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New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 2001 Jun 9.  p. (DPI/2214/F)This fact sheet presents five priorities for action, six key factors to achieve these goals, and recommends partnering to carry out the campaign.
Communication: a guide for managers of national diarrhoeal disease control programmes. Planning, management and appraisal of communication activities.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, 1987. vii, 78 p.When the World Health Organization's Diarrheal Diseases Control Program (CDD) began in 1978, it concentrated on producers and providers of oral rehydration salts. Communication efforts were directed at informing health care providers and training them to treat patients. The time has come for CDD programs to put more emphasis on enduser-oriented approaches, and it is to facilitate that aim that this guide for CDD program managers on enduser-directed communication has been developed. The guide is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 deals with nature and scope of communication in a CDD program. The 1st step is research and analysis of the target population -- find out what the target audience does and does not know and what are some of their misconceptions about the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the Litrosol packets. Communication can teach mothers how and when and why to use ORT, but it cannot overcome lack of supply and distribution of the salts; it cannot be a substitute for trained health care staff; and it cannot transform cultural norms. Part 2 deals with the communication design process. Step 1 is to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of both the endusers and the health care providers; to investigate what communication resources are available; and to investigate the available resources in terms of cost, time, and personnel. Step 2 is communication planning, in terms of: 1) definition of the target audience; 2) identification of needed behavior modification, and 3) factors constraining it; 4) defining the goals of the communication program in terms of improving access to and use of the new information; 5) approaches to change, e.g., rewards, motivation, and appeal to logic, emotion, or fear; 6) deciding what mix of communications methods is to be used, i.e., radio, printed matter; 7) identifying the institutions that will carry out the communicating; 8) developing a feasible timetable, and 9) a feasible budget. Step 3 is to develop the message to be communicated and to choose the format of the message for different communications media. Step 4 is testing, using a sample of the audience, whether the messages are having their intended effect in terms of acceptance and understanding by the target audience, and revision of the messages as necessary. Step 5 is the actual implementation of the communication plan in terms of using a media mix appropriate to the audience, phasing the messages so as to avoid information saturation; and designing the messages so that they are understandable, correct, brief, attractive, standardized, rememberable, convincing, practical, and relevant to the target audience. Step 6 is to monitor the program to be sure the messages are reaching their intended audiences, to evaluate the program in terms of its actual effects, and to use the results of the monitoring and evaluation to correct instances of communication breakdown. Part 3 deals with the CDD manager's role in communication. The manager must select a suitable communications coordinator, who will have the technical expertise necessary and the ability to call upon appropriate government and private information resources and consultants. The manager must brief the coordinator in the scope and objectives of the CDD program; and he must supervise and monitor the work of the coordinator.
[Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.
Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
Final report: First Caribbean Health-Communication Roundtable, St. Philip, Barbados, 16-18 November 1987.
[Unpublished] 1987. , 30,  p.To create a mechanism from which to mobilize communications media as a force for health in the Caribbean, the 1st Caribbean Health Communication Roundtable was held in 1987. Organized and initiated by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and cosponsored by UNESCO and the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), the summary of the objectives discussed at the roundtable are presented in this report. Objectives include sensitizing the media to the health concerns of AIDS, disaster preparedness, nutrition and chronic diseases, and the examination of different types of health communication methodologies. Roundtable participants drafted a series of recommendations for submission to all relevant national, regional, and international agencies. 6 major recommendations covered various aspects of health communication. Workshops at the national and sub-regional level to train media and communications specialists were a suggested means of improving information techniques for health educators. Improvements in coordination and cooperation between Ministries of Health and Ministries of Information, requested by CARICOM, was recommended to strengthen health communication. The addition of an information specialist to the staff of the PAHO office was recommended, as well as the promotion of alternative communication methods and practices. Establishing a regional center for the identification, collection, cataloging, and dissemination of communication ideas, experiences and other resources was another major recommendation. In addition, evaluation of regional communication projects was suggested. Pre- and post-Roundtable questionnaires are reproduced in the Appendices, as are the program schedule, rationale, and list of participants.
[Unpublished] 1986. Presented at the ICOMP Biennial International Conference, San Jose, Costa Rica, May 1-4, 1986. 11,  p.Communication is a basic part of population and development programs and is necessary to ensure that people participate and improve their quality of life. The management of the communication process in these programs requires not only knowledge and comprehension of the process, but also the structure of media and local organizations. The direction of management has shifted from a vertical to a horizontal communication structure. To be an effective manager, the following traits are needed: The ability to understand policy, develop strategies, provide and seek support, produce unique messages, make media choices, mobilize personnel, prepare training activities and work plans, and be able to implement research. The skills needed are the ability to foresee and act on problems, communicate and listen effectively, motivate and persuade, and adapt to changing demands of a program. Based on these and other needs a 2 week pilot training program was developed containing 3 modules. After evaluation of the pilot program the course was lengthened to 3 weeks with additional time for special needs asked for by the students. Unesco together with the Asia-Pacific Institute for Broadcasting Development developed courses in the management of population communication programs and also with the Arab States Broadcasting Union. These programs are the beginning of an integrated effort for population and development management training.
In: Materiales del "Segundo Seminario de Comunicacion en Poblacion" organizado por AMIDEP, Lima, 23-27 de marzo de 1987, [compiled by] Asociacion Multidisciplinaria de Investigacion y Docencia en Poblacion [AMIDEP]. Lima, Peru, AMIDEP, 1987. 71-84. (Cuadernos de Comunicacion AMIDEP No. 1)The UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) has substituted the infant mortality rate for per capita income in determining its plans for cooperation with poor countries. More than 15 million infants under 1 year die each year from such causes as dehydration during diarrhea, malnutrition, illnesses preventable by immunization, and immunological deficiencies caused by early weaning. In 1984 a 4-pronged approach to control of infant mortality was announced by UNICEF. It called for treatment of dehydration by oral rehydration therapy, immunization against 6 killing diseases, use of growth charts by mothers, and promotion of breast feeding. UNICEF based the strategy on a number of elements not directly related to public investment, including a high level political commitment, consensus of the most dynamic social forces, intense social mobilization of the priority sectors for application of the strategy, and full support of the mass media. Most of the interventions in which UNICEF has cooperated have been of the campaign type, raising questions about the permanence of the actions. Compromises were believed to be needed to ensure that activities go on in circumstances that would otherwise overwhelm the public health services. The job of communication in such circumstances is to find ways of guaranteeing that the new health behaviors become routinized and incorporated into the everyday life of the target population. The communication program for the vaccination campaign in Peru in 1985 faced specific challenges: understanding the relationship between mass communication and social mobilization, and providing mass media for a single campaign that would be valid for the entire country in its geographic and social diversity. Although no formal pretesting was done of the mass communication materials, the impact of the messages, music, slogans, and images was informally measured in the early phase of diffusion. Messages for the 1st vaccination day were created for radio, television, and the press that tried to maintain a festival atmosphere while attracting parents of infants and children under 5, dispelling their resistence, furnishing information on the location of vaccination posts, and emphasizing the date. Themes stressed for the 2nd vaccination day were the need to attend all 3 days to be fully protected, changes in location of posts, and continuing need to overcome fear of side effects. It became clear that more stress was also needed on the risks and consequences of not being vaccinated. The festival atmosphere was maintained in the numerous social mobilization activities held at the local level to publicize the vaccination days.
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1987. , ii, 30 p.Development communication is a social process that involves the sharing of knowledge aimed at reaching a consensus for action that takes into account the interests, needs, and capacities of all concerned. Communication by itself cannot bring about rural development, but the other components of development--infrastructure, supplies, and services--will not be used to full advantage without an exchange of knowledge between people at all levels. Past experience confirms the value of development communication when it is built into development programming from the start and influences project design and implementation. The strategic role of communication in development has been insufficiently recognized by governments, donor agencies, and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) itself. A technological emphasis has predominated, with little attention to the behavioral changes required by the development process. The FAO's Development Support Communication Branch has focused on media-oriented approaches without promoting communication systems that integrate multimedia approaches with interpersonal approaches at all levels. To remedy this situation, it is recommended that the FAO provide orientation to programming staff and missions on the role of communication in development; improve linkages between the Development Support Communication Branch and the technical divisions of the FAO; reorient the Branch's activities to strengthen its training functions; and disseminate research and information to member governments. In addition, governments are urged to recognize more fully that development is based largely on voluntary change by people; that communication can lead to the proper situation analysis, research, and participation testing necessary to ensure that activities are people-oriented and needs-related; and that suitable budgets must be allotted for development communication.
[Social mobilization and information, education, communication (IEC) in the area of population] Mobilisation social et information--education--communication (I.E.C) en matire de population.
FAMILLE, SANTE, DEVELOPPEMENT / IMBONEZAMURYANGO. 1988 Apr; (11):23-8.Despite efforts by Rwanda's National Office of Population (ONAPO) to increase awareness of Rwanda's population problems, there has been little change in the reproductive behavior of the rural population. ONAPO plans to formulate an overall information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign in the area of maternal-child health and family planning to inform the population about Rwanda's sociodemographic problems and the solution offered by family planning. The campaign will have 3 main components: 1) provision of information to the general population through the informal educational system 2) training and school-based population information and 3) production of educational materials to support the training and communication programs. IEC programs for maternal-child health and family planning will be integrated into more widely accepted activities having some degree of permanence, such as the school system, health centers, and religious institutions. The communal centers for development and permanent training will play an especially strong role in the integrated IEC plans for rural areas. Center personnel will help the population understand the connection between family planning and the socioeconomic and health status of families and will motivate couples to use family planning. The overall IEC plan will receive support from the National Revolutionary Movement for Development, the Association of Rwandan Women for Development, the Ministry of the Interior and of Communal Development, and the Ministry of Public Health and Social Affairs. Various other ministries, religious organizations, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations should also support the IEC effort.
DEVELOPMENT FORUM. 1988 Mar-Apr; 16(2):11, 14.Facts for Life is a 50-page compilation of priority messages focussed on infant and child health and designed to reach parents directly, so that they will have the facts they need to keep their children alive and healthy. The "Facts for Life" initiative is expected to reach the parents through a grand alliance of communicators -- nongovernmental organizations and individuals -- who come directly into contact with parents. The initiative has the backing of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF). It is also supported by nongovernmental networks such as the Children, Rotary, and Junior Chambers of Commerce as well as officials of the International Pediatrics Association, London University Institute of Child Health, and the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. Topics covered in the "Facts for Life" messages include safe motherhood, breast feeding, immunization, acute respiratory infections, malaria, timing births, promoting child growth, diarrhea, home hygiene, and AIDS. The booklet is available in English, French, Spanish, Portuguese and Arabic for 25 cents (US) a copy from UNICEF.
Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa, 1985. vi, 78 p.This is a report from a meeting held to consider questions relating to the implementation of family planning as part of integrated services with maternal and child health programs. The geographic focus is on Africa. Consideration is given to nutritional and ecological problems, women's roles in family planning programs, education and communication in family planning, and WHO's program of research in human reproduction. (ANNOTATION)
Nairobi, Kenya, Unesco Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, . 19,  p. (XA/01471/00)The Experts Group, made up of 17 communicators and trainers from international agencies and leading communication training institutions from throughout the Africa continent, met in September 1978 met to consider a background paper bases on replies to questionnaires concerning country requirements for 1980 and 1985 as well as 5 technical papers. The technical papers focused on population communication program requirements for 1980, communication needs for the 1980s, population communication requirements in Zambia for the 1980s; communication research needs in the 1980s; and research priorities in the 1980s. In their deliberations, the experts proceeded from the assumption that the purpose of all communication activities in the African region must be the enhancement of the quality of life of the majority of the people and the creation and sustenance of an environment conducive to the promotion of social development. The experts emphasized the need for cooperation and coordination of the efforts of all UN specialized agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the promotion of communication programs for social development. The meeting also called for intergovernmental cooperation based on a definite commitment and political will of all African governments, to enable their recommendations to be quickly and effectively implemented. The recommendations were accompanied by strategies for implementation to help to meet the identified priority needs for communication in support of social development for the 1980s. The recommendations and strategies focused on 4 areas -- media development, training, research, and institution building. The goal of all of these recommendations and strategies is to develop the ability of the African region to become self reliant at various levels. The Experts Meeting concluded that steps toward the realization of that goal could begin in the 1980s, if the needed resources were made available early enough for phased planning of individual projects and the stimulation of regional activities. Having reviewed the media situation, the Experts Meeting recommended that a combination of mass media with group and traditional modes of communication would be the most realistic approach and should receive priority in the 1980s. In the area of training, the meeting gave priority to the training of trainers at all levels. In the research area the critical need is for reliable data. Finally, additional support is required in the area of institution building to enable specified institutions to expand and intensify their training programs to meet the various regional and national needs. The Experts Meeting held the view that the strengthening of disadvantaged groups through appropriate and judicious use of communication strategies should include youth and young adults and women.
Meeting information needs for population education: using materials for population education, Booklet 1. Trial edition.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 95 p.This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials service, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it deals with some basic techniques of using and processing population education materials. The focus of the booklet is on activities that usually lie within the domain of librarians, documentalists and information officers, which nevertheless are useful to others involved in this field; for example staff of population education programs are frequently required to respond to requests for information. The 3 learning modules contained here are: 1) Assessing the quality of population education materials; 2) Literature searches, bibliographies and request for materials; and 3) Writing abstracts for population education materials. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. This booklet has a sequel, Booklet 2, which deals with other areas of population education information.
Meeting information needs for population education: information services for population education, Booklet 2. Trial edition.
Bangkok, Thailand, Unesco, Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania, 1980. 96 p.This booklet is the outcome of month-long internship programs for population education documentation and materials services, organized in July and November 1978 by the Unesco Population Education programme Service with UNFPA assistance. The purpose was to enhance information activities in the field of population education, and to respond to the growing need for population education information in Asia and Oceania. Meant for persons whose work relates to population education, it focuses on the wide range of supplementary information activities that are provided to promote the success of the program. The supplementary activities include preparation of a newsletter and the distribution of background information to key leaders. The booklet contains 5 learning modules. The 1st module deals with the processing or transformation of materials, the 2nd examines more sophisticated materials services such as the selective dissemination of information and production of packages as well as basic survey technics, the 3rd examines methods of popularizing population education programs, the 4th analyses the nature and potential of networks as distribution and communication channels, and the 5th touches upon the evaluation of an information program and development of training workshops or materials for these programs. Each module contains a set of objectives, pre-assessment questions, activities and post-test activities. The preceding booklet, Booklet 1, covers other areas of population education.
Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):267-72.The Regional Program on Early Stimulation, initiated by UNICEF in Central America and later extended to Latin America, was designed as an educational child rearing program for families in the lowest income group and based on nonformal methods to be used outside the scope of official education programs. The program started with the preparation of a series of booklets with information on illnesses, immunization, nutrition and on the stimulation children require at each stage of their development if they are to achieve their maximum potential. A simple, universal, easy-to-read vocabulary was used. The next step was to introduce some of the concepts contained in the booklets into newspapers and radio programs. In Guatemala, a phone-in program was broadcast with enormous success by a commercial radio station. As a result, a television program was planned. It was decided that a film should be made to illustrate the basic concepts underlying the integral development of the child. In Costa Rica, the film was broadcast by a national television station and seen by almost the entire country. With the help of these materials, and the use of teacher-training courses, group dynamics and special techniques, over 6000 people were trained in early stimulation in Central America. A more comprehensive strategy was devised to make further use of the mass media in Central America. A number of film scripts, television and radio programs were developed in El Slavador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. In other countries radio and television have been used to teach the care required to improve children's biological, psychological and social development. Throughout Central and Latin America, use of the mass media for educational purposes is welcomed. Many of the projects undertaken during the International Year of the Child have been established on a peermanent basis in Central American countries.
Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):37-42.The potential for the Child Survival and Development Revolution (CSDR) can only be realized, and a significant reduction in the infant mortality achieved, if all forces are mobilized worldwide. In industrialized countries, it is essential that the general public become aware of the recent breakthroughs in social development, and that the potential only now exists to reduce infant mortality and to improve child development on the basis of a combination of new knowledge and communication capacities that now exist in developing countries. National Committees for UNICEF, meeting in Rome in October 1984, developed lines of action for disseminating the CDSR message to the public in their respective countries and in mobilizing public opinion, NGOs and governments. A 3-point action plan was drawn up, to include awareness-raising through the diffusion of the CSDR message to target groups (media, opinion leaders); through an assessment in each of their countries of immunization levels, breastfeeding, and growth monitoring practices and advocacy with NGOs working on behalf of children in developing countries so that the measures recommended by UNICEF are included in their projects.
Assignment Children. 1984; (65/68):13-20.The central idea behind UNICEF's rubric of the Child Survival and Development Revolution (CSDR) is to enable parents to protect their children from preventable death an disablement. The CSDR strategy takes the demand approach, which opens the possibilities for parents to see what they should and could do to "grow" their children better. The concept of demand implies supply and therefore goes 1 step further than the concept of needs, spoken of for years in the development literature. Demand is often latent demand. The "demand" for good health and survival of a child is covered over by a widespread perception o fFate, the only explanation available to most people to help them bear their suffering. It is possible to change the climate of fatefulness through the media and the influential members of the community and to communicate the mssage that Fate is not Destiny, thus introducing the possibility of acting to change that Fate. What is therefore needed is to communicate the information and knowledge needed to bring about that change, thereby converting latent demand into articulate and effective demand to which supply is the response. 3 fronts are identified to carry out such a CSDR program: 1) training effective communicators of the CSDR message; 2) producing adequate program communication materials of sensitive and direct relevance to particular communities and 3) responding to the demand raised by hving supplies at hand. To make good on the promise of the CSDR, society needs to be mobilized, the political will stimulated and the professional will, active. Social mrketing is a new idea which is being adopted by UNICEF. It is an integral element of its program of social communication as are also public information and program communication. All 3 elements are integral to UNICEF's main programs of child development and survival.
[Unpublished] 1984 Aug. Background note presented at the International Conference on Population, Mexico City, August 6-13, 1984. 5 p. (E/CONF.76/NGO/16)The Association for Population/Family Planning Libraries and Information Centers- - International (APLIC) exists to foster, encourage, and implement population information activities, including publication, collection, and dissemination of population-related literature. Abstract journals, computerized on-line and printout services, computerized data bases. Population Bibliography, and popline and a global population information network, (POPIN) have been developed in the last decade. Decrying contraints placed on the free flow of population information in some countries, APLIC urges the conference participants to recognize the importance of providing uncensored current population information to all who need it and can use it, and to continue support, financial and otherwise, for the population information structure developed over the past decade at the international, regional, and national levels.
[Unpublished] 1972 Sep 20. 15 p. (COM/72/CONF.32/A/5)The widely differing opinions concerning the effects of mass media on behavior suggests the need to question some strongly held beliefs among population communicators. On the basis of this awareness the discussion reviews some of the existing major communication studies in the areas of voting behavior, purchasing behavior, and smoking behavior as well as family planning communication research studies to shed some light on what effects one might expect the mass media to have on contraceptive behavior. Little is known about the effects of mass media on voting behavior. Research has provided few definitive answers. All studies suggest that most voters in the US and the UK vote for the party label rather than the candidate. It has been noted that mass media does not change attitudes and behavior and reinforces existing behavior and attitudes. Exposure to mass media ishighly selective. Most people have an exaggerated fear of the persuasive power of advertising campaigns. The effects of an advertising program, among other variables, depends upon the skill of the advertiser in reaching the right audience with the most persuasive messages over the proper media mix, with a useful product at the proper competitive price. Advertising can announce the availability of a product, shape brand images, create positive attitudes toward a product, and reinforce existing attutudes--all of which are steps toward a trial purchase of a new product. Efforts to reduce cigarette consumption in the US via the mass media have been substantial. A random telephone survey concluded that only those individuals predisposed to giving up smoking reported that commercials persuading cigarette smokers to cut down or quit had any significant effect on them. A review of the history of family planning communications research is difficult for several reasons: several hundred studies have been completed which relate to family planning; the quality of these studies varies greatly; and most are relevant only to specific cultural areas. The result of such dissimilarity is that generalizations are almost impossible. A few of the better known and more successful studies are reviewed. The majority of these studies are concerned with communication campaigns using a wide variety of media ranging from wall writings to television. It seems that as far as short-term, general, large scale behavioral effects are concerned, a mass media campaign is ineffective in increasing clinic attendance and is ineffective in increasing nonclinic sales of contraceptives.
[Unpublished] 1973 May 7. Paper prepared for Unesco as background to 1974 Population Conference in Rumania. 34 p.Some major obstacles to the success of national family planning programs are: 1) lack of commitment by public officials, 2) control of programs by physicians, and 3) unwillingness to attempt innovative approaches. Barriers to the success of communication programs include inadequate and uncoordinated funding and improper training of staff. Development efforts have included a wide variety of approaches to the application or communication and by the late 1960s several factors focused attention on communication as an undeveloped resource in population and family planning. These factors included unsatisfactory acceptance rates among women of reproductive age, underutilization of available services, lack of continuation of methods once they were adopted, and the spread of rumors based on isolated, false reports of contraceptive experience. A conference in 1967 identified 3 stages of developing family planning strategy: 1) voluntary agencies which are solely responsible for conducting family planning with no official recognition or government support, 2) family planning is recognized tacitly but with lack of official policy, and 3) family planning is a full-fledged government policy. The author suggests a scheme for classifying population communication efforts of countries along these lines, as countries with autonomous family planning coordinating bodies, countries which carry out the communication component of family planning programs from within health ministries, and countries in which the family planning communication program is carried out outside health ministries. Communication approaches need to involve an integration of developmental messages and media and proper research into attitudes towards family planning. In early family planning programs, family planning education was done through adult education programs. Objectives for family planning communicators include information, education, motivation, legitimation, and reinforcement. In most developing countries there is a system of training institutes going from local to national centers. Recommendations regarding use of folk media and administration of communication programs are included.
[Unpublished] 1972 Dec. 15. 23 p. (SEA/Comm. and Educ. Consult/FP/5)This document states Unesco's approach to family planning communication and shows the dimension of family planning communication projects in Unesco. On the basis of work initiated by Unesco and the World Health Organization (WHO), it is estimated that during the period 1973-78 assistance to family planning communication programs in 25 member states would be made available and nearly 400 communicators from member states trained. Recommendations of 4 expert meetings on integrated family planning and development programs, research, folk media, and training are included, and these would form the basis of Unesco action during the 1970s. Some of the areas which are included in these recommendations and which have implications for collaboration and cooperation between the Unesco and WHO are: 1) preparation of the guidelines of training courses in family planning communication and education on regional bases; 2) promotion of itinerant family planning communication and education training teams for regions; 3) dissemination of research findings to family planning administrators, communicators, and educators; 4) promotion of mobile regional research teams to help initiate research programs and development of corps of researchers at regional/national levels; 6) promotion of studies on the economics of family planning communication and education programs, deployment of resources between various components of such programs and development of guidelines for evaluation of such programs; 7) inclusion of folk media as a crucial part of family planning education and communication strategies; and 8) assistance in making available communication and media hardware to supplement the meagre mass media channels in developing countries and to increase the reach of conventional mass media.
[Unpublished] 1969 Jun. Paper presented to the UNESCO Conference on Family Planning Mass Communication. 10 p.India's 4th 5-Year Plan (1969-74) aims to restore a balance between births and deaths by decreasing the birth rate from the present level of 39/1000 to 25/1000 within the next 10 years. The family planning program gives equal emphasis to all appropriate methods of contraception, with the choice of method left to the individual. 5% of total outlay on family planning is targetted at mass education to get the population to accept and adopt the norm of a small family. Among the obstacles confronting such a campaign are the vastness of the country, its low education and literacy levels, diverse languages, social and cultural differences, low standard of living, and resistance to change. Moreover, only 25% of the population has access to the mass media. On the other hand, factors facilitating family planning objectives include favorable attitudes toward limitation of family size, the lack of organized religious or social opposition, support from many organizations, and government commitment to provide free family planning services and supplies and to establish a network to provide such services. At the central level, the Mass Education and Media Division of the Department of Family Planning designs communication strategies, provides guidelines to the states, works with national opinion leaders, and prepares materials. The states adapt central policies to the local context and plan the details of mass education campaigns in their areas. At the district and town level, indigenous channels of education, e.g., song and drama troupes, are utilized. District Family Planning Bureaus are provided with a mobile audiovisual unit and portable exhibition set. Thus, the family planning mass communication campaign involves a combination of standard national media and local interpersonal channels. The 1st phase of the mass media campaign was aimed at the concept of family limitation through repetition of a simple meaningful message: "2 or 3--that will do." When this phrase was used visually, it was accompanied by the symbol of the family planning program. The 2nd phase of the campaign introduced the notion of spacing through the slogan, "Next child--not now: After 3--never." Individual methods of contraception, including sterilization, condoms, and the loop, were stressed. The mass communication campaign is credited with creating largescale awareness of the need for family size limitation. According to 1 survey, 70% of the population now favors family planning.
Paris, France, Unesco Press, 1981. 29 p.UNESCO's population program involves communication. Since 1974, the program has stressed the importance of studying the interrelationsihps between demographic and socioeconomic factors and of integrating population activities with overall development efforts. The Regional Advisor's Offices play a vital role in the program. These advisors and their staff are currently in Bangkok, Thailand; Beirut, Lebanon; Dakar, Senegal; Nairobi, Kenya; and Santiago, Chile. 2 groups require training in population communication; those who are communications and media specialists, and those who are in population-related activities. To train these people, UNESCO organizes courses and workshops; inserts courses into the curricula of universities that train communication specialists; sends people abroad on fellowships; and organizes study tours. UNESCO supports research with implications for population communication. The agency's assistance in planning, administration and evaluation areas takes 2 main forms: providing advisory services; and issuing publications on the subject. Publications and films are listed at the end. UNESCO is involved in experimentation with: 1) communication materials and techniques in pilot projects; 2) development of communication materials aimed at general or target audiences in specific countries; and 3) development of communication materials for use in training programs. In the area of communication, several women's projects are under way. Another form of UNESCO support for population communication is the diffusion and exchange of information and materials. UNESCO should continue to expand its support for population communication activities; training will remain a pressing need. Particular groups will need to be addressed and specific issues dealt with, as will population distribution, and the relationship between population concerns and human rights. Specific suggestions are given as to when, where, and how UNESCO can be useful.
Dacca, Bangladesh, Directorate of Population Control and Family Planning Research, Evaluation, Statistics and Planning Wing, April 1977. 30 p.Upon completion of a report on Research Inventory and Analysis of Family Planning Communication Research in Bangladesh, the convenor of Task Force II proposed a study on Family Planning Communication Audience, a top priority study, as documented by the Task Force II in its report submitted earlier to the government. The objectives of this study are to: 1) examine if 2 steps or a multi-step communication model is in operation in Bangladesh; 2) determine which of the media has the largest audience; 3) determine the contribution of each of the mass media in disseminating the family planning message; and 4) determine socioeconomic characteristics of various media audiences. The sample design included exposure to 5 mass media: newspapers, television, radio, audiovisual van, and village bard. The study shows that: 1) both groups of respondents (male and female) have been exposed to the mass media in varying degrees, but that the audiences, after receiving the message, did not keep it confined to themselves; 2) the 2 and 3 step model of communication is in operation in the sample population; 3) in terms of exposure, the data show that radio had larger audiences among both male and female respondents; 4) newspapers, radio, and television audiences differ from the audiences of the other 2 media--village bard, and audiovisual van--in the following areas: education, age, income, and parity. Recommendations are made for further development of family planning communication programs through the mass media: 1) More news, advertisements, pictures, and features printed in the daily newspapers "Ittefaq," and "Dainik Bangla," which are widely read by rural populations; 2) installation of radios and television sets at public sites will enable public service announcements on family planning to be viewed; 3) the musical drama, "Jatragan," by the village bard is highly effective in delivering the family planning message; 4) future studies should include control groups for each of the 5 media audiences; and 5) since women cannot join men in viewing the audiovisual van performances, special arrangement should be made for them.
Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.
[Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
Papua New Guinea strives to strengthen its traditional communication system: highlights of a 1980 Unesco report.
In: Unesco. Folk media and mass media in population communication. Paris, France, Unesco, . 17-9. (Population Communication: Technical Documentation No. 8)At the request of the government of Papua New Guinea and with the assistance of Unesco a report was prepared which examined the needs for strengthening the country's traditional communication systems. Highlights of this report are presented in this discussion, including notes on special conditions of the country, the study methodology, and selected findings. The government's request called attention to the heretofore "disproportionate concern with technology-oriented media" aimed at literate, urbanized audiences, while rural populations were virtually ignored." The Unesco report covers findings in only 5 of the country's provinces. These findings deal with the folk forms of expression at village level, and only those forms, or aspects of forms, considered by villagers as not being sacred or taboo for the purpose intended, were included in the survey. Story telling, looked at as a commmunication vehicle or channel, appeared to be an important form and a most persuasive form throughout the country. Singing was viewed as another important medium. Dance forms were used to express events or stories or states of feeling, and they were almost always accompanied by singing. The string band occupies a special place among youth almost everywhere in the country. The inventory of folk media in the villages covered in the Unesco report also makes reference to comical or satirical dramatic sketches and to mime. The government determined the schedule and location of village sites in 5 selected provinces--Central, Enga, East Sepik, Manus, and Northern. A questionnaire for the village visits was devised to create a qualified, if partial, inventory of useful small group forms of communication. The questionnaire was developed to provide in a 2 hour session in each village a result oriented profile of folk forms, at once embedded in the active cultural life of the people, but also considered by them as "open" or flexible enough to be used, with their own participation assured, in any government sponsored communication program. The outcome of the mission resulted in the preparation of an inventory with a profile of the characteristics of traditional forms of communication which might be used for development; preparation of a 2 year research project outline to provide information on folk media on a national scale and to develop an action program utilizing the most appropriate forms; and the identification of existing sources and documentation facilities relating to folk media in Papua New Guinea.