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  1. 1

    [Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.

    Senegal. Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation

    Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)

    This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
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  2. 2

    Final report: First Caribbean Health-Communication Roundtable, St. Philip, Barbados, 16-18 November 1987.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]; Caribbean Community [CARICOM]

    [Unpublished] 1987. [4], 30, [49] p.

    To create a mechanism from which to mobilize communications media as a force for health in the Caribbean, the 1st Caribbean Health Communication Roundtable was held in 1987. Organized and initiated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and cosponsored by UNESCO and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the summary of the objectives discussed at the roundtable are presented in this report. Objectives include sensitizing the media to the health concerns of AIDS, disaster preparedness, nutrition and chronic diseases, and the examination of different types of health communication methodologies. Roundtable participants drafted a series of recommendations for submission to all relevant national, regional, and international agencies. 6 major recommendations covered various aspects of health communication. Workshops at the national and sub-regional level to train media and communications specialists were a suggested means of improving information techniques for health educators. Improvements in coordination and cooperation between Ministries of Health and Ministries of Information, requested by CARICOM, was recommended to strengthen health communication. The addition of an information specialist to the staff of the PAHO office was recommended, as well as the promotion of alternative communication methods and practices. Establishing a regional center for the identification, collection, cataloging, and dissemination of communication ideas, experiences and other resources was another major recommendation. In addition, evaluation of regional communication projects was suggested. Pre- and post-Roundtable questionnaires are reproduced in the Appendices, as are the program schedule, rationale, and list of participants.
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  3. 3

    [The street: a scenario for health] La calle: un escenario para la salud.

    Leon R

    In: Materiales del "Segundo Seminario de Comunicacion en Poblacion" organizado por AMIDEP, Lima, 23-27 de marzo de 1987, [compiled by] Asociacion Multidisciplinaria de Investigacion y Docencia en Poblacion [AMIDEP]. Lima, Peru, AMIDEP, 1987. 71-84. (Cuadernos de Comunicacion AMIDEP No. 1)

    The UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) has substituted the infant mortality rate for per capita income in determining its plans for cooperation with poor countries. More than 15 million infants under 1 year die each year from such causes as dehydration during diarrhea, malnutrition, illnesses preventable by immunization, and immunological deficiencies caused by early weaning. In 1984 a 4-pronged approach to control of infant mortality was announced by UNICEF. It called for treatment of dehydration by oral rehydration therapy, immunization against 6 killing diseases, use of growth charts by mothers, and promotion of breast feeding. UNICEF based the strategy on a number of elements not directly related to public investment, including a high level political commitment, consensus of the most dynamic social forces, intense social mobilization of the priority sectors for application of the strategy, and full support of the mass media. Most of the interventions in which UNICEF has cooperated have been of the campaign type, raising questions about the permanence of the actions. Compromises were believed to be needed to ensure that activities go on in circumstances that would otherwise overwhelm the public health services. The job of communication in such circumstances is to find ways of guaranteeing that the new health behaviors become routinized and incorporated into the everyday life of the target population. The communication program for the vaccination campaign in Peru in 1985 faced specific challenges: understanding the relationship between mass communication and social mobilization, and providing mass media for a single campaign that would be valid for the entire country in its geographic and social diversity. Although no formal pretesting was done of the mass communication materials, the impact of the messages, music, slogans, and images was informally measured in the early phase of diffusion. Messages for the 1st vaccination day were created for radio, television, and the press that tried to maintain a festival atmosphere while attracting parents of infants and children under 5, dispelling their resistence, furnishing information on the location of vaccination posts, and emphasizing the date. Themes stressed for the 2nd vaccination day were the need to attend all 3 days to be fully protected, changes in location of posts, and continuing need to overcome fear of side effects. It became clear that more stress was also needed on the risks and consequences of not being vaccinated. The festival atmosphere was maintained in the numerous social mobilization activities held at the local level to publicize the vaccination days.
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  4. 4

    New approaches to Family Planning Programme.

    POPULATION EDUCATION NEWS. 1987 May; 14(5):6-9.

    Population education incentives, voluntary action, community participation, and improved program management are 5 family planning areas recently redefined by the government of India. Population education, integrated with the educational system, is important in influencing fertility behavior. The Adult Education program, and the nonformal educational system will be strengthened, with aid from UNFPA. Incentives, which are presently available to government employees, will be increased. Economic incentives, rural development program incentives, and insurance, lottery, and bond incentive schemes are being considered. Voluntary organizations will be encouraged to work in the family welfare sphere, and organized sector units will be urged to provide family welfare services to their employees. Cooperatives, which cover 95% of villages, will be used as a means of educating, motivating, and communicating population control objectives on the local level. Tax incentives will be offered to the corporate sector for providing integrated family welfare services. Community participation, which is crucial to the success of the programs, will be addressed on several levels. Popular committees, youth and women's groups, and medical students will increase community involvement through various means. In addition, political and community leaders will be involved in motivational work, and a village Women's Volunteer Corps is planned. Social marketing of contraceptives, although fairly extensive for the last 15 years, leaves much to be desired in creating a large demand. A marketing board will be created to ensure aggressive marketing, advertising, and promotion, with expansion to include oral contraceptives. Reorganization and reorientation toward modern program management will be undertaken, so that policy, planning, implementation, review, and evaluation are carried out efficiently. At the state, district, and the block level, more effective coordination is the goal, as well as strengthening the District Family Welfare Bureau.
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  5. 5

    [Social mobilization and information, education, communication (IEC) in the area of population] Mobilisation social et information--education--communication (I.E.C) en matire de population.

    Zigirumugabe S


    Despite efforts by Rwanda's National Office of Population (ONAPO) to increase awareness of Rwanda's population problems, there has been little change in the reproductive behavior of the rural population. ONAPO plans to formulate an overall information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign in the area of maternal-child health and family planning to inform the population about Rwanda's sociodemographic problems and the solution offered by family planning. The campaign will have 3 main components: 1) provision of information to the general population through the informal educational system 2) training and school-based population information and 3) production of educational materials to support the training and communication programs. IEC programs for maternal-child health and family planning will be integrated into more widely accepted activities having some degree of permanence, such as the school system, health centers, and religious institutions. The communal centers for development and permanent training will play an especially strong role in the integrated IEC plans for rural areas. Center personnel will help the population understand the connection between family planning and the socioeconomic and health status of families and will motivate couples to use family planning. The overall IEC plan will receive support from the National Revolutionary Movement for Development, the Association of Rwandan Women for Development, the Ministry of the Interior and of Communal Development, and the Ministry of Public Health and Social Affairs. Various other ministries, religious organizations, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations should also support the IEC effort.
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  6. 6

    Report of Experts Meeting 18-22 September 1978.

    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Africa. Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa

    Nairobi, Kenya, Unesco Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, [1978]. 19, [16] p. (XA/01471/00)

    The Experts Group, made up of 17 communicators and trainers from international agencies and leading communication training institutions from throughout the Africa continent, met in September 1978 met to consider a background paper bases on replies to questionnaires concerning country requirements for 1980 and 1985 as well as 5 technical papers. The technical papers focused on population communication program requirements for 1980, communication needs for the 1980s, population communication requirements in Zambia for the 1980s; communication research needs in the 1980s; and research priorities in the 1980s. In their deliberations, the experts proceeded from the assumption that the purpose of all communication activities in the African region must be the enhancement of the quality of life of the majority of the people and the creation and sustenance of an environment conducive to the promotion of social development. The experts emphasized the need for cooperation and coordination of the efforts of all UN specialized agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the promotion of communication programs for social development. The meeting also called for intergovernmental cooperation based on a definite commitment and political will of all African governments, to enable their recommendations to be quickly and effectively implemented. The recommendations were accompanied by strategies for implementation to help to meet the identified priority needs for communication in support of social development for the 1980s. The recommendations and strategies focused on 4 areas -- media development, training, research, and institution building. The goal of all of these recommendations and strategies is to develop the ability of the African region to become self reliant at various levels. The Experts Meeting concluded that steps toward the realization of that goal could begin in the 1980s, if the needed resources were made available early enough for phased planning of individual projects and the stimulation of regional activities. Having reviewed the media situation, the Experts Meeting recommended that a combination of mass media with group and traditional modes of communication would be the most realistic approach and should receive priority in the 1980s. In the area of training, the meeting gave priority to the training of trainers at all levels. In the research area the critical need is for reliable data. Finally, additional support is required in the area of institution building to enable specified institutions to expand and intensify their training programs to meet the various regional and national needs. The Experts Meeting held the view that the strengthening of disadvantaged groups through appropriate and judicious use of communication strategies should include youth and young adults and women.
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  7. 7

    The demand approach for the child survival and development revolution.

    Vittachi VT

    Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):13-20.

    The central idea behind UNICEF's rubric of the Child Survival and Development Revolution (CSDR) is to enable parents to protect their children from preventable death an disablement. The CSDR strategy takes the demand approach, which opens the possibilities for parents to see what they should and could do to "grow" their children better. The concept of demand implies supply and therefore goes 1 step further than the concept of needs, spoken of for years in the development literature. Demand is often latent demand. The "demand" for good health and survival of a child is covered over by a widespread perception o fFate, the only explanation available to most people to help them bear their suffering. It is possible to change the climate of fatefulness through the media and the influential members of the community and to communicate the mssage that Fate is not Destiny, thus introducing the possibility of acting to change that Fate. What is therefore needed is to communicate the information and knowledge needed to bring about that change, thereby converting latent demand into articulate and effective demand to which supply is the response. 3 fronts are identified to carry out such a CSDR program: 1) training effective communicators of the CSDR message; 2) producing adequate program communication materials of sensitive and direct relevance to particular communities and 3) responding to the demand raised by hving supplies at hand. To make good on the promise of the CSDR, society needs to be mobilized, the political will stimulated and the professional will, active. Social mrketing is a new idea which is being adopted by UNICEF. It is an integral element of its program of social communication as are also public information and program communication. All 3 elements are integral to UNICEF's main programs of child development and survival.
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  8. 8

    Possible effects of mass media on contraceptive behavior: a preliminary review of research.


    [Unpublished] 1972 Sep 20. 15 p. (COM/72/CONF.32/A/5)

    The widely differing opinions concerning the effects of mass media on behavior suggests the need to question some strongly held beliefs among population communicators. On the basis of this awareness the discussion reviews some of the existing major communication studies in the areas of voting behavior, purchasing behavior, and smoking behavior as well as family planning communication research studies to shed some light on what effects one might expect the mass media to have on contraceptive behavior. Little is known about the effects of mass media on voting behavior. Research has provided few definitive answers. All studies suggest that most voters in the US and the UK vote for the party label rather than the candidate. It has been noted that mass media does not change attitudes and behavior and reinforces existing behavior and attitudes. Exposure to mass media ishighly selective. Most people have an exaggerated fear of the persuasive power of advertising campaigns. The effects of an advertising program, among other variables, depends upon the skill of the advertiser in reaching the right audience with the most persuasive messages over the proper media mix, with a useful product at the proper competitive price. Advertising can announce the availability of a product, shape brand images, create positive attitudes toward a product, and reinforce existing attutudes--all of which are steps toward a trial purchase of a new product. Efforts to reduce cigarette consumption in the US via the mass media have been substantial. A random telephone survey concluded that only those individuals predisposed to giving up smoking reported that commercials persuading cigarette smokers to cut down or quit had any significant effect on them. A review of the history of family planning communications research is difficult for several reasons: several hundred studies have been completed which relate to family planning; the quality of these studies varies greatly; and most are relevant only to specific cultural areas. The result of such dissimilarity is that generalizations are almost impossible. A few of the better known and more successful studies are reviewed. The majority of these studies are concerned with communication campaigns using a wide variety of media ranging from wall writings to television. It seems that as far as short-term, general, large scale behavioral effects are concerned, a mass media campaign is ineffective in increasing clinic attendance and is ineffective in increasing nonclinic sales of contraceptives.
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  9. 9


    Katongole R

    New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] [1983] 54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)

    This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.
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