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  1. 1

    Advocacy, communication and social mobilization to fight TB : a 10-year framework for action.

    Deane J; Parks W

    Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. 93 p. (WHO/HTM/STB/2006.37)

    A significant scaling up of advocacy, communication and social mobilization (ACSM) will be needed to achieve the global targets for tuberculosis control as detailed in the Global Plan to Stop TB 2006--2015. In 2005, the ACSM Working Group (ACSM WG) was established as the seventh working group of the Stop TB Partnership to mobilize political, social and financial resources; to sustain and expand the global movement to eliminate TB; and to foster the development of more effective ACSM programming at country level in support of TB control. It succeeded an earlier Partnership Task Force on Advocacy and Communications. This work-plan focuses on those areas where ACSM has most to offer and where ACSM strategies can be most effectively concentrated to help address four key challenges to TB control at country level: Improving case detection and treatment adherence; Combating stigma and discrimination; Empowering people affected by TB; Mobilizing political commitment and resources for TB. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Corporate strategy on HIV / AIDS.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]. Bureau for Development Policy. HIV / AIDS Group

    New York, New York, UNDP, Bureau for Development Policy, HIV / AIDS Group, [2004]. 8 p.

    Twenty years on, the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to spread without respite. Almost 40 million people are living with HIV and AIDS, half of them women. The impact of HIV/AIDS is unique because it kills adults in the most productive period of their lives, depriving families, communities, and nations of their most productive people. Adding to an already heavy disease burden in poor countries, the epidemic is deepening poverty, reversing human development, worsening gender inequalities, eroding the capacity of governments to provide essential services, reducing labour productivity, and hampering pro-poor growth. The epidemic is quickly becoming the biggest obstacle to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Breakthrough: UNDP's response to HIV / AIDS.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, UNDP, 2004 Jun. 34 p.

    Something remarkable is happening in many parts of the world. Faced with a common enemy, people from different countries are discovering a shared goal. These are ordinary men and women who until recently had thought of HIV/AIDS as something that happened to other people. Responding to the epidemic has today become a passionate cause for each one. These individuals and groups are linked by one common factor: They have all been part of UNDP's Leadership for Results programme-- a unique and innovative process that helps to create an enabling environment to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, by fostering hope, generating transformation and producing breakthrough results. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    A call for action: promoting health in developing countries.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Working Group on Health Promotion in Developing Countries

    HEALTH EDUCATION QUARTERLY. 1991 Spring; 18(1):5-15.

    This article contains the findings and recommendations of a Working Group convened by the World Health Organizations (WHO) in 1989 in order to explore the application of health promotion concepts and strategies in developing countries. As the article's preamble explains, goal of health promotion is to foster health development by advocating policies, developing social support systems, and empowering people with the knowledge and skills needed to address health problems. The WHO Working Group, which included 26 representatives from around the world, focused on the following concerns: 1) how to mobilize the public and policy- makers in favor of health, and how to obtain an appropriate share of national resources; 2) how to encourage health planners to allocate resources to health promotion and disease prevention; and 3) how to intensify health education in developing countries. The article presents the highlights of the Working Group's discussions on the following 4 themes: 1) the issues facing health promotion in developing countries; 2) the formulation of health supportive public policies; 3) the empowerment of people for health action; and 4) the strengthening of nations' capability for health promotion. The article also issues a call for action around health promotion. Although the specific initiatives of individual countries invariably vary, the Working Group provides some of the high priority actions that developing nations need to take in order to move health promotion from concept to reality.
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  5. 5

    Science and Technology for Development: Prospects Entering the Twenty-First Century. A symposium in commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., June 22-23, 1987.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]; National Research Council

    Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1988. 79 p.

    This Symposium described and assessed the contributions of science and technology in development of less developed countries (LDCs), and focused on what science and technology can contribute in the future. Development experts have learned in the last 3 decades that transfer of available technology to LDCs alone does not bring about development. Social scientists have introduced the concepts of local participation and the need to adjust to local socioeconomic conditions. These concepts and the development of methodologies and processes that guide development agencies to prepare effective strategies for achieving goals have all improved project success rates. Agricultural scientists have contributed to the development of higher yielding, hardier food crops, especially rice, maize, and wheat. Health scientists have reduced infant and child mortalities and have increased life expectancy for those living in the LDCs. 1 significant contribution was the successful global effort to eradicate smallpox from the earth. Population experts and biological scientists have increased the range of contraceptives and the modes for delivering family planning services, both of which have contributed to the reduction of fertility rates in some LDCs. Communication experts have taken advantage of the telecommunications and information technologies to make available important information concerning health, agriculture, and education. For example, crop simulation models based on changes in temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, solar radiation, and soil conditions have predicted outcomes of various agricultural systems. An integration of all of the above disciplines are necessary to bring about development in the LDCs.
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  6. 6

    Communication: a guide for managers of national diarrhoeal disease control programmes. Planning, management and appraisal of communication activities.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, 1987. vii, 78 p.

    When the World Health Organization's Diarrheal Diseases Control Program (CDD) began in 1978, it concentrated on producers and providers of oral rehydration salts. Communication efforts were directed at informing health care providers and training them to treat patients. The time has come for CDD programs to put more emphasis on enduser-oriented approaches, and it is to facilitate that aim that this guide for CDD program managers on enduser-directed communication has been developed. The guide is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 deals with nature and scope of communication in a CDD program. The 1st step is research and analysis of the target population -- find out what the target audience does and does not know and what are some of their misconceptions about the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the Litrosol packets. Communication can teach mothers how and when and why to use ORT, but it cannot overcome lack of supply and distribution of the salts; it cannot be a substitute for trained health care staff; and it cannot transform cultural norms. Part 2 deals with the communication design process. Step 1 is to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of both the endusers and the health care providers; to investigate what communication resources are available; and to investigate the available resources in terms of cost, time, and personnel. Step 2 is communication planning, in terms of: 1) definition of the target audience; 2) identification of needed behavior modification, and 3) factors constraining it; 4) defining the goals of the communication program in terms of improving access to and use of the new information; 5) approaches to change, e.g., rewards, motivation, and appeal to logic, emotion, or fear; 6) deciding what mix of communications methods is to be used, i.e., radio, printed matter; 7) identifying the institutions that will carry out the communicating; 8) developing a feasible timetable, and 9) a feasible budget. Step 3 is to develop the message to be communicated and to choose the format of the message for different communications media. Step 4 is testing, using a sample of the audience, whether the messages are having their intended effect in terms of acceptance and understanding by the target audience, and revision of the messages as necessary. Step 5 is the actual implementation of the communication plan in terms of using a media mix appropriate to the audience, phasing the messages so as to avoid information saturation; and designing the messages so that they are understandable, correct, brief, attractive, standardized, rememberable, convincing, practical, and relevant to the target audience. Step 6 is to monitor the program to be sure the messages are reaching their intended audiences, to evaluate the program in terms of its actual effects, and to use the results of the monitoring and evaluation to correct instances of communication breakdown. Part 3 deals with the CDD manager's role in communication. The manager must select a suitable communications coordinator, who will have the technical expertise necessary and the ability to call upon appropriate government and private information resources and consultants. The manager must brief the coordinator in the scope and objectives of the CDD program; and he must supervise and monitor the work of the coordinator.
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  7. 7

    Communications framework for HIV / AIDS: a new direction.

    Airhihenbuwa CO; Makinwa B; Frith M; Obregon R

    Geneva, Switzerland, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS], 1999. 100 p.

    This document describes the findings and recommendations of the joint consultations on ways to make HIV/AIDS communication become more effective in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and Caribbean. In response to the increasing epidemic of HIV/AIDS, the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS initiated a participatory research process conducted through five consultative workshops (two global and three regional) to examine the global use of communications for HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and support. It primarily examined the adequacy of existing communications theories and models for HIV/AIDS in these four regions against a backdrop of contemporary communication in Western societies. The joint consultation showed that government policy, socioeconomic status, culture, gender relations, and spirituality were virtually universal factors in communicating HIV/AIDS preventive and health behaviors. These 5 interrelated contextual domains served as the blue print of the new framework of HIV/AIDS communication strategies. The majority of the existing communication programs have been aimed at achieving individual behavioral changes, which in many countries presents a major limitation. It was also noted that models, theories, and frameworks currently used in these countries do not appropriately address unique needs of HIV/AIDS communication. The challenge of this new direction is to ensure a redirection of intervention programs to recognize that individual behaviors are shaped and influenced by factors and domains within a broader contextual focus. Several recommendations to improve HIV/AIDS communication are outlined.
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  8. 8

    Communicating family planning in reproductive health: key messages for communicators.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Suport). Family Planning and Population

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Division of Reproductive Health (Technical Support), Family Planning and Population, 1997. xxi, 56 p. (WHO/FRH/FPP/97.33)

    Communication to individuals, communities, and policymakers about the benefits of family planning can be a first step toward improving the quality and accessibility of such services. This booklet, prepared by the World Health Organization, seeks to provide health care workers and communication specialists with tools they need to increase awareness of the need for family planning services and advocate for service improvement and expansion. Detailed information is presented to support 8 key IEC statements: 1) family planning saves women's lives and improves their health; 2) using contraception to delay first births and space births at least 2 years apart saves children's lives and improves child health; 3) family planning provides special social and economic benefits for the couple, family, and community; 4) a variety of safe and effective contraceptives exist, each with different characteristics to meet users' varied needs; 5) contraceptives are safe and offer many health benefits; 6) condoms provide significant protection against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); 7) adolescents face serious physical, social, and economic consequences from pregnancy and STDs, but can be helped to make responsible choices through sexuality education; and 8) men can support their sexual partners by sharing responsibility for family planning, disease prevention, and child rearing.
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  9. 9

    Getting the message across: new WHO video: Opening the Gates to Life.


    The World Health Organization (WHO) has produced a video to help launch its Mother-Baby Package entitled "Opening the Gates to Life." It shows how national programs can use the package to improve maternal survival. It aims to stimulate discussion and motivate health workers at all levels to develop concrete strategies and activities to reduce maternal mortality. Policy makers and planners will also benefit from the video. Another WHO video, "Why Did Mrs. X. Die?", depicted the road to maternal death and the obstacles she faced in her lifetime. The most recent video focuses on the road to life. The key concepts of this most recent video are opening the gates to life, motivating gatekeepers (policy makers, planners, health professionals, health workers, and community and family members), strengthening the links in the chain of care, and reaching out to women and communities. They are also incorporated in other communication materials of the package. Ways to open the gates to life are: reduce delay (household delay in deciding to seek care, delay in reaching care because of difficulties with transportation and the referral system, and delay in receiving care after arriving at a health facility), reduce the distance between women and life-saving obstetrics care, remove barriers (e.g., disrespectful treatment by health workers and cost), listen to the needs and perceptions of women, and penetrate the culture of silence. In the culture of silence maternal deaths are often not discussed or reported because they are considered a sensitive, private issue.
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  10. 10

    Towards a more effective integration of IEC within the UNFPA country programme.

    Cohen SI; Ahmad JS

    New York, New York, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 1995. [8], vii, 152 p. (Technical Report No. 22)

    UNFPA analyzed the conceptual and institutional framework of 60 out of 114 UNFPA-funded country projects in information, education, and communication (IEC) conducted during 1989-93. It used a detailed questionnaire/checklist to quantitatively analyze these projects. The projects were not school-based population education projects. Only 17% of UNFPA assistance to country programs went to IEC, and only 7% of funds allotted to IEC went to family planning projects (2% for Africa); yet IEC is the second top priority for UNFPA. There was inadequate provision for intersectoral coordination of one IEC project with others despite stated intentions for such coordination in project documents. Direct support of IEC to family planning programs was better achieved through integrated IEC projects than independent IEC projects. IEC strategies revolved around building the capacity of government project staff and field workers, resulting in a self-perpetuating emphasis on training. The projects tended to have weak strategic and methodological designs (e.g., objectives were formulated as activities rather than measurable outcomes). Governments rather than UN specialized agencies operated most projects in accord with the UN General Assembly recommendations for decentralization. Yet decentralization tends to limit IEC project budgets. For example, the budget of 66% of the IEC program budgets was less than $500,000. (It has since been increased to $750,000 per project.) The low project budgets had limited impact on the provision of technical assistance since the population projects had not yet reached the maturity stage. The study revealed the need for improved management information systems for IEC. UNFPA made six broad-based recommendations based on these findings. For example, UNFPA should increase IEC funds in general and direct IEC support of positive changes in reproductive health behavior, rights, and services in particular.
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  11. 11

    Partners: existing health institutions.

    Rosenbaum J

    In: Partners against AIDS: lessons learned. AIDSCOM, [compiled by] Academy for Educational Development [AED]. AIDS Public Health Communication Project [AIDSCOM]. Washington, D.C., AED, 1993 Nov. 67-76. (USAID Contract No. DPE-5972-Z-00-7070-00)

    AIDSCOM's Resident Advisor to the WHO Caribbean Epidemiology Centre (CAREC) discussed partnerships with existing health institutions. These institutions included Ministries of Health, multilateral agencies (e.g., WHO and UNICEF), family planning associations, universities, international private voluntary organizations, bilateral agencies (e.g., Canadian International Development Agency), and indigenous nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). AIDSCOM helped them develop an appropriate and effective conceptual approach to HIV prevention, which generally meant integrating new HIV prevention skills and concepts into existing programs and activities. AIDSCOM technical assistance addressed issues of accessibility of health services, testing, counseling, policy and confidentiality. Technical assistance included improved planning and management, program design skills, materials development, training in prevention counseling and condom skills, and a model for personal and professional behavior regarding AIDS, sex and risk. A key factor contributing to a successful partnership with CAREC was continuity of AIDSCOM staff contact. AIDSCOM helped CAREC with social marketing and behavioral research. It helped CAREC and its national counterparts to develop a regional KABP protocol for all 19 countries. AIDSCOM helped implement the protocol and strategize how to develop programmatic activities based on the results. The identified activities were training health workers and HIV prevention counselors promoting condom skills, establishing 5 national AIDS hotlines, developing 3 national media campaigns, and developing music, theater, and radio dramas. AIDSCOM and CAREC became partners with local NGOs who had access to hard-to-reach groups. Lessons learned included: technical assistance helps heath projects shift program emphasis from information to behavior change; successful partnership result in innovative programs; and proven effectiveness can be replicated in parallel programs.
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  12. 12

    Communication and community development: early child development programs.

    Wood F; Reinhold AJ


    Community-based groups are organized around particular aspects of early childhood development (ECD), such as literacy, parent education, and early childhood activities. In the Colombian national program, community households call upon women to devote a portion of their home to organized child care for minimal material reward. The Indian Child Development Service subsidizes the payment of organizers; and Kenyan parents construct basic preschool facilities, provide school lunches, and subsidize a teacher. In such cases the government plays a subordinate role, while the burden of program maintenance is carried by the community. These programs share the characteristics that children and adults learn side by side; adult learning ranges from women's literacy, to health, organizational issues, or small-scale economic development; a strong cultural component emphasizes mother tongue language learning, indigenous child-rearing practices, and local working models; physical structures are in homes; capacity-building for the adults is central which will be transferred to other spheres of community life. In the remote coastal villages of Colombia, an organization called Promesa works with mothers on designing their preschool children's educational activities. Promesa began to confront other priority needs in the villages, especially in environmental health and malaria control. A 1990 assessment related that participants' pride, self-confidence, and ability to solve problems regarding the healthy development of their children increased; groups learned to make use of the physical, human, and institutional resources from their environments; and participants' children remained in school and performed better. Conclusions from a decade of loose experimentation suggest that through communication community women can be organized to provide basic early education and early childhood activities can help rural children over the cultural barrier of school.
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  13. 13

    Comparative results of UNFPA evaluations.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1986 May. [3], 27 p.

    In response to a request from the Governing Council of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) the Evaluation Branch at UNFPA reviewed evaluations undertaken between 1979-85 (covering over 70 projects) by independent consultants on maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) and the status of women. Under Technical Cooperation Among Developing Countries (TCDC) it was suggested that Democratic Yemen draw on a field manual prepared for field health workers in Swaziland; Mozambique utilize a training program in administration of MCH/FP services developed in Colombia; and other African countries capitalize from the Kenya project in vital statistics and civil registration. The work plan category of basic data collection accounted for 15.4% of all UNFPA project expenditures in 1969-84. The 1979 evaluation of the African Census Programme (ACP) covered experience in 7 country projects. Reports on civil registration and vital statistics projects in Africa were based on in-depth evaluations in Kenya and Sierra Leone and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. Village chiefs and traditional birth attendants provided information for an active registration system. MCH/FP project accounted for 44% of UNFPA expenditures in 1979-84. The UNFPA budgetary contribution to training averaged less than 10%. Population education and communication (PEC) projects amounted to about 12% of UNFPA project expenditures in 1979-84. 11 independent evaluations and 4 internal evaluations were carried out covering more than 40 PEC projects in more than 20 countries as well as those of the Regional Advisory Teams in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Bangladesh and Democratic Yemen population topics featured primary and secondary schools for dropouts. Projects on the role and status of women facilitated women's participation in population programs (Indonesia and Nepal) and in UNFPA-supported country programs (Democratic Yemen, Haiti, Indonesia, and Rwanda). This role was examined in Democratic Yemen, Haiti, Indonesia, and Rwanda indicating that the project documents lacked an assessment of women's needs. The Indonesian Women, Population and Development projects succeeded in helping women earn more income and improve welfare of their families. The women's projects in Nepal somewhat improved women's access to paid employment and to agricultural extension services.
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  14. 14

    FY92 annual workplan: FY October 1, 1991 - September 30, 1992.

    Johns Hopkins School of Public Health. Center for Communication Programs. Population Communication Services [PCS]

    Baltimore, Maryland, PCS, 1992. [3], 61, [6] p.

    This report outlines the workplan of the Johns Hopkins University/Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) for the period of October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with USAID JHU/PCs seeks to provide technical expertise and assistance to family planning information, education and communication (IEC) programs in developing countries. The report describes the planned activities for 4 regions: Africa, Latin America, Asia, and the Near East. The report also reviews the activities according to the following categories: media/materials collection, technical services, and research evaluation. Finally, the report provides financial and administrative information. JHU/PCS will spend $11.7 million on regional and country projects. 35% of funds will support activities in Africa, 16% in Latin America, 35% in Asia, and 14% in the Near East. During the period, JHU/PCS will conduct country-need assessments in 11 countries, 63 country or regional projects, 2 international "Advances in Health Communication" workshops, and over 50 country training workshops and conferences. JHU/PCS's overall goal is to reduce fertility levels by promoting family planning and individual choice. Some of its strategies for accomplishing that goal include: 1) supporting USAID's "Big Country" Strategy; 2) improving the image of family planning and modern contraceptives; 3) marketing different types of family planning service providers; 4) reaching out to undeserved groups; 5) raising the quality standards of IEC materials; 6) upgrading the interpersonal communications skills of personnel; 7) using mass media to disseminate family planning information; 8) empowering women; 9) increasing cost-effectiveness, and 9) measuring IEC impact on behavior changes.
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  15. 15

    USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    USAID HIGHLIGHTS. 1991 Fall; 8(3):1-4.

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.
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  16. 16

    Assessment of the experience in the production of messages and programmes for rural communication systems: the case of the Wonsuom Project in Ghana.

    Obeng-Quaidoo I

    GAZETTE. 1988; 42(1):53-67.

    In 1983 there was a rural broadcast and newspaper project called the Wonsuom Project sponsored by UNESCO in Ghana. This project was centered around the Swedru district, in a Fante speaking area of 18 villages and towns with a population of 90,000, with the main industries fishing and farming. The broadcast part of the project started producing programs with farmers, fisherman, village nurses, and cultural groups. The second part of the project was a rural newspaper in Fante, with the purpose of supplying useful and timely information and news on health, agriculture, civic education, culture, and entertainment to areas around the town of Swedru. The goals of the rural broadcasts are to create awareness of the Wonsuom Project, promote all types of adult education, to assist people in the area to improve their quality of life, and to work in cooperation with any local organizations in relation to the project. The paper contains information on everything from crop planting information to agricultural loan information. There were also Wonsuom clubs formed that have become involved in many projects to help develop their communities. The newspaper was divided into 3.95% health items, 8% on agriculture, 6.3% on religion, 9% on education, 7% on politics, 7.2% on economics, 24.3% on social issues, 19% on the project itself, 15.7% on entertainment, and 5.8% on culture. The government is not continuing the regular radio broadcast relay station, but going to FM broadcasting which may be a problem since few people can afford FM receivers. The other problems include illiteracy and the financing available to continue and maintain the project. By using advertising and government support the project could continue.
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  17. 17

    [Children's health. 40. Unacceptable that 14 million children die every year] Borns sundhed. 40. Uacceptabelt at 14 millioner born dor hvert ar.

    Bergqvist LP

    SYGEPLEJERSKEN. 1987 Oct 7; 87(41):30-1.

    The 40th annual report of the UN Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) states that about 7 million of the 14 million children who die throughout the world each year could be saved by modern methods of health care and food supply. UNICEF's executive director James Grant points out that 40 years ago little international attention was given to mass death from starvation, but today any such crisis attracts the mass media, and people and governments act to avoid mass death. Undernourishment and epidemics continue to threaten the world's children and more than 280,000 children die from these causes each week. Even with the crises of the past two years in Africa there have been more deaths among children in India and Pakistan than in all of Africa's 46 countries together. Existing knowledge on cheap methods of improving the health of children in underdeveloped countries is sufficient to save at least 7 million children's lives each year. Many millions more could have a normal growth with better information on replacements on mother's milk, vaccinations and access to supplies of water, sugar, and salt for oral rehydration therapy. Just as important are the new technologies of the communications revolution which is taking place in underdeveloped countries. Most homes have a radio, and televisions are available in most villages and in many small communities there are schools and health workers.
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  18. 18

    Report of FAO Expert Consultation on Development Support Communication, Rome, 8-12 June 1987.

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [FAO]

    Rome, Italy, FAO, 1987. [2], ii, 30 p.

    Development communication is a social process that involves the sharing of knowledge aimed at reaching a consensus for action that takes into account the interests, needs, and capacities of all concerned. Communication by itself cannot bring about rural development, but the other components of development--infrastructure, supplies, and services--will not be used to full advantage without an exchange of knowledge between people at all levels. Past experience confirms the value of development communication when it is built into development programming from the start and influences project design and implementation. The strategic role of communication in development has been insufficiently recognized by governments, donor agencies, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) itself. A technological emphasis has predominated, with little attention to the behavioral changes required by the development process. The FAO's Development Support Communication Branch has focused on media-oriented approaches without promoting communication systems that integrate multimedia approaches with interpersonal approaches at all levels. To remedy this situation, it is recommended that the FAO provide orientation to programming staff and missions on the role of communication in development; improve linkages between the Development Support Communication Branch and the technical divisions of the FAO; reorient the Branch's activities to strengthen its training functions; and disseminate research and information to member governments. In addition, governments are urged to recognize more fully that development is based largely on voluntary change by people; that communication can lead to the proper situation analysis, research, and participation testing necessary to ensure that activities are people-oriented and needs-related; and that suitable budgets must be allotted for development communication.
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  19. 19

    A simple solution: how oral rehydration is averting child death from diarrhoeal dehydration.

    Williams G

    New York, New York, United Nations Children's Fund, 1987 Jun. 62 p.

    Worldwide, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) still claims only a modest niche in the market alongside a vast array of modern drugs and traditional treatments of diarrhea, the majority of which are either ineffective or harmful. Often, ORT is used as an adjunct therapy for drugs, instead of as a replacement. Drugs are also several times more expensive than ORT. ORT is not yet seen for what it rally is: the most effective treatment for a major killer disease in the developing world. Recent research has identified a total of 25 different virsues, bacteria, and parasites that cause diarrhea, and more are still being found. Cholera accounts for <1% of all types of accute diarrhea. It can usually be treated with ORT alone. The progressive symptoms for diarrhea are identified, and how ORT replaces salt and water is explained. A 2-tier strategy is recommended by WHO and UNICEF--90-95% of patients can be treated with ORT alone; the remainder require intravenous therapy. Continuation of feeding during diarrhea and additional feeding afterward is recommended. A review of antibiotics, absorbents, antimotility drugs, and anti-emetics shows why they do not work or should not be used. Training in diarrhea management for doctors, nurses, and midwives is inadequate. Supply problems are significant. Yet because OR solution needs no refrigeration and local production is more feasible than vaccines, logistic do not have to be complicated. Effective use of ORT needs to be promoted through communication. Social marketing and information campaigns in Gambia, Haiti, and Egypt are reviewed. The issues concerning use of standardised ORT formula. Salt-and-sugar solution are addressed. The future for ORT includs finding a better formula that would also reduce the volume and duration of the diarrhea itself.
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  20. 20

    Expanding the CSDR in the industrialized world.

    Konig U

    Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):37-42.

    The potential for the Child Survival and Development Revolution (CSDR) can only be realized, and a significant reduction in the infant mortality achieved, if all forces are mobilized worldwide. In industrialized countries, it is essential that the general public become aware of the recent breakthroughs in social development, and that the potential only now exists to reduce infant mortality and to improve child development on the basis of a combination of new knowledge and communication capacities that now exist in developing countries. National Committees for UNICEF, meeting in Rome in October 1984, developed lines of action for disseminating the CDSR message to the public in their respective countries and in mobilizing public opinion, NGOs and governments. A 3-point action plan was drawn up, to include awareness-raising through the diffusion of the CSDR message to target groups (media, opinion leaders); through an assessment in each of their countries of immunization levels, breastfeeding, and growth monitoring practices and advocacy with NGOs working on behalf of children in developing countries so that the measures recommended by UNICEF are included in their projects.
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  21. 21

    The demand approach for the child survival and development revolution.

    Vittachi VT

    Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):13-20.

    The central idea behind UNICEF's rubric of the Child Survival and Development Revolution (CSDR) is to enable parents to protect their children from preventable death an disablement. The CSDR strategy takes the demand approach, which opens the possibilities for parents to see what they should and could do to "grow" their children better. The concept of demand implies supply and therefore goes 1 step further than the concept of needs, spoken of for years in the development literature. Demand is often latent demand. The "demand" for good health and survival of a child is covered over by a widespread perception o fFate, the only explanation available to most people to help them bear their suffering. It is possible to change the climate of fatefulness through the media and the influential members of the community and to communicate the mssage that Fate is not Destiny, thus introducing the possibility of acting to change that Fate. What is therefore needed is to communicate the information and knowledge needed to bring about that change, thereby converting latent demand into articulate and effective demand to which supply is the response. 3 fronts are identified to carry out such a CSDR program: 1) training effective communicators of the CSDR message; 2) producing adequate program communication materials of sensitive and direct relevance to particular communities and 3) responding to the demand raised by hving supplies at hand. To make good on the promise of the CSDR, society needs to be mobilized, the political will stimulated and the professional will, active. Social mrketing is a new idea which is being adopted by UNICEF. It is an integral element of its program of social communication as are also public information and program communication. All 3 elements are integral to UNICEF's main programs of child development and survival.
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  22. 22

    The United Nations' flawed population policy.

    Huessy PR

    Washington, D.C., Heritage Foundation, 1984 Aug 27. 16 p. (Backgrounder No. 376)

    The United Nations' 2nd World Population Conference (Mexico City, 1984) called for greatly expanding funding for family planning assistance worldwide. The United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the conference's chief sponsor, will no doubt receive the largest portion of any assistance increase. UNFPA plays a critical role in population-related programs worldwide. The central debate on population policy should be over the extent and adequacy of the natural resources base and how countries can humanely and voluntarily change family size preferences. In countries like Singapore and South Korea, success has been achieved by combining social and economic incentives to discourage large families. Although couples in developing countries report wanting contraceptive service programs, they also want families of 4 to 6 children. So far UNFPA has been ineffective in changing the population situation. This overview of its activities reveals that UNFPA loses ultimate reponsibility for implementation of many of its own programs. UNFPA does not advocate a reduction in population growth within a single country, but rather helps couples have the number of children they desire. UNFPA's specific population and family programs are divided into functional areas: basic data collection, population change study, formulation and implementation of population policies, support for family planning/maternal child health programs and educational and communication programs. UNFPA stresses the importance of using contraceptives but not of achieving the small family norm. UNFPA's projects in some of the largest less developed nations are described, illustrating how the UN agency spends its assistance funds. From 1971 to 1982, the UNFPA spent almost US $230 million in the 10 largest less developed countries without any significant change in population growth. UNFPA program administrators are far from resolving the serious population problems facing developing countries and generally oblivious to new directions in which population policies should move. No progress will be made until UNFPA recognizes the need to approach the problem from a different perspective, working to change attitudes toward small families.
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  23. 23

    Towards a Unesco family planning communication programme and Unesco/WHO collaboration.

    UNESCO; World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for South-East Asia

    [Unpublished] 1972 Dec. 15. 23 p. (SEA/Comm. and Educ. Consult/FP/5)

    This document states Unesco's approach to family planning communication and shows the dimension of family planning communication projects in Unesco. On the basis of work initiated by Unesco and the World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that during the period 1973-78 assistance to family planning communication programs in 25 member states would be made available and nearly 400 communicators from member states trained. Recommendations of 4 expert meetings on integrated family planning and development programs, research, folk media, and training are included, and these would form the basis of Unesco action during the 1970s. Some of the areas which are included in these recommendations and which have implications for collaboration and cooperation between the Unesco and WHO are: 1) preparation of the guidelines of training courses in family planning communication and education on regional bases; 2) promotion of itinerant family planning communication and education training teams for regions; 3) dissemination of research findings to family planning administrators, communicators, and educators; 4) promotion of mobile regional research teams to help initiate research programs and development of corps of researchers at regional/national levels; 6) promotion of studies on the economics of family planning communication and education programs, deployment of resources between various components of such programs and development of guidelines for evaluation of such programs; 7) inclusion of folk media as a crucial part of family planning education and communication strategies; and 8) assistance in making available communication and media hardware to supplement the meagre mass media channels in developing countries and to increase the reach of conventional mass media.
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  24. 24

    Communicating population and family planning.


    Population Bulletin. 1977 Feb; 31(5):1-39.

    All but 8 percent of the developing world's population now lives in countries which support activities designed explicitly or implicitly to reduce high rates of fertility. This Bulletin describes the indispensable role of planned communication in the rapid expansion of these activities from the emphasis on making contraceptives accessible to those ready to receive them, typical of early family planning programs, to promotion of a full range of "beyond family planning" measures aimed at creating a climate in which small families are viewed as desirable by people everywhere. Current approaches to planned population and family planning communication, as illustrated by numerous country examples, range from the use of field workers, volunteers, midwives and the like, who deliver their messages on a person-to-person basis, to full-scale mass communication campaigns which may employ both traditional folk media and modern advertising and social marketing techniques. Also discussed are population education as a somewhat different approach, not necessarily aimed at reduced fertility, and the recent rapid shift in the U.S. climate for population and family planning communication. (author's)
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  25. 25

    Evaluation report of UNFPA assistance to the National Family Planning Programme of Thailand: Project THA/76/PO1--expansion of family planning services and support to the infrastructure of the NFPP and Project THA/76/PO5--National Family Planning Communication Programme.

    Adhikarya R; Dodd N; Wright N; McWilliam JA

    New York, New York, United Nations Fund for Population Activities, April 1982. 74 p.

    Looks at the contribution of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to Thailand's National Family Planning Program (NFPP) and assistance given to NFPP through project THA/76/PO1: Expansion of Family Planning Services and Support to the Infrastructure of the NFPP, and THA/76/PO5: National Family Planning Communication Program. The UNFPA has been assisting population projects in Thailand since 1971. Over 90% of the funding has gone to support the NFPP in its service delivery activities, training, and information, education, and communication activities. The long range objectives of both projects was to contribute to decreasing the annual rate of population growth from above 2.6% in 1976 to 2.1% by the end of 1981. The THA/76/PO1 project was to assist the Ministry of Public Health in implementing its national population policy through expansion of its family planning service network. The THA/76/PO5 project was to assist the Ministry of Public Health in its communication program in support of family planning. Achievements and projects of the NFPP are discussed and their general strategy, planning, research, evaluation, approaches in mass communication, and small group activities are also covered. The evaluation Mission made numerous recommendations and suggestions concerning reprogramming of 1982 activities. The recommendations and suggestions were addressed to the government for its consideration and to UNFPA for policy and program decisions.
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