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  1. 1
    050804

    [The street: a scenario for health] La calle: un escenario para la salud.

    Leon R

    In: Materiales del "Segundo Seminario de Comunicacion en Poblacion" organizado por AMIDEP, Lima, 23-27 de marzo de 1987, [compiled by] Asociacion Multidisciplinaria de Investigacion y Docencia en Poblacion [AMIDEP]. Lima, Peru, AMIDEP, 1987. 71-84. (Cuadernos de Comunicacion AMIDEP No. 1)

    The UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) has substituted the infant mortality rate for per capita income in determining its plans for cooperation with poor countries. More than 15 million infants under 1 year die each year from such causes as dehydration during diarrhea, malnutrition, illnesses preventable by immunization, and immunological deficiencies caused by early weaning. In 1984 a 4-pronged approach to control of infant mortality was announced by UNICEF. It called for treatment of dehydration by oral rehydration therapy, immunization against 6 killing diseases, use of growth charts by mothers, and promotion of breast feeding. UNICEF based the strategy on a number of elements not directly related to public investment, including a high level political commitment, consensus of the most dynamic social forces, intense social mobilization of the priority sectors for application of the strategy, and full support of the mass media. Most of the interventions in which UNICEF has cooperated have been of the campaign type, raising questions about the permanence of the actions. Compromises were believed to be needed to ensure that activities go on in circumstances that would otherwise overwhelm the public health services. The job of communication in such circumstances is to find ways of guaranteeing that the new health behaviors become routinized and incorporated into the everyday life of the target population. The communication program for the vaccination campaign in Peru in 1985 faced specific challenges: understanding the relationship between mass communication and social mobilization, and providing mass media for a single campaign that would be valid for the entire country in its geographic and social diversity. Although no formal pretesting was done of the mass communication materials, the impact of the messages, music, slogans, and images was informally measured in the early phase of diffusion. Messages for the 1st vaccination day were created for radio, television, and the press that tried to maintain a festival atmosphere while attracting parents of infants and children under 5, dispelling their resistence, furnishing information on the location of vaccination posts, and emphasizing the date. Themes stressed for the 2nd vaccination day were the need to attend all 3 days to be fully protected, changes in location of posts, and continuing need to overcome fear of side effects. It became clear that more stress was also needed on the risks and consequences of not being vaccinated. The festival atmosphere was maintained in the numerous social mobilization activities held at the local level to publicize the vaccination days.
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  2. 2
    048153

    New approaches to Family Planning Programme.

    POPULATION EDUCATION NEWS. 1987 May; 14(5):6-9.

    Population education incentives, voluntary action, community participation, and improved program management are 5 family planning areas recently redefined by the government of India. Population education, integrated with the educational system, is important in influencing fertility behavior. The Adult Education program, and the nonformal educational system will be strengthened, with aid from UNFPA. Incentives, which are presently available to government employees, will be increased. Economic incentives, rural development program incentives, and insurance, lottery, and bond incentive schemes are being considered. Voluntary organizations will be encouraged to work in the family welfare sphere, and organized sector units will be urged to provide family welfare services to their employees. Cooperatives, which cover 95% of villages, will be used as a means of educating, motivating, and communicating population control objectives on the local level. Tax incentives will be offered to the corporate sector for providing integrated family welfare services. Community participation, which is crucial to the success of the programs, will be addressed on several levels. Popular committees, youth and women's groups, and medical students will increase community involvement through various means. In addition, political and community leaders will be involved in motivational work, and a village Women's Volunteer Corps is planned. Social marketing of contraceptives, although fairly extensive for the last 15 years, leaves much to be desired in creating a large demand. A marketing board will be created to ensure aggressive marketing, advertising, and promotion, with expansion to include oral contraceptives. Reorganization and reorientation toward modern program management will be undertaken, so that policy, planning, implementation, review, and evaluation are carried out efficiently. At the state, district, and the block level, more effective coordination is the goal, as well as strengthening the District Family Welfare Bureau.
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  3. 3
    049313

    [Social mobilization and information, education, communication (IEC) in the area of population] Mobilisation social et information--education--communication (I.E.C) en matire de population.

    Zigirumugabe S

    FAMILLE, SANTE, DEVELOPPEMENT / IMBONEZAMURYANGO. 1988 Apr; (11):23-8.

    Despite efforts by Rwanda's National Office of Population (ONAPO) to increase awareness of Rwanda's population problems, there has been little change in the reproductive behavior of the rural population. ONAPO plans to formulate an overall information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign in the area of maternal-child health and family planning to inform the population about Rwanda's sociodemographic problems and the solution offered by family planning. The campaign will have 3 main components: 1) provision of information to the general population through the informal educational system 2) training and school-based population information and 3) production of educational materials to support the training and communication programs. IEC programs for maternal-child health and family planning will be integrated into more widely accepted activities having some degree of permanence, such as the school system, health centers, and religious institutions. The communal centers for development and permanent training will play an especially strong role in the integrated IEC plans for rural areas. Center personnel will help the population understand the connection between family planning and the socioeconomic and health status of families and will motivate couples to use family planning. The overall IEC plan will receive support from the National Revolutionary Movement for Development, the Association of Rwandan Women for Development, the Ministry of the Interior and of Communal Development, and the Ministry of Public Health and Social Affairs. Various other ministries, religious organizations, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations should also support the IEC effort.
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  4. 4
    007250

    Republic of the Gambia: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1981 Oct. 59 p. (Report No 44)

    The findings of the Mission that visited the Republic of the Gambia during October 1978 and from August 27th to September 5th, 1980 for the purpose of assessing the need for population assistance are presented in this report. Information is provided on the following: the national setting (geographical and governmental features; demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population; and population policy and development planning); basic population data (censuses and surveys, vital statistics and civil registration, other data collection activities, and needs); population policy formulation (population growth and distribution, integration of population factors into development plans, and structures for policy formulation; and implementing population policies (programs designed to affect fertility, mortality, and morbidity; programs affecting the distribution of the population; information, education, and communication programs; and women's programs); and external assistance (multilateral and bilateral assistance and nongovernmental organization assistance). Mission recommendations are both summarized and presented in detail. The total population of the country is 597,000, and the population growth rate between 1963-1973 was an estimated 2.8%. The crude birth rate is 49-50/1000 and the total estimated fertility rate is an average of 6.4 live births/woman over her reproductive life span. Both population density and urban growth are serious concerns. Internal and international migration are influencing the population distribution, although data regarding migration are limited. The economy is primarily agricultural. Gambia had no formal population policy until 1979. The current population is based on the guiding principles that population policy should be considered part of rural development and that the goal of self-reliance should be pursued. Improved management, administration, logistics, transport, and supervision to support the existing and all future health care service systems of the country are critical needs. Training is needed for various categories of health personnel.
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  5. 5
    041438

    Keeping in touch by two-way radio.

    Hudson HE; Forsythe V; Burns SG

    World Health Forum. 1983; 4(2):157-61.

    In developing countries, the delivery of basic health care services is often hampered by communications problems. A pilot project in Guyana, involving 2-way radio in 9 medex (medical extension) locations, was funded by USAID (United States Aid for International Development). A training manual was prepared, and a training workshop provided the medex workers with practical experience in using the radios. The 2-way radios have facilitated arrangements for the transport of goods, hastened arrangements for leave, and shortened delays in correspondence and other administrative matters. Communication links enable rural health workers to treat patients with the advice of a doctor and allow doctors to monitor patient progress. Remote medex workers report that regular radio contacts with their colleagues have lessened their sense of isolation, boosted their morale, and helped build their confidence. 1 important element of the project was the training given to the field workers in proper use of the radio and in basic maintenance. Another key to the success of the system appears to be the strength and professionalism of the medex organization itself. Satellite systems may eventually prove to be the most cost effective means of providing rural telephone and broadcasting services and may also be designed to include dedicated medical communications networks at very little additional cost.
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  6. 6
    023698

    Thailand: report of Second Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, May 1983. 74 p. (Report No. 55)

    Reports on the need for population assistance in Thailand. Areas are identified which require assistance to achieve self-reliance in formulating and implementing population programs. Thailand has had a family planning program since 1970 and UNFPA has been assisting population projects and programs in Thailand since 1971. A Basic Needs Assessment Mission visited the country in April 1981. Thailand is experiencing a rapid decline in the population growth rate and mortality rates have been declining for several decades. The Mission makes recommendations for population assistance and identifies priority areas for assistance, such as population policy formation; data collection; demographic research; health and family planning; population information, education, and communication; and women and development. The Mission recommends that all population efforts be centralized in a single agency with no other function. Thailand is also in need of more personnel in key agencies dealing with population matters. The Mission also recommends that external aid be sought for technical assistance and that population projections be revised based on the 1980 census. Thailand has made a great deal of progress in developing its health infrastructure and services, but some problems still remain, especially in areas of staff recruitment and deployment and in providing rural services. The Mission also recommends that external assistance be continued for short term training seminars and workshops abroad for professionals. Seminars should be organized to assist officials in understanding the importance of population factors in their areas.
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  7. 7
    027674

    Africa.

    Katongole R

    New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] [1983] 54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)

    This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.
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