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  1. 1

    [Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.

    Senegal. Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation

    Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)

    This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
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  2. 2

    Comparative results of UNFPA evaluations.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, New York, UNFPA, 1986 May. [3], 27 p.

    In response to a request from the Governing Council of the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) the Evaluation Branch at UNFPA reviewed evaluations undertaken between 1979-85 (covering over 70 projects) by independent consultants on maternal and child health/family planning (MCH/FP) and the status of women. Under Technical Cooperation Among Developing Countries (TCDC) it was suggested that Democratic Yemen draw on a field manual prepared for field health workers in Swaziland; Mozambique utilize a training program in administration of MCH/FP services developed in Colombia; and other African countries capitalize from the Kenya project in vital statistics and civil registration. The work plan category of basic data collection accounted for 15.4% of all UNFPA project expenditures in 1969-84. The 1979 evaluation of the African Census Programme (ACP) covered experience in 7 country projects. Reports on civil registration and vital statistics projects in Africa were based on in-depth evaluations in Kenya and Sierra Leone and elsewhere in Sub-Saharan Africa. Village chiefs and traditional birth attendants provided information for an active registration system. MCH/FP project accounted for 44% of UNFPA expenditures in 1979-84. The UNFPA budgetary contribution to training averaged less than 10%. Population education and communication (PEC) projects amounted to about 12% of UNFPA project expenditures in 1979-84. 11 independent evaluations and 4 internal evaluations were carried out covering more than 40 PEC projects in more than 20 countries as well as those of the Regional Advisory Teams in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Bangladesh and Democratic Yemen population topics featured primary and secondary schools for dropouts. Projects on the role and status of women facilitated women's participation in population programs (Indonesia and Nepal) and in UNFPA-supported country programs (Democratic Yemen, Haiti, Indonesia, and Rwanda). This role was examined in Democratic Yemen, Haiti, Indonesia, and Rwanda indicating that the project documents lacked an assessment of women's needs. The Indonesian Women, Population and Development projects succeeded in helping women earn more income and improve welfare of their families. The women's projects in Nepal somewhat improved women's access to paid employment and to agricultural extension services.
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  3. 3

    Features of the 1982 China census from international standpoint.

    Kannisto V

    In: A census of one billion people. Papers for International Seminar on China's 1982 Population Census, edited by Li Chengrui. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1986. 37-52.

    This paper examines how the 1982 China census met the standards prevalent in the world at large and formulated by the international community into recommendations under UN guidance. It also examines to what extent the China census met the recommendations, what alternatives were adopted and why, and what methods it used to carry them out. China's 1982 census met the criteria of individual enumeration, universality, simultaneity, and defined periodicity. The 1982 census was a register-based de jure census in which the field interview and its checks determined the final content of census information. It was necesary to restrict the number of census questions to fewer than would have been desirable. The questionnaire included 5 household and 13 individual topics. Questions on live births and deaths in the household since 1981 were included, although not generally recommended. Age data is unusually accurate due to people's awareness of what animal sign they were born under. Housing questions were not asked in this census, but may be included in the next census. Sampling was used only in the small-scale post-enumeration survey. In China, the administrative network is so complete and reaches down to so small a unit that no further subdivision for census purposes is needed at all. A most unconventional feature of the censuses of China has been the virtually complete absence of mapping. An extensive program of 4887 pilot censuses ensured the success of the full census. The publicity effort involved 2-way communication from the national office to the public and back. The issue of confidentiality was felt to be problematical in China and best solved by not asking questions that people would be reluctant to answer. The method of enumeration differed greatly from the usual ones in that it centered on enumeration stations with home visits used to a lesser extent. Several questions were precoded, but the enumerator had to write in the number as well as circle the correct item. 10% advance tabulations were made for all units and found to be very representative.
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  4. 4

    Report of Experts Meeting 18-22 September 1978.

    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Africa. Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa

    Nairobi, Kenya, Unesco Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, [1978]. 19, [16] p. (XA/01471/00)

    The Experts Group, made up of 17 communicators and trainers from international agencies and leading communication training institutions from throughout the Africa continent, met in September 1978 met to consider a background paper bases on replies to questionnaires concerning country requirements for 1980 and 1985 as well as 5 technical papers. The technical papers focused on population communication program requirements for 1980, communication needs for the 1980s, population communication requirements in Zambia for the 1980s; communication research needs in the 1980s; and research priorities in the 1980s. In their deliberations, the experts proceeded from the assumption that the purpose of all communication activities in the African region must be the enhancement of the quality of life of the majority of the people and the creation and sustenance of an environment conducive to the promotion of social development. The experts emphasized the need for cooperation and coordination of the efforts of all UN specialized agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the promotion of communication programs for social development. The meeting also called for intergovernmental cooperation based on a definite commitment and political will of all African governments, to enable their recommendations to be quickly and effectively implemented. The recommendations were accompanied by strategies for implementation to help to meet the identified priority needs for communication in support of social development for the 1980s. The recommendations and strategies focused on 4 areas -- media development, training, research, and institution building. The goal of all of these recommendations and strategies is to develop the ability of the African region to become self reliant at various levels. The Experts Meeting concluded that steps toward the realization of that goal could begin in the 1980s, if the needed resources were made available early enough for phased planning of individual projects and the stimulation of regional activities. Having reviewed the media situation, the Experts Meeting recommended that a combination of mass media with group and traditional modes of communication would be the most realistic approach and should receive priority in the 1980s. In the area of training, the meeting gave priority to the training of trainers at all levels. In the research area the critical need is for reliable data. Finally, additional support is required in the area of institution building to enable specified institutions to expand and intensify their training programs to meet the various regional and national needs. The Experts Meeting held the view that the strengthening of disadvantaged groups through appropriate and judicious use of communication strategies should include youth and young adults and women.
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  5. 5

    Afghanistan: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1978 Jun. 53 p. (Report No 3)

    The present report presents the findings of the Mission which visited Afghanistan from October 3-16, 1977 for the purpose of assessing the country's needs for population assistance. Report focus is on the following: the national setting (geographical, cultural, and administrative features; salient demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population; and economic development and national planning); basic population data; population dynamics and policy formulation; implementing population policies (family health and family planning and education, communication, and information); and external assistance (multilateral and bilateral). The final section presents the recommendations of the Mission in detail. For the past 25 years Afghanistan has been working to inject new life into its economy. Per capita income, as estimated for 1975, was $U.S. 150, a relatively low figure and heavily skewed in favor of a very small proportion of the population. The country is still predominantly rural (85%) and agricultural (75%). In the absence of reliable data, population figures must be accepted tentatively. According to the 7-year plan, the population in 1975 was 16.7 million and the rate of growth around 2.5% per annum. The crude birth rate is near 50/1000 and the crude death rate possibly 25/1000. The Mission endorses the priority given by the government to the population census and recommends continued support on the part of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to help the Central Statistical Office in the present effort and in building up capacity for future work. The Mission recommends that efforts be concentrated on the reduction of infant, child, and maternal mortality levels and that assistance be continued to the family health services and to programs of population education. Emphasis should be on services to men and women in rural areas. The Mission also recommends a training program for traditional birth attendants.
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  6. 6

    Republic of the Gambia: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1981 Oct. 59 p. (Report No 44)

    The findings of the Mission that visited the Republic of the Gambia during October 1978 and from August 27th to September 5th, 1980 for the purpose of assessing the need for population assistance are presented in this report. Information is provided on the following: the national setting (geographical and governmental features; demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population; and population policy and development planning); basic population data (censuses and surveys, vital statistics and civil registration, other data collection activities, and needs); population policy formulation (population growth and distribution, integration of population factors into development plans, and structures for policy formulation; and implementing population policies (programs designed to affect fertility, mortality, and morbidity; programs affecting the distribution of the population; information, education, and communication programs; and women's programs); and external assistance (multilateral and bilateral assistance and nongovernmental organization assistance). Mission recommendations are both summarized and presented in detail. The total population of the country is 597,000, and the population growth rate between 1963-1973 was an estimated 2.8%. The crude birth rate is 49-50/1000 and the total estimated fertility rate is an average of 6.4 live births/woman over her reproductive life span. Both population density and urban growth are serious concerns. Internal and international migration are influencing the population distribution, although data regarding migration are limited. The economy is primarily agricultural. Gambia had no formal population policy until 1979. The current population is based on the guiding principles that population policy should be considered part of rural development and that the goal of self-reliance should be pursued. Improved management, administration, logistics, transport, and supervision to support the existing and all future health care service systems of the country are critical needs. Training is needed for various categories of health personnel.
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  7. 7

    Solomon Islands: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1981 Oct. 71 p. (Report No 43)

    A comprehensive assessment of basic needs for assistance to enable the Solomon Islands to achieve self-reliance in the population aspects of its national development is presented in this report. This report outlines the findings of the Mission that visited the Solomon Islands from November 28th to December 13th, 1979. The 9 sections of the report focus on the following: the national setting (geographical, governmental, and cultural features; demographic, social, and economic characteristics; socioeconomic development and national planning; and population objectives and development plans); basic population data; population policy formulation and dynamics; implementing population policies (health and family planning); education, information, and communication; and special programs and community development; external assistance (multilateral and bilateral assistance and nongovernmental organizations); and recommendations for population assistance. Solomon Islands, which achieved independence in 1978, has a population of 196,823 and a population growth rate of 3.4%. The draft of the 1980-1984 National Development Plan details sectoral goals that exceed the country's financial capacity, and construction delays and the limited availability of skilled local manpower severely inhibit the country's absorptive capacity for external assistance. The most pressing needs for population assistance are for projects that would have an impact on the socioeconomic factors that influence population variables--factors such as income-earning opportunities and capacities, women's status, education and training, and community development. The Mission recommends the development of a vital registration system and social statistics system. As there is no coherent national policy with regard to population size, growth, and distribution, it is recommended that a program be developed that would combine activities to raise the awareness of decision makers concerning the importance of population policy in development planning.
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  8. 8

    Republic of Korea: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, April 1982. 81 p. (Report; no. 47)

    Korea has seen a rapid growth in both population and economy over the last 2 decades. Rapid urbanization along with high population density has been pushing people towards Seoul. The government wishes to control this migration and the natural increases in population. The excellent progress in family planning over the last 20 years is described. Modern contraceptive methods are available for free or for a nominal charge in clinics that are staffed by predominantly nonmedical personnel. The population problem is still great, and the authors suggest several means to reorganize family planning institutions. In general, the hopes of this reorganization rest on careful compilation and analysis of demographic factors, expansion of already present health care facilities, extention of medical insurance to lower income groups, restructuring of budgeting monies to doctors and family planning workers, and the more liberal use of incentives and population education.
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