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Communication: a guide for managers of national diarrhoeal disease control programmes. Planning, management and appraisal of communication activities.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, 1987. vii, 78 p.When the World Health Organization's Diarrheal Diseases Control Program (CDD) began in 1978, it concentrated on producers and providers of oral rehydration salts. Communication efforts were directed at informing health care providers and training them to treat patients. The time has come for CDD programs to put more emphasis on enduser-oriented approaches, and it is to facilitate that aim that this guide for CDD program managers on enduser-directed communication has been developed. The guide is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 deals with nature and scope of communication in a CDD program. The 1st step is research and analysis of the target population -- find out what the target audience does and does not know and what are some of their misconceptions about the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the Litrosol packets. Communication can teach mothers how and when and why to use ORT, but it cannot overcome lack of supply and distribution of the salts; it cannot be a substitute for trained health care staff; and it cannot transform cultural norms. Part 2 deals with the communication design process. Step 1 is to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of both the endusers and the health care providers; to investigate what communication resources are available; and to investigate the available resources in terms of cost, time, and personnel. Step 2 is communication planning, in terms of: 1) definition of the target audience; 2) identification of needed behavior modification, and 3) factors constraining it; 4) defining the goals of the communication program in terms of improving access to and use of the new information; 5) approaches to change, e.g., rewards, motivation, and appeal to logic, emotion, or fear; 6) deciding what mix of communications methods is to be used, i.e., radio, printed matter; 7) identifying the institutions that will carry out the communicating; 8) developing a feasible timetable, and 9) a feasible budget. Step 3 is to develop the message to be communicated and to choose the format of the message for different communications media. Step 4 is testing, using a sample of the audience, whether the messages are having their intended effect in terms of acceptance and understanding by the target audience, and revision of the messages as necessary. Step 5 is the actual implementation of the communication plan in terms of using a media mix appropriate to the audience, phasing the messages so as to avoid information saturation; and designing the messages so that they are understandable, correct, brief, attractive, standardized, rememberable, convincing, practical, and relevant to the target audience. Step 6 is to monitor the program to be sure the messages are reaching their intended audiences, to evaluate the program in terms of its actual effects, and to use the results of the monitoring and evaluation to correct instances of communication breakdown. Part 3 deals with the CDD manager's role in communication. The manager must select a suitable communications coordinator, who will have the technical expertise necessary and the ability to call upon appropriate government and private information resources and consultants. The manager must brief the coordinator in the scope and objectives of the CDD program; and he must supervise and monitor the work of the coordinator.
[Unpublished] 1988. , 39 p. (GPA/HPR/88.1)Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) health promotion involves the use of information and education to change the behaviors of individuals and groups in ways that will control the spread of the virus. Effective promotional activities can make AIDS prevention a high public health priority, promote social support for positive behavioral changes, establish public support for the community and institutional responses required to control the transmission of AIDS, and support the training of workers in the health care field. Through its reliance on multiple communication channels and cooperation with the health and social service sectors, health promotion seeks to achieve sustained change in practices crucial to public health. The key to effective health promotion is adequate planning, services, and the supplies. This guide is aimed at providing planners, manages, and technical staff with a frame of reference for planning, implementing, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating AIDS health promotion programs. Discussed in detail are the following elements of program planning: establishing goals, initial assessment, targeting audiences, setting objectives and targets, developing messages and materials, developing communication strategies, providing support services, monitoring and evaluation, scheduling and budget, and reassessing the program. Dispersed throughout are examples of promotional materials and strategies.
POPULATION EDUCATION NEWS. 1987 May; 14(5):6-9.Population education incentives, voluntary action, community participation, and improved program management are 5 family planning areas recently redefined by the government of India. Population education, integrated with the educational system, is important in influencing fertility behavior. The Adult Education program, and the nonformal educational system will be strengthened, with aid from UNFPA. Incentives, which are presently available to government employees, will be increased. Economic incentives, rural development program incentives, and insurance, lottery, and bond incentive schemes are being considered. Voluntary organizations will be encouraged to work in the family welfare sphere, and organized sector units will be urged to provide family welfare services to their employees. Cooperatives, which cover 95% of villages, will be used as a means of educating, motivating, and communicating population control objectives on the local level. Tax incentives will be offered to the corporate sector for providing integrated family welfare services. Community participation, which is crucial to the success of the programs, will be addressed on several levels. Popular committees, youth and women's groups, and medical students will increase community involvement through various means. In addition, political and community leaders will be involved in motivational work, and a village Women's Volunteer Corps is planned. Social marketing of contraceptives, although fairly extensive for the last 15 years, leaves much to be desired in creating a large demand. A marketing board will be created to ensure aggressive marketing, advertising, and promotion, with expansion to include oral contraceptives. Reorganization and reorientation toward modern program management will be undertaken, so that policy, planning, implementation, review, and evaluation are carried out efficiently. At the state, district, and the block level, more effective coordination is the goal, as well as strengthening the District Family Welfare Bureau.
[Unpublished] 1972 Sep 20. 15 p. (COM/72/CONF.32/A/5)The widely differing opinions concerning the effects of mass media on behavior suggests the need to question some strongly held beliefs among population communicators. On the basis of this awareness the discussion reviews some of the existing major communication studies in the areas of voting behavior, purchasing behavior, and smoking behavior as well as family planning communication research studies to shed some light on what effects one might expect the mass media to have on contraceptive behavior. Little is known about the effects of mass media on voting behavior. Research has provided few definitive answers. All studies suggest that most voters in the US and the UK vote for the party label rather than the candidate. It has been noted that mass media does not change attitudes and behavior and reinforces existing behavior and attitudes. Exposure to mass media ishighly selective. Most people have an exaggerated fear of the persuasive power of advertising campaigns. The effects of an advertising program, among other variables, depends upon the skill of the advertiser in reaching the right audience with the most persuasive messages over the proper media mix, with a useful product at the proper competitive price. Advertising can announce the availability of a product, shape brand images, create positive attitudes toward a product, and reinforce existing attutudes--all of which are steps toward a trial purchase of a new product. Efforts to reduce cigarette consumption in the US via the mass media have been substantial. A random telephone survey concluded that only those individuals predisposed to giving up smoking reported that commercials persuading cigarette smokers to cut down or quit had any significant effect on them. A review of the history of family planning communications research is difficult for several reasons: several hundred studies have been completed which relate to family planning; the quality of these studies varies greatly; and most are relevant only to specific cultural areas. The result of such dissimilarity is that generalizations are almost impossible. A few of the better known and more successful studies are reviewed. The majority of these studies are concerned with communication campaigns using a wide variety of media ranging from wall writings to television. It seems that as far as short-term, general, large scale behavioral effects are concerned, a mass media campaign is ineffective in increasing clinic attendance and is ineffective in increasing nonclinic sales of contraceptives.