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Your search found 22 Results

  1. 1
    379387
    Peer Reviewed

    Multiple-micronutrient supplementation: evidence from large-scale prenatal programmes on coverage, compliance and impact.

    Berti C; Gaffey MF; Bhutta ZA; Cetin I

    Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2017 Dec 22; 1-11.

    Micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy pose important challenges for public-health, given the potential adverse outcomes not only during pregnancy but across the life-course. Provision of iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements is the strategy most commonly practiced and recommended globally. How to successfully implement IFA and multiple micronutrient supplementation interventions among pregnant women and to achieve sustainable/permanent solutions to prenatal micronutrient deficiencies remain unresolved issues in many countries. This paper aims to analyze available experiences of prenatal IFA and multiple micronutrient interventions to distil learning for their effective planning and large-scale implementation. Relevant articles and programme-documentation were comprehensively identified from electronic databases, websites of major-agencies and through hand-searching of relevant documents. Retrieved documents were screened and potentially relevant reports were critically examined by the authors with the aim of identifying a set of case studies reflecting regional variation, a mix of implementation successes and failures, and a mix of programs and large-scale experimental studies. Information on implementation, coverage, compliance, and impact was extracted from reports of large-scale interventions in Central America, Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. The WHO/CDC Logic-Model for Micronutrient Interventions in Public Health was used as an organizing framework for analyzing and presenting the evidence. Our findings suggest that to successfully implement supplementation interventions and achieve sustainable-permanent solutions efforts must focus on factors and processes related to quality, cost-effectiveness, coverage, utilization, demand, outcomes, impacts, and sustainability of programs including strategic analysis, management, collaborations to pilot a project, and careful monitoring, midcourse corrections, supervision and logistical-support to gradually scaling it up.
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  2. 2
    322440

    Harnessing the UN system into a common approach on communication for development.

    Servaes J

    International Communication Gazette. 2007; 69(6):483-507.

    In the UN system, conflicts and contradictions seldom concern the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as such, but rather the means of achieving them. These differences of opinion about priorities, and about how much and to whom development aid or assistance should be directed, could be explained by analysing the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions underpinning the general perspectives in the communication for development (C4D) field. Theoretical changes in the perspective on development communication (modernization, dependency, multiplicity) have also reached the level of policy-makers. As a result, different methodologies and terminologies have evolved, which often make it difficult for agencies, even though they share a common commitment to the overall goals of development communication, to identify common ground, arrive at a full understanding of each other's objectives, or to cooperate effectively in operational projects. Consequently, it is difficult for development organizations in general and UN agencies in particular to reach a common approach and strategy. (author's)
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  3. 3
    274789

    Overcoming AIDS stigma and media fatigue.

    Spadacini BM

    Global AIDSLink. 2003 Apr-May; (79):12-13.

    The media plays a unique role within society either to denounce or to perpetuate the bias and moral judgments against people with HIV/AIDS. Sometimes journalists can underestimate how influential their portrayal of HIV/AIDS is in shaping people's attitudes, especially when society fails to distinguish between people and the disease they suffer from; when denial is so pervasive that the infected are ostracized by their families. In addition, reporters, editors and producers constantly grapple with ways to find fresh angles to discuss HIV, and ensure their viewers and readers remain engaged by a topic that never appears to grow old. To address these and other key topics concerning the media and its treatment of HIV/AIDS, the World Bank organized a distance-learning course from June to November 2002 that simultaneously brought together journalists and HIV/AIDS project managers from Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Nigeria and Malawi. The course, entitled Fighting the HIV/AIDS Pandemic through Information and Strategic Communication, recognizes the role that successful communication campaigns can play in increasing understanding of the disease and promoting life-saving behaviors. Each program stream consisted of eight video-conferenced modules, which were followed up through in-country work. (excerpt)
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  4. 4
    194132

    SARA: a role model for girls as they face HIV and AIDS in Africa. A review of the Sara Communication Initiative.

    UNICEF; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Center for Communication Programs

    Accra, Ghana, UNICEF, [2003]. 92 p.

    The overall goal and general objectives of the SCI are as follows: To promote the Rights of the Child and support their implementation and realization, with special focus on adolescent female children in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESAR), and in other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa where the materials are found to be acceptable and appropriate. General objectives: To research, produce and disseminate a regional communication package on the Rights of the Child in order to: Create awareness and advocate for the reduction of existing disparities in the status and treatment of girls. Support social mobilization processes designed to realize the potential of female children and to foster their participation in development. Produce a dynamic role model for girls that will assist in their acquisition of psychosocial life skills essential for empowerment. Provide a model for improved gender relationships, beginning at an early age. Communicate information regarding the survival, protection and development of children, including specific messages on education, health, nutrition and freedom from exploitation and abuse. Build the capacity of African writers, researchers and artists through the development of the Sara communication packages. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    176401

    Critical challenges in HIV communication. [Les défis critiques en matière de communication sur le VIH]

    Scalway T

    London, England, Panos Institute, 2002 Nov. 6 p. (Perspective Paper)

    More energy, money and international attention is now being focused on HIV/AIDS than on any other global public health issue. A pandemic that was being quietly forgotten by the global community only three years ago has hurtled up national and international policy agendas. Panos has been chronicling and providing analysis of the responses to this epidemic for 16 years - almost since its start. We have never known a time when fighting the pandemic has been such a global policy priority. Determined, courageous, and insistent advocacy by people at the highest level of governments, within the UN, among donors and by an increasingly organised global civil society and among grassroots communities, has succeeded in making the response to this epidemic an urgent international priority. Equally, there has never been a time when so much energy translates into so little hope. We believe - and the feeling seems widely shared - that the energy and commitment currently focused on fighting HIV/AIDS is in grave danger of being wasted. If coherent, robust strategies are not directed at the root causes of the epidemic, rather than the symptoms, then the same level of energy and attention may never again be catalysed. This paper argues that the history of the AIDS pandemic provides us with clear guidelines for future action. It also presents findings from a Panos survey which suggests that, particularly in donor terms, we are some way from putting those guidelines into practice. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    150029

    Prophylaxis. Female condom "dream come true for Ghanaians".

    AIDS WEEKLY. 2000 Jun 12-19; 18-9.

    This article reports the launch of the female condom by the Female Health Co. in Ghana on May 25, 2000. The development of this project has been assisted by a guide "The Female Condom: A Guide for Planning and Programming", that highlights the importance of training and communications to support the introduction of female condoms.
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  7. 7
    040281

    [Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.

    Senegal. Ministere du Plan et de la Cooperation

    Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)

    This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
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  8. 8
    155221
    Peer Reviewed

    Taking avoidable danger out of pregnancy.

    Maurice J

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2001; 79(1):81-2.

    In October 2000, WHO launched a campaign urging country health authorities to tackle the heavy toll of unsafe pregnancies. The campaign has three targets: 1) to provide couples with greater access to safe contraception for the reduction of unwanted pregnancies through unsafe abortion; 2) to increase the proportion of births assisted by qualified health personnel; and 3) to ensure that more women have access to proper hospital care for complications of pregnancy. The WHO campaign will focus mainly on Africa and Asia, where the vast majority of maternal deaths occur. Ethiopia, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nigeria, Uganda, Indonesia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, Sudan, and Bolivia will participate in an initial pilot phase.
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  9. 9
    106943

    UNFPA Population Information Education and Communication Support Programme for Eastern and Southern Africa. RAF/89/P13.

    Johnston T

    UNFPA POPULATION INFORMATION EDUCATION AND COMMUNICATION SUPPORT PROGRAMME FOR EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFRICA NEWSLETTER. 1990 Feb-Apr; 1-11.

    An overview of is presented of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) inventory of population information, education, and communication (IEC) programs and projects in 12 countries of eastern and southern Africa. 168 of the 248 population IEC projects belong to the nonformal sector and have as objectives the concept of behavioral change. The remainder generally belong to the formal or institutional sector and have objectives relating to awareness creation. Results indicate that the latter are more successfully implemented than the former, and that those executed by the private sector do better than those implemented by the public sector. The 4 summaries address: 1) target audience and audience analysis (project beneficiaries); 2) content and communication (messages and materials); 3) staffing and training; and 4) monitoring and evaluation. Regarding the audience, subsequent refocusing would be necessary to address the unmet IEC needs of specific groups, to avoid messages with generalities, and to adopt effective communication strategies at the group level. The training content is formal and lacks relevancy in the African context because of lack of audience analysis. Only 11% of professional headquarters staff possess both population IEC and family planning training, and only 14% possess experience in both population IEC and family planning. Only 1/6 of IEC programs have attempted to establish mechanisms of supervision; 40% of programs attempt to evaluate knowledge and attitude objectives, only 30% attempt to evaluate behavioral change objectives, and only 1/3 have actually produced results of the effectiveness of their activities.
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  10. 10
    068551

    USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    USAID HIGHLIGHTS. 1991 Fall; 8(3):1-4.

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented.
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  11. 11
    065518

    Population Information Network for Africa.

    United Nations. Economic Commission for Africa. Population Division. Population Information Network for Africa [POPIN Africa]

    Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, UNECA, 1990 Apr. [4], 23 p. (RAF/88/P16)

    POPIN-Africa, or Population Information Network for Africa, was conceived in 1982 and designed to enable ECA (UN Economic Commission for Africa) member states to develop national information centers and infrastructures to support their policies of development planning. It allows information to be standardized and encourages formulation of sound population policies based on accurate information. POPIN-Africa is a decentralized network comprising National Population Information Centers, (NPICs), and Subregional/Sectoral Participating Centers linked by a Coordinating Unit (CU). Associated are an Advisory Committee (PAAC), a Technical Working Group (PAT), and a Working Group on Information Dissemination and Diffusion (PAWID). Major services of POPIN-Africa include documentation in the form of Country Bibliography Series, Databases, Training, a Clearinghouse, news agencies and media links for dissemination of information. Publications include African Population Profile, African Director of Demographers, Popindex-Africa, POPIN-Africa Country Bibliography Series, African Population Newsletter, POPIN-Africa Info, and Scanning Sheet.
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  12. 12
    065509

    Eastern Africa: mapping the politics of AIDS.

    Hyden G; Lanegran K

    AIDS AND SOCIETY. 1991 Jan-Feb; 2(2):1, 6, 12-3.

    The political constraints slowing the battle against AIDS in Africa are getting AIDS on the public agenda, integrating the international community into the AIDS policy-making agenda and cultural barriers in national AIDS strategies. Policy making in most Africa is bureaucratic rather than democratic, so whether AIDS is a government priority depends largely on perception of AIDS risk by the leaders. In Zambia and Uganda, AIDS is a concern because it affects the ethnic group or family in power, while in Tanzania and Kenya, AIDS is associated with minority or "high risk" groups. The domination of AIDS agenda setting within nations in Africa by international donors and non-governmental organizations is a problem, made more severely severed by sensitivity of Africans who perceive research as a foreign effort to prove that AIDS originated there. Foreign domination is also detrimental because it prevents localities from becoming committed to AIDS interventions. Cultural barriers against effective interventions are similar to those in Western countries: AIDS is seen as a disease of shame affecting immoral people. In addition, the prevalent concept of fatalism defeats the Western insistence on intervention and strategies. Furthermore, women who are largely dependent on men cannot insist on preventive behavior, not do they have organizations in place to protect their rights. Finally, the concepts of behavioralism, and learning new behaviors for person-centered reasons, are foreign to much of Africa.
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  13. 13
    064029

    Cote d'Ivoire. Finalization of Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project.

    Kumah OM

    [Unpublished] 1990. [5], 6, [2] p.

    Final plans for the Cote d'Ivoire Central Region Family Planning Promotion Project were reviewed during a visit by the Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services Senior Program Officer who visited Abidjan, September 17-21, 1990. The purpose of the visit was to review the project proposal with officials of the Ivorian Family Welfare Association and of the Regional Economic Development Services Office for West and Central Africa (REDSO/WCA); to meet with officials of Dialogue Production who will produce a video involving students in Bouake; and to discuss with REDSO/WCA the prospects for information, education and communication (IEC) and family planning service delivery. The family planning policy of Cote d'Ivoire changed from pro-natalist to pro-family planning in 1989. Changes in policy, budget, strategy and organization were therefore reviewed. It was suggested that emphasis on male attitude and spousal communication be dropped in favor of concentration on women and school-going adolescents. Some of the recommendations were to complete and distribute the project document; to arrange for Mr. Dahily, the Project Coordinator-Designate, to participate in the JHU Advances in Family Health Communication Workshop scheduled in Tunis in November 1991; to obtain quotes form Dialogue Productions and other video production firms; to choose candidates for Assistant Project Coordinator and Administrative Secretary for interviews in October, and to contact the University of Abidjan Center for Communication Training and Research, the National Public Health Institute, and other subcontractors also by October 1990.
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  14. 14
    058903

    Assessment of the experience in the production of messages and programmes for rural communication systems: the case of the Wonsuom Project in Ghana.

    Obeng-Quaidoo I

    GAZETTE. 1988; 42(1):53-67.

    In 1983 there was a rural broadcast and newspaper project called the Wonsuom Project sponsored by UNESCO in Ghana. This project was centered around the Swedru district, in a Fante speaking area of 18 villages and towns with a population of 90,000, with the main industries fishing and farming. The broadcast part of the project started producing programs with farmers, fisherman, village nurses, and cultural groups. The second part of the project was a rural newspaper in Fante, with the purpose of supplying useful and timely information and news on health, agriculture, civic education, culture, and entertainment to areas around the town of Swedru. The goals of the rural broadcasts are to create awareness of the Wonsuom Project, promote all types of adult education, to assist people in the area to improve their quality of life, and to work in cooperation with any local organizations in relation to the project. The paper contains information on everything from crop planting information to agricultural loan information. There were also Wonsuom clubs formed that have become involved in many projects to help develop their communities. The newspaper was divided into 3.95% health items, 8% on agriculture, 6.3% on religion, 9% on education, 7% on politics, 7.2% on economics, 24.3% on social issues, 19% on the project itself, 15.7% on entertainment, and 5.8% on culture. The government is not continuing the regular radio broadcast relay station, but going to FM broadcasting which may be a problem since few people can afford FM receivers. The other problems include illiteracy and the financing available to continue and maintain the project. By using advertising and government support the project could continue.
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  15. 15
    055333

    Towards effective family planning programming.

    Dondi NN

    Nairobi, Kenya, Family Planning Association of Kenya, 1980. [5], 164 p.

    The proceedings of the Second Management Seminar for senior volunteers and staff of the Family Planning Association of Kenya (FPAK), held in December 1979, with appendices, are presented. The 1st 3 days consisted of lectures and plenary discussions on topics such as communication strategies, family guidance, youth problems, and contraceptive methods; the last 2 days were group discussions, reports and summary evaluations. 40 participants took part in the evaluation, expressing satisfaction with knowledge gained in communications, family life education, and IPPF organization and skills. They expressed the need to learn more about family counseling, youth problems, population, and integrated approaches. The seminar recommended that FPAK be more innovative to retain volunteers, plan its communication strategy more carefully, train and involve volunteers in programming, study traditional family planning methods, provide family counseling services, fully exploit the media, and use it to clarify misconceptions and introduce community-based distribution.
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  16. 16
    049313

    [Social mobilization and information, education, communication (IEC) in the area of population] Mobilisation social et information--education--communication (I.E.C) en matire de population.

    Zigirumugabe S

    FAMILLE, SANTE, DEVELOPPEMENT / IMBONEZAMURYANGO. 1988 Apr; (11):23-8.

    Despite efforts by Rwanda's National Office of Population (ONAPO) to increase awareness of Rwanda's population problems, there has been little change in the reproductive behavior of the rural population. ONAPO plans to formulate an overall information, education, and communication (IEC) campaign in the area of maternal-child health and family planning to inform the population about Rwanda's sociodemographic problems and the solution offered by family planning. The campaign will have 3 main components: 1) provision of information to the general population through the informal educational system 2) training and school-based population information and 3) production of educational materials to support the training and communication programs. IEC programs for maternal-child health and family planning will be integrated into more widely accepted activities having some degree of permanence, such as the school system, health centers, and religious institutions. The communal centers for development and permanent training will play an especially strong role in the integrated IEC plans for rural areas. Center personnel will help the population understand the connection between family planning and the socioeconomic and health status of families and will motivate couples to use family planning. The overall IEC plan will receive support from the National Revolutionary Movement for Development, the Association of Rwandan Women for Development, the Ministry of the Interior and of Communal Development, and the Ministry of Public Health and Social Affairs. Various other ministries, religious organizations, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations should also support the IEC effort.
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  17. 17
    052125

    A simple solution: how oral rehydration is averting child death from diarrhoeal dehydration.

    Williams G

    New York, New York, United Nations Children's Fund, 1987 Jun. 62 p.

    Worldwide, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) still claims only a modest niche in the market alongside a vast array of modern drugs and traditional treatments of diarrhea, the majority of which are either ineffective or harmful. Often, ORT is used as an adjunct therapy for drugs, instead of as a replacement. Drugs are also several times more expensive than ORT. ORT is not yet seen for what it rally is: the most effective treatment for a major killer disease in the developing world. Recent research has identified a total of 25 different virsues, bacteria, and parasites that cause diarrhea, and more are still being found. Cholera accounts for <1% of all types of accute diarrhea. It can usually be treated with ORT alone. The progressive symptoms for diarrhea are identified, and how ORT replaces salt and water is explained. A 2-tier strategy is recommended by WHO and UNICEF--90-95% of patients can be treated with ORT alone; the remainder require intravenous therapy. Continuation of feeding during diarrhea and additional feeding afterward is recommended. A review of antibiotics, absorbents, antimotility drugs, and anti-emetics shows why they do not work or should not be used. Training in diarrhea management for doctors, nurses, and midwives is inadequate. Supply problems are significant. Yet because OR solution needs no refrigeration and local production is more feasible than vaccines, logistic do not have to be complicated. Effective use of ORT needs to be promoted through communication. Social marketing and information campaigns in Gambia, Haiti, and Egypt are reviewed. The issues concerning use of standardised ORT formula. Salt-and-sugar solution are addressed. The future for ORT includs finding a better formula that would also reduce the volume and duration of the diarrhea itself.
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  18. 18
    054773

    Health-related population issues: report of a study group, Brazzaville, 7-9 October 1985.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa

    Brazzaville, Congo, World Health Organization [WHO]. Regional Office for Africa, 1985. vi, 78 p.

    This is a report from a meeting held to consider questions relating to the implementation of family planning as part of integrated services with maternal and child health programs. The geographic focus is on Africa. Consideration is given to nutritional and ecological problems, women's roles in family planning programs, education and communication in family planning, and WHO's program of research in human reproduction. (ANNOTATION)
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  19. 19
    033363

    Report of Experts Meeting 18-22 September 1978.

    UNESCO. Regional Office for Education in Africa. Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa

    Nairobi, Kenya, Unesco Regional Population Communication Unit for Africa, [1978]. 19, [16] p. (XA/01471/00)

    The Experts Group, made up of 17 communicators and trainers from international agencies and leading communication training institutions from throughout the Africa continent, met in September 1978 met to consider a background paper bases on replies to questionnaires concerning country requirements for 1980 and 1985 as well as 5 technical papers. The technical papers focused on population communication program requirements for 1980, communication needs for the 1980s, population communication requirements in Zambia for the 1980s; communication research needs in the 1980s; and research priorities in the 1980s. In their deliberations, the experts proceeded from the assumption that the purpose of all communication activities in the African region must be the enhancement of the quality of life of the majority of the people and the creation and sustenance of an environment conducive to the promotion of social development. The experts emphasized the need for cooperation and coordination of the efforts of all UN specialized agencies and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the promotion of communication programs for social development. The meeting also called for intergovernmental cooperation based on a definite commitment and political will of all African governments, to enable their recommendations to be quickly and effectively implemented. The recommendations were accompanied by strategies for implementation to help to meet the identified priority needs for communication in support of social development for the 1980s. The recommendations and strategies focused on 4 areas -- media development, training, research, and institution building. The goal of all of these recommendations and strategies is to develop the ability of the African region to become self reliant at various levels. The Experts Meeting concluded that steps toward the realization of that goal could begin in the 1980s, if the needed resources were made available early enough for phased planning of individual projects and the stimulation of regional activities. Having reviewed the media situation, the Experts Meeting recommended that a combination of mass media with group and traditional modes of communication would be the most realistic approach and should receive priority in the 1980s. In the area of training, the meeting gave priority to the training of trainers at all levels. In the research area the critical need is for reliable data. Finally, additional support is required in the area of institution building to enable specified institutions to expand and intensify their training programs to meet the various regional and national needs. The Experts Meeting held the view that the strengthening of disadvantaged groups through appropriate and judicious use of communication strategies should include youth and young adults and women.
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  20. 20
    007250

    Republic of the Gambia: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1981 Oct. 59 p. (Report No 44)

    The findings of the Mission that visited the Republic of the Gambia during October 1978 and from August 27th to September 5th, 1980 for the purpose of assessing the need for population assistance are presented in this report. Information is provided on the following: the national setting (geographical and governmental features; demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population; and population policy and development planning); basic population data (censuses and surveys, vital statistics and civil registration, other data collection activities, and needs); population policy formulation (population growth and distribution, integration of population factors into development plans, and structures for policy formulation; and implementing population policies (programs designed to affect fertility, mortality, and morbidity; programs affecting the distribution of the population; information, education, and communication programs; and women's programs); and external assistance (multilateral and bilateral assistance and nongovernmental organization assistance). Mission recommendations are both summarized and presented in detail. The total population of the country is 597,000, and the population growth rate between 1963-1973 was an estimated 2.8%. The crude birth rate is 49-50/1000 and the total estimated fertility rate is an average of 6.4 live births/woman over her reproductive life span. Both population density and urban growth are serious concerns. Internal and international migration are influencing the population distribution, although data regarding migration are limited. The economy is primarily agricultural. Gambia had no formal population policy until 1979. The current population is based on the guiding principles that population policy should be considered part of rural development and that the goal of self-reliance should be pursued. Improved management, administration, logistics, transport, and supervision to support the existing and all future health care service systems of the country are critical needs. Training is needed for various categories of health personnel.
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  21. 21
    015663

    Teaching mothers oral rehydration.

    Meyer AJ; Block CH; Ferguson DC

    Horizons. 1983 Apr; 2(4):14-20.

    In Honduras and the Gambia the US Agency for International Development's (AID's) Bureau for Science and Technology and its contractors, working with the Ministry of Health in each country and drawing upon experts in health communications, anthropology, and behavioral psychology, have developed a health education methodology that integrates mass media and health providers. The project uses radio, graphics, and the training of village health workers to teach mothers how to treat and prevent diarrheal dehydration. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the AID assisted International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research in Bangladesh, have demonstrated that lost body fluid and electrolytes can be replaced with an orally administered solution. The treatment is known as ORT, oral rehydration therapy. AID efforts in Honduras and Gambia are showing that semi-literate persons, contacted primarily through the mass media, can be taught to mix and administer ORT. The campaign also includes a number of preventive measures. The Gambian government chose to use ORT packets prepared according to the WHO formula at health centers as a backup to the similar home mix solution. Honduras chose to package their own ORT salts, following the WHO formula, for use both at health centers and in the home. In Gambia the Ministry of Health created a national contest which kicked off with the distribution of 200,000 copies of a flyer carrying mixing instructions to nearly 2000 Gambian villages. Repeated radio announcements in Gambia's 2 major languages told mothers to gather and listen to contest instructions. The radio announcer led listeners through each panel of the color coded flyer which told them how to mix and administer ORT. 11,000 women attended the 72 village contests. Of the 6580 who entered the mixing competition, 1440 won a chance to compete and 1097 won prizes for correct mixing. After 8 months of campaign activities, the number of mothers who reported using a sugar-salt solution to treat their children's diarrhea rose from 3% to 48% (within the sample of some 750 households). The number of women who could recite the formula jumped from 1% to 64%. In Honduras a keynote poster for the campaign that featured a loving mother was distributed simultaneously with the airing of the 1st phase of the radio spots and programs. Within a year 93% of the mothers knew that the radio campaign was promoting Litrosol, the name of the locally packaged ORT salts; 71% could recite the radio jingle stressing the administration of liquid during diarrhea, and 42% knew that Litrosol prevented dehydration. 49% of all mothers in the sample had tried Litrosol at least once during the campaign.
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  22. 22
    027674

    Africa.

    Katongole R

    New York, N.Y., United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA] [1983] 54 p. (Population Profiles No. 20)

    This review traces how various population programs in Africa have evolved since the 1960s. Before the establishment of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) in the late 1960s, the efforts of private groups or non-governmental organizations in the areas of family planning, are highlighted. The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. In most of Africa, the 1st stirrups of the family planning movement began during the colonial period. During the 1960s there was marked increase in the demand for family planning services. Lack of official government recognition and not enough assistancy from external sources made early family planning programs generally weak. The shortage of trained personnel, the unsureness of government support, opposition from the Roman Catholic Church to population control, and the logistics of supplying folk in remote rural areas who held traditional attitudes, all posed serious problems. The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. The Fund's major sectors of activity in the African region include basic data collection on population dynamics and the formulation and implementation of policies and programs. Family planning, education and communication and other special programs are also important efforts within the Fund's multicector approach. The general principles applied by UNFPA in the allocation of its resources and the sources and levels of current finding are briefly discussed and the Fund's evaluation methodology is outlined. A number of significant goals have been achieved in the African region during the past 15 years through UNFPA programs, most prominently; population censuses, data collection and analysis, demographic training and reseaqrch, and policy formulation after identification of need. This monograph seeks to provide evidence for the compelling need for sustained commitment to population programs in Africa, and for continuing international support and assistance to meet the unmet needs of a continent whose demographic dynamism is incomparably greater than that of any other part of the world.
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