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POPULATION EDUCATION NEWS. 1987 May; 14(5):6-9.Population education incentives, voluntary action, community participation, and improved program management are 5 family planning areas recently redefined by the government of India. Population education, integrated with the educational system, is important in influencing fertility behavior. The Adult Education program, and the nonformal educational system will be strengthened, with aid from UNFPA. Incentives, which are presently available to government employees, will be increased. Economic incentives, rural development program incentives, and insurance, lottery, and bond incentive schemes are being considered. Voluntary organizations will be encouraged to work in the family welfare sphere, and organized sector units will be urged to provide family welfare services to their employees. Cooperatives, which cover 95% of villages, will be used as a means of educating, motivating, and communicating population control objectives on the local level. Tax incentives will be offered to the corporate sector for providing integrated family welfare services. Community participation, which is crucial to the success of the programs, will be addressed on several levels. Popular committees, youth and women's groups, and medical students will increase community involvement through various means. In addition, political and community leaders will be involved in motivational work, and a village Women's Volunteer Corps is planned. Social marketing of contraceptives, although fairly extensive for the last 15 years, leaves much to be desired in creating a large demand. A marketing board will be created to ensure aggressive marketing, advertising, and promotion, with expansion to include oral contraceptives. Reorganization and reorientation toward modern program management will be undertaken, so that policy, planning, implementation, review, and evaluation are carried out efficiently. At the state, district, and the block level, more effective coordination is the goal, as well as strengthening the District Family Welfare Bureau.
New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]  54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.