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  1. 1
    070792

    Developing communication strategies and programs: a systematic approach.

    Elkamel F

    Amman, Jordan, UNICEF, Middle East and North Africa Region, 1986 Feb 28. xi, 98 p.

    This handbook is intended help improve the effectiveness of development programs through the appropriate use of communication and social marketing strategies and techniques. UNICEF developed the handbook in order to better utilize communication and social marketing in the achievement of Child Survival and Development goals. The handbook has 3 functional uses: it can serve as a guide for planning and implementing development programs; it can be used as an evaluation and monitoring tool by both program administrators or outside evaluators; and it can serve as a textbook in training workshops designed to improve communication skills -- particularly with respect to public health issues. The handbook begins with an conceptual discussion of communication and social marketing. The handbook then provides 10 interdependent modules involved in the development of a communication or social marketing program: problem identification, audience analysis, examining social factors, identifying obstacles, setting objectives, developing a strategy, material production, pretest and piloting, launching and monitoring, and evaluation. Additionally, the handbook contains the following appendices that can be useful in fulfilling one the handbook's 3 functions: exercises, a sample of a survey questionnaire, a sample of a pretest questionnaire, a sample of a moderator's guide for a focus-only group, request for proposals, a sample request for proposals, a sample of a proposal evaluation sheet, audit of evaluation research, an assessment checklist for research and evaluation reports or proposals, a checklist of contract provisions, media selection and mix matrix, and other additional aids.
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  2. 2
    048153

    New approaches to Family Planning Programme.

    POPULATION EDUCATION NEWS. 1987 May; 14(5):6-9.

    Population education incentives, voluntary action, community participation, and improved program management are 5 family planning areas recently redefined by the government of India. Population education, integrated with the educational system, is important in influencing fertility behavior. The Adult Education program, and the nonformal educational system will be strengthened, with aid from UNFPA. Incentives, which are presently available to government employees, will be increased. Economic incentives, rural development program incentives, and insurance, lottery, and bond incentive schemes are being considered. Voluntary organizations will be encouraged to work in the family welfare sphere, and organized sector units will be urged to provide family welfare services to their employees. Cooperatives, which cover 95% of villages, will be used as a means of educating, motivating, and communicating population control objectives on the local level. Tax incentives will be offered to the corporate sector for providing integrated family welfare services. Community participation, which is crucial to the success of the programs, will be addressed on several levels. Popular committees, youth and women's groups, and medical students will increase community involvement through various means. In addition, political and community leaders will be involved in motivational work, and a village Women's Volunteer Corps is planned. Social marketing of contraceptives, although fairly extensive for the last 15 years, leaves much to be desired in creating a large demand. A marketing board will be created to ensure aggressive marketing, advertising, and promotion, with expansion to include oral contraceptives. Reorganization and reorientation toward modern program management will be undertaken, so that policy, planning, implementation, review, and evaluation are carried out efficiently. At the state, district, and the block level, more effective coordination is the goal, as well as strengthening the District Family Welfare Bureau.
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  3. 3
    052125

    A simple solution: how oral rehydration is averting child death from diarrhoeal dehydration.

    Williams G

    New York, New York, United Nations Children's Fund, 1987 Jun. 62 p.

    Worldwide, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) still claims only a modest niche in the market alongside a vast array of modern drugs and traditional treatments of diarrhea, the majority of which are either ineffective or harmful. Often, ORT is used as an adjunct therapy for drugs, instead of as a replacement. Drugs are also several times more expensive than ORT. ORT is not yet seen for what it rally is: the most effective treatment for a major killer disease in the developing world. Recent research has identified a total of 25 different virsues, bacteria, and parasites that cause diarrhea, and more are still being found. Cholera accounts for <1% of all types of accute diarrhea. It can usually be treated with ORT alone. The progressive symptoms for diarrhea are identified, and how ORT replaces salt and water is explained. A 2-tier strategy is recommended by WHO and UNICEF--90-95% of patients can be treated with ORT alone; the remainder require intravenous therapy. Continuation of feeding during diarrhea and additional feeding afterward is recommended. A review of antibiotics, absorbents, antimotility drugs, and anti-emetics shows why they do not work or should not be used. Training in diarrhea management for doctors, nurses, and midwives is inadequate. Supply problems are significant. Yet because OR solution needs no refrigeration and local production is more feasible than vaccines, logistic do not have to be complicated. Effective use of ORT needs to be promoted through communication. Social marketing and information campaigns in Gambia, Haiti, and Egypt are reviewed. The issues concerning use of standardised ORT formula. Salt-and-sugar solution are addressed. The future for ORT includs finding a better formula that would also reduce the volume and duration of the diarrhea itself.
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  4. 4
    027345

    Shared sexual responsibility: a strategy for male involvement in United States Family Planning clinics.

    Andrews D

    In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, [1984]. 167-76.

    Reviewed here are the efforts of the Planned Parenthood affiliates in the United States, showing that their focus is on female contraception. The author argues that if family planning is to be seen as a basic human right, then far more attention needs to be given to shared sexual responsibility. Although major strides have been made through federal grants and education programs, the history of meaningful male involvement has been a feeble one. It is argues that the alarming rate of teenage pregnancies, the falling statistics in vasectomy services across the country and the overall image of family planning programs, are indicative of the need for a new strategy. The little research data that is available shows that the earlier young men and boys are reached with accurate sexuality information, the more successful family planning and education services will be. The most successful sex education programs seem to be those which see sexuality education as a life-long process. More recently, research has concluded that programs working with parents and children are by far the most successful in ensuring ongoing dialogue and most meaningful behavior change. An important strategy for reaching males, partucularly with condoms, is to build on current strength in reaching female populations. Active promotion of vasectomy services, increased availability of comdom products suitably packaged and promoted, and attention-getting public service announcements, have combined to help change the image of a family planning program too often thought of as exclusively female. A representative sample of educational materials for men is included in the appendix.
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