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In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 19 p. (Series 1, Pt. 7)The population education documents and materials abstracted in this section focusing on curriculum and instructional materials are primarily meant for practitioners--teachers, trainers, extension workers, curriculum and material developers, whose role of disseminating population education concepts via the face-to-face approach is greatly enhanced by the use of the more impersonal forms of communication. The materials were selected to provide practitioners with a recommended list of teaching/learning tools and materials which they can use in their work. These materials come in the form of handbooks, manuals, guidebooks, packages, kits and reports. They cover all aspects of materials development, including the procedures in developing various types of materials and showing how population education concepts can be integrated into the various development themes. They also describe teaching/learning and training methods that are participatory in nature--games and simulations, role playing, problem solving, self-awareness exercises, communications sensitivity, human relations, projective exercises, programmed instructions and value clarification. In addition the abstracts provide a general summary of what curriculum areas can be used as entry points for population education concepts.
Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.
[Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
Population Bulletin. 1977 Feb; 31(5):1-39.All but 8 percent of the developing world's population now lives in countries which support activities designed explicitly or implicitly to reduce high rates of fertility. This Bulletin describes the indispensable role of planned communication in the rapid expansion of these activities from the emphasis on making contraceptives accessible to those ready to receive them, typical of early family planning programs, to promotion of a full range of "beyond family planning" measures aimed at creating a climate in which small families are viewed as desirable by people everywhere. Current approaches to planned population and family planning communication, as illustrated by numerous country examples, range from the use of field workers, volunteers, midwives and the like, who deliver their messages on a person-to-person basis, to full-scale mass communication campaigns which may employ both traditional folk media and modern advertising and social marketing techniques. Also discussed are population education as a somewhat different approach, not necessarily aimed at reduced fertility, and the recent rapid shift in the U.S. climate for population and family planning communication. (author's)
Horizons. 1983 Apr; 2(4):14-20.In Honduras and the Gambia the US Agency for International Development's (AID's) Bureau for Science and Technology and its contractors, working with the Ministry of Health in each country and drawing upon experts in health communications, anthropology, and behavioral psychology, have developed a health education methodology that integrates mass media and health providers. The project uses radio, graphics, and the training of village health workers to teach mothers how to treat and prevent diarrheal dehydration. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the AID assisted International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research in Bangladesh, have demonstrated that lost body fluid and electrolytes can be replaced with an orally administered solution. The treatment is known as ORT, oral rehydration therapy. AID efforts in Honduras and Gambia are showing that semi-literate persons, contacted primarily through the mass media, can be taught to mix and administer ORT. The campaign also includes a number of preventive measures. The Gambian government chose to use ORT packets prepared according to the WHO formula at health centers as a backup to the similar home mix solution. Honduras chose to package their own ORT salts, following the WHO formula, for use both at health centers and in the home. In Gambia the Ministry of Health created a national contest which kicked off with the distribution of 200,000 copies of a flyer carrying mixing instructions to nearly 2000 Gambian villages. Repeated radio announcements in Gambia's 2 major languages told mothers to gather and listen to contest instructions. The radio announcer led listeners through each panel of the color coded flyer which told them how to mix and administer ORT. 11,000 women attended the 72 village contests. Of the 6580 who entered the mixing competition, 1440 won a chance to compete and 1097 won prizes for correct mixing. After 8 months of campaign activities, the number of mothers who reported using a sugar-salt solution to treat their children's diarrhea rose from 3% to 48% (within the sample of some 750 households). The number of women who could recite the formula jumped from 1% to 64%. In Honduras a keynote poster for the campaign that featured a loving mother was distributed simultaneously with the airing of the 1st phase of the radio spots and programs. Within a year 93% of the mothers knew that the radio campaign was promoting Litrosol, the name of the locally packaged ORT salts; 71% could recite the radio jingle stressing the administration of liquid during diarrhea, and 42% knew that Litrosol prevented dehydration. 49% of all mothers in the sample had tried Litrosol at least once during the campaign.
World Health Forum. 1983; 4(2):157-61.In developing countries, the delivery of basic health care services is often hampered by communications problems. A pilot project in Guyana, involving 2-way radio in 9 medex (medical extension) locations, was funded by USAID (United States Aid for International Development). A training manual was prepared, and a training workshop provided the medex workers with practical experience in using the radios. The 2-way radios have facilitated arrangements for the transport of goods, hastened arrangements for leave, and shortened delays in correspondence and other administrative matters. Communication links enable rural health workers to treat patients with the advice of a doctor and allow doctors to monitor patient progress. Remote medex workers report that regular radio contacts with their colleagues have lessened their sense of isolation, boosted their morale, and helped build their confidence. 1 important element of the project was the training given to the field workers in proper use of the radio and in basic maintenance. Another key to the success of the system appears to be the strength and professionalism of the medex organization itself. Satellite systems may eventually prove to be the most cost effective means of providing rural telephone and broadcasting services and may also be designed to include dedicated medical communications networks at very little additional cost.