and issuing publications on the subject. Publications and films are listed at the end. UNESCO is involved in experimentation with: 1) communication materials and techniques in pilot projects; 2) development of communication materials aimed at general or target audiences in specific countries; and 3) development of communication materials for use in training programs. In the area of communication, several women's projects are under way. Another form of UNESCO support for population communication is the diffusion and exchange of information and materials. UNESCO should continue to expand its support for population communication activities; training will remain a pressing need. Particular groups will need to be addressed and specific issues dealt with, as will population distribution, and the relationship between population concerns and human rights. Specific suggestions are given as to when, where, and how UNESCO can be useful.
Dacca, Bangladesh, Directorate of Population Control and Family Planning Research, Evaluation, Statistics and Planning Wing, April 1977. 30 p.Upon completion of a report on Research Inventory and Analysis of Family Planning Communication Research in Bangladesh, the convenor of Task Force II proposed a study on Family Planning Communication Audience, a top priority study, as documented by the Task Force II in its report submitted earlier to the government. The objectives of this study are to: 1) examine if 2 steps or a multi-step communication model is in operation in Bangladesh; 2) determine which of the media has the largest audience; 3) determine the contribution of each of the mass media in disseminating the family planning message; and 4) determine socioeconomic characteristics of various media audiences. The sample design included exposure to 5 mass media: newspapers, television, radio, audiovisual van, and village bard. The study shows that: 1) both groups of respondents (male and female) have been exposed to the mass media in varying degrees, but that the audiences, after receiving the message, did not keep it confined to themselves; 2) the 2 and 3 step model of communication is in operation in the sample population; 3) in terms of exposure, the data show that radio had larger audiences among both male and female respondents; 4) newspapers, radio, and television audiences differ from the audiences of the other 2 media--village bard, and audiovisual van--in the following areas: education, age, income, and parity. Recommendations are made for further development of family planning communication programs through the mass media: 1) More news, advertisements, pictures, and features printed in the daily newspapers "Ittefaq," and "Dainik Bangla," which are widely read by rural populations; 2) installation of radios and television sets at public sites will enable public service announcements on family planning to be viewed; 3) the musical drama, "Jatragan," by the village bard is highly effective in delivering the family planning message; 4) future studies should include control groups for each of the 5 media audiences; and 5) since women cannot join men in viewing the audiovisual van performances, special arrangement should be made for them.
Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.
[Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
Papua New Guinea strives to strengthen its traditional communication system: highlights of a 1980 Unesco report.
In: Unesco. Folk media and mass media in population communication. Paris, France, Unesco, . 17-9. (Population Communication: Technical Documentation No. 8)At the request of the government of Papua New Guinea and with the assistance of Unesco a report was prepared which examined the needs for strengthening the country's traditional communication systems. Highlights of this report are presented in this discussion, including notes on special conditions of the country, the study methodology, and selected findings. The government's request called attention to the heretofore "disproportionate concern with technology-oriented media" aimed at literate, urbanized audiences, while rural populations were virtually ignored." The Unesco report covers findings in only 5 of the country's provinces. These findings deal with the folk forms of expression at village level, and only those forms, or aspects of forms, considered by villagers as not being sacred or taboo for the purpose intended, were included in the survey. Story telling, looked at as a commmunication vehicle or channel, appeared to be an important form and a most persuasive form throughout the country. Singing was viewed as another important medium. Dance forms were used to express events or stories or states of feeling, and they were almost always accompanied by singing. The string band occupies a special place among youth almost everywhere in the country. The inventory of folk media in the villages covered in the Unesco report also makes reference to comical or satirical dramatic sketches and to mime. The government determined the schedule and location of village sites in 5 selected provinces--Central, Enga, East Sepik, Manus, and Northern. A questionnaire for the village visits was devised to create a qualified, if partial, inventory of useful small group forms of communication. The questionnaire was developed to provide in a 2 hour session in each village a result oriented profile of folk forms, at once embedded in the active cultural life of the people, but also considered by them as "open" or flexible enough to be used, with their own participation assured, in any government sponsored communication program. The outcome of the mission resulted in the preparation of an inventory with a profile of the characteristics of traditional forms of communication which might be used for development; preparation of a 2 year research project outline to provide information on folk media on a national scale and to develop an action program utilizing the most appropriate forms; and the identification of existing sources and documentation facilities relating to folk media in Papua New Guinea.
Information, education and communication in support of population programmes: the Asia and Pacific experience.
[Unpublished] 1982. Paper prepared for United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 20-29 Sept. 1982 (POP/APPC.3/GP/6). 14 p.Review of UNESCO's role in the fields of population education and population communication in the Asian and Pacific region. The integration of population material in school subjects takes 3 forms: 1) subunit approach, in which the preparation of teaching units on population is added to an existing unit in the course syllabus; 2) infusion, which involves enriching and expanding existing units in the syllabi to include population education related ideas; 3) permeation, where the curriculum of selected subjects is overhauled with population education made an integral part of the subject matter. A variety of nonformal education programs are based on the assumption that population education is futile amidst poverty, therefore becomes an integral part of literacy and adult education, labor training, and food and nutrition campaigns. UNESCO's population communication efforts include the training of people engaged in population-related activities such as census enumerators and medical personnel as well as communication and media specialists such as journalists, broadcasters, graphic artists, and folk performers. Its support role in population communications also includes basic and problem-oriented research; planning, administration and evaluation of programs; and the development of training materials and techniques. Looking to the future, UNESCO forsees a heightened demand for trained personnel, the need for population communication to address particular groups, such as women, and greater attention to such issues as adolescent fertility, and migration and resettlement.