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POPULATION EDUCATION NEWS. 1987 May; 14(5):6-9.Population education incentives, voluntary action, community participation, and improved program management are 5 family planning areas recently redefined by the government of India. Population education, integrated with the educational system, is important in influencing fertility behavior. The Adult Education program, and the nonformal educational system will be strengthened, with aid from UNFPA. Incentives, which are presently available to government employees, will be increased. Economic incentives, rural development program incentives, and insurance, lottery, and bond incentive schemes are being considered. Voluntary organizations will be encouraged to work in the family welfare sphere, and organized sector units will be urged to provide family welfare services to their employees. Cooperatives, which cover 95% of villages, will be used as a means of educating, motivating, and communicating population control objectives on the local level. Tax incentives will be offered to the corporate sector for providing integrated family welfare services. Community participation, which is crucial to the success of the programs, will be addressed on several levels. Popular committees, youth and women's groups, and medical students will increase community involvement through various means. In addition, political and community leaders will be involved in motivational work, and a village Women's Volunteer Corps is planned. Social marketing of contraceptives, although fairly extensive for the last 15 years, leaves much to be desired in creating a large demand. A marketing board will be created to ensure aggressive marketing, advertising, and promotion, with expansion to include oral contraceptives. Reorganization and reorientation toward modern program management will be undertaken, so that policy, planning, implementation, review, and evaluation are carried out efficiently. At the state, district, and the block level, more effective coordination is the goal, as well as strengthening the District Family Welfare Bureau.
Washington, D.C., Heritage Foundation, 1984 Aug 27. 16 p. (Backgrounder No. 376)The United Nations' 2nd World Population Conference (Mexico City, 1984) called for greatly expanding funding for family planning assistance worldwide. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the conference's chief sponsor, will no doubt receive the largest portion of any assistance increase. UNFPA plays a critical role in population-related programs worldwide. The central debate on population policy should be over the extent and adequacy of the natural resources base and how countries can humanely and voluntarily change family size preferences. In countries like Singapore and South Korea, success has been achieved by combining social and economic incentives to discourage large families. Although couples in developing countries report wanting contraceptive service programs, they also want families of 4 to 6 children. So far UNFPA has been ineffective in changing the population situation. This overview of its activities reveals that UNFPA loses ultimate reponsibility for implementation of many of its own programs. UNFPA does not advocate a reduction in population growth within a single country, but rather helps couples have the number of children they desire. UNFPA's specific population and family programs are divided into functional areas: basic data collection, population change study, formulation and implementation of population policies, support for family planning/maternal child health programs and educational and communication programs. UNFPA stresses the importance of using contraceptives but not of achieving the small family norm. UNFPA's projects in some of the largest less developed nations are described, illustrating how the UN agency spends its assistance funds. From 1971 to 1982, the UNFPA spent almost US $230 million in the 10 largest less developed countries without any significant change in population growth. UNFPA program administrators are far from resolving the serious population problems facing developing countries and generally oblivious to new directions in which population policies should move. No progress will be made until UNFPA recognizes the need to approach the problem from a different perspective, working to change attitudes toward small families.