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Population education in the nineties: a quest for a regional programme strategy in Asia and the Pacific.
POPULATION EDUCATION IN ASIA AND THE PACIFIC NEWSLETTER AND FORUM. 1991; (34):12-7.In 1990, Asia and the Pacific constituted 59% of the world's population and this percentage has been estimated to climb to 61.76% by 1995. In addition to rapid population growth, some of the other problems plaguing the region in the early 1990s included illiteracy, absolute poverty, environmental pollution, and low status of women. Population education can play a key role in an intervention strategy for fertility decline. Schools should include population education because, if girls attend school, it can improve girls' chances for employment and affect future family sizes, and both male and female students are most apt to occupy important private sector and government positions and be leaders. UNESCO has proposed a 1992-1995 regional population education and communication program and hoped to gain UNFPA support for the program. UNESCO has heeded UNFPA's plea for more formidable and intensive backstopping to country programs. It proposed to create regional advisory teams that will provide technical assistance, organize study tours and workshops, facilitate intercountry sharing, and identify new areas of development. This team would also be population education advocates. It has also proposed a workshop in population communication for staff of rural oriented nongovernmental organizations and religious groups to close the UNFPA identified gap in information, education, and communication (IEC). Other similar proposed activities to close the IEC gap included workshops on audiovisual (AV) aids development and use and maintenance of AV equipment and on communication strategies to reach male family planning acceptors and intercountry research studies. UNESCO has also planned to place more emphasis on management, development of prototype population education materials, and other needed population education activities.
Shared sexual responsibility: a strategy for male involvement in United States Family Planning clinics.
In: International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF]. Male involvement in family planning: programme initiatives. London, England, IPPF, . 167-76.Reviewed here are the efforts of the Planned Parenthood affiliates in the United States, showing that their focus is on female contraception. The author argues that if family planning is to be seen as a basic human right, then far more attention needs to be given to shared sexual responsibility. Although major strides have been made through federal grants and education programs, the history of meaningful male involvement has been a feeble one. It is argues that the alarming rate of teenage pregnancies, the falling statistics in vasectomy services across the country and the overall image of family planning programs, are indicative of the need for a new strategy. The little research data that is available shows that the earlier young men and boys are reached with accurate sexuality information, the more successful family planning and education services will be. The most successful sex education programs seem to be those which see sexuality education as a life-long process. More recently, research has concluded that programs working with parents and children are by far the most successful in ensuring ongoing dialogue and most meaningful behavior change. An important strategy for reaching males, partucularly with condoms, is to build on current strength in reaching female populations. Active promotion of vasectomy services, increased availability of comdom products suitably packaged and promoted, and attention-getting public service announcements, have combined to help change the image of a family planning program too often thought of as exclusively female. A representative sample of educational materials for men is included in the appendix.
Paris, France, Unesco Press, 1981. 29 p.UNESCO's population program involves communication. Since 1974, the program has stressed the importance of studying the interrelationsihps between demographic and socioeconomic factors and of integrating population activities with overall development efforts. The Regional Advisor's Offices play a vital role in the program. These advisors and their staff are currently in Bangkok, Thailand; Beirut, Lebanon; Dakar, Senegal; Nairobi, Kenya; and Santiago, Chile. 2 groups require training in population communication; those who are communications and media specialists, and those who are in population-related activities. To train these people, UNESCO organizes courses and workshops; inserts courses into the curricula of universities that train communication specialists; sends people abroad on fellowships; and organizes study tours. UNESCO supports research with implications for population communication. The agency's assistance in planning, administration and evaluation areas takes 2 main forms: providing advisory services; and issuing publications on the subject. Publications and films are listed at the end. UNESCO is involved in experimentation with: 1) communication materials and techniques in pilot projects; 2) development of communication materials aimed at general or target audiences in specific countries; and 3) development of communication materials for use in training programs. In the area of communication, several women's projects are under way. Another form of UNESCO support for population communication is the diffusion and exchange of information and materials. UNESCO should continue to expand its support for population communication activities; training will remain a pressing need. Particular groups will need to be addressed and specific issues dealt with, as will population distribution, and the relationship between population concerns and human rights. Specific suggestions are given as to when, where, and how UNESCO can be useful.
Dacca, Bangladesh, Directorate of Population Control and Family Planning Research, Evaluation, Statistics and Planning Wing, April 1977. 30 p.Upon completion of a report on Research Inventory and Analysis of Family Planning Communication Research in Bangladesh, the convenor of Task Force II proposed a study on Family Planning Communication Audience, a top priority study, as documented by the Task Force II in its report submitted earlier to the government. The objectives of this study are to: 1) examine if 2 steps or a multi-step communication model is in operation in Bangladesh; 2) determine which of the media has the largest audience; 3) determine the contribution of each of the mass media in disseminating the family planning message; and 4) determine socioeconomic characteristics of various media audiences. The sample design included exposure to 5 mass media: newspapers, television, radio, audiovisual van, and village bard. The study shows that: 1) both groups of respondents (male and female) have been exposed to the mass media in varying degrees, but that the audiences, after receiving the message, did not keep it confined to themselves; 2) the 2 and 3 step model of communication is in operation in the sample population; 3) in terms of exposure, the data show that radio had larger audiences among both male and female respondents; 4) newspapers, radio, and television audiences differ from the audiences of the other 2 media--village bard, and audiovisual van--in the following areas: education, age, income, and parity. Recommendations are made for further development of family planning communication programs through the mass media: 1) More news, advertisements, pictures, and features printed in the daily newspapers "Ittefaq," and "Dainik Bangla," which are widely read by rural populations; 2) installation of radios and television sets at public sites will enable public service announcements on family planning to be viewed; 3) the musical drama, "Jatragan," by the village bard is highly effective in delivering the family planning message; 4) future studies should include control groups for each of the 5 media audiences; and 5) since women cannot join men in viewing the audiovisual van performances, special arrangement should be made for them.
Report of the Task Force II on research inventory and analysis of family planning communication research in Bangladesh.
[Dacca, Bangladesh, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting] Oct. 1976. 85 p.Topics relevant to family planning such as interpersonal relationships, communication patterns, local personnel, mass media, and educational aids, have been studied for this report. The central theme is the dissemination of family planning knowledge. The methodology of education and communication are major factors and are emphasized in the studies. While the object was to raise the effectiveness of approaches, the direct concern of some studies was to examine a few basic aspects of communication dynamics and different human relationship structures. Interspouse communication assumes an important place in the family planning program and a couple's concurrence is an essential precondition of family planning practice. Communication between husband and wife varies with the given social system. A study of couple concurrence and empathy on family planning motivation was undertaken; there was virtually no empathy between the spouses. A probable conclusion is that there was no interspouse communication on contraception and that some village women tend to practice birth control without their husband's knowledge. Communication and personal influence in the village community provide a leverage for the diffusion of innovative ideas and practices, including family planning. Influence pattern and flow of communication were empirically studied in a village which was situated 10 miles away from the nearest district town. The village was found to have linkage with outside systems (towns, other villages, extra village communication network) through an influence mechanism operative in the form of receiving or delivering some information. Local agents--midwives, "dais," and female village organizers are in a position to use interpersonal relations in information motivation work if such agents are systematically involved in the family planning program and are given proper orientation and support by program authorities. These people usually have to be trained. 7 findings are worth noting in regard to the use of radio for family planning: folksongs are effective and popular; evening hours draw more listeners; the broadcast can stimulate interspouse communication; the younger groups can be stimulated by group discussions; a high correlation exists between radio listening and newspaper reading; most people listen to the radio if it is accessible to them; approximately 60% of the population is reached by radio. A positive relationship was found to exist between exposure to printed family planning publicity materials and respondents' opinions toward contraception and family planning. The use of the educational aid is construed as an essential element to educating and motivating people's actions.
The proceeding of the Evaluation Workshop for the five UNFPA-assisted projects, 8-9 June 1979, Seoul, Korea.
Seoul, Korea, PPFK . 25 p.This monograph is a summary of a 2-day workshop of the Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea. The projects discussed at the workshop included 5 pilot programs sponsored through the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). The 5 target projects concerned the promotion of family planning. The procedures for this promotion included using day care centers for family planning education, as well as planning publication of a newsletter for young working people. Other projects include the development of educational materials, slide shows and public advertising. Also developed were programs to provide counseling, education and distribution of birth control for both the urban poor and the isolated agricultural population. The conclusions of the workshop emphasized the initial success of the program in all its phases for the year of its existence. Research, however, pointed out the need to increase educational outreach programs.