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Multiple-micronutrient supplementation: evidence from large-scale prenatal programmes on coverage, compliance and impact.
Maternal and Child Nutrition. 2017 Dec 22; 1-11.Micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy pose important challenges for public-health, given the potential adverse outcomes not only during pregnancy but across the life-course. Provision of iron-folic acid (IFA) supplements is the strategy most commonly practiced and recommended globally. How to successfully implement IFA and multiple micronutrient supplementation interventions among pregnant women and to achieve sustainable/permanent solutions to prenatal micronutrient deficiencies remain unresolved issues in many countries. This paper aims to analyze available experiences of prenatal IFA and multiple micronutrient interventions to distil learning for their effective planning and large-scale implementation. Relevant articles and programme-documentation were comprehensively identified from electronic databases, websites of major-agencies and through hand-searching of relevant documents. Retrieved documents were screened and potentially relevant reports were critically examined by the authors with the aim of identifying a set of case studies reflecting regional variation, a mix of implementation successes and failures, and a mix of programs and large-scale experimental studies. Information on implementation, coverage, compliance, and impact was extracted from reports of large-scale interventions in Central America, Southeast Asia, South Asia, and Sub-Saharan Africa. The WHO/CDC Logic-Model for Micronutrient Interventions in Public Health was used as an organizing framework for analyzing and presenting the evidence. Our findings suggest that to successfully implement supplementation interventions and achieve sustainable-permanent solutions efforts must focus on factors and processes related to quality, cost-effectiveness, coverage, utilization, demand, outcomes, impacts, and sustainability of programs including strategic analysis, management, collaborations to pilot a project, and careful monitoring, midcourse corrections, supervision and logistical-support to gradually scaling it up.
The art of knowledge exchange: A results-focused planning guide for development practitioners. 2nd ed.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2013.  p.Knowledge exchange, or peer-to-peer learning, is a powerful way to share, replicate, and scale-up what works in development. Development practitioners increasingly seek to learn from the experiences of others who have gone through, or are going through, similar challenges. They want to have ready access to practical knowledge and solutions and enhance their confidence, conviction, and skills to customize the solutions to their own context. The second edition of the Art of Knowledge Exchange: A Results-Focused Planning Guide for Development Practitioners follows a strategic approach to learning and breaks down the knowledge exchange process into five simple steps. It also provides tools you need to design your knowledge exchange and practical guidance on how to use them to get the results you want from your knowledge exchange. This second edition contains a full revision of the original Art of Knowledge Exchange as well as new chapters on implementation and results of knowledge exchanges. The Guide also distills lessons from over 100 exchanges financed by South-South Facility, analytical work conducted by the World Bank Institute, and the Task Team for South-South Cooperation, and reflects the rich experiences of World Bank staff, learning professionals, government officials, and other practitioners engaged in South-South knowledge exchange activities.
International Communication Gazette. 2007; 69(6):483-507.In the UN system, conflicts and contradictions seldom concern the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as such, but rather the means of achieving them. These differences of opinion about priorities, and about how much and to whom development aid or assistance should be directed, could be explained by analysing the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions underpinning the general perspectives in the communication for development (C4D) field. Theoretical changes in the perspective on development communication (modernization, dependency, multiplicity) have also reached the level of policy-makers. As a result, different methodologies and terminologies have evolved, which often make it difficult for agencies, even though they share a common commitment to the overall goals of development communication, to identify common ground, arrive at a full understanding of each other's objectives, or to cooperate effectively in operational projects. Consequently, it is difficult for development organizations in general and UN agencies in particular to reach a common approach and strategy. (author's)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2006. 93 p. (WHO/HTM/STB/2006.37)A significant scaling up of advocacy, communication and social mobilization (ACSM) will be needed to achieve the global targets for tuberculosis control as detailed in the Global Plan to Stop TB 2006--2015. In 2005, the ACSM Working Group (ACSM WG) was established as the seventh working group of the Stop TB Partnership to mobilize political, social and financial resources; to sustain and expand the global movement to eliminate TB; and to foster the development of more effective ACSM programming at country level in support of TB control. It succeeded an earlier Partnership Task Force on Advocacy and Communications. This work-plan focuses on those areas where ACSM has most to offer and where ACSM strategies can be most effectively concentrated to help address four key challenges to TB control at country level: Improving case detection and treatment adherence; Combating stigma and discrimination; Empowering people affected by TB; Mobilizing political commitment and resources for TB. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, Bureau for Development Policy, HIV / AIDS Group, . 8 p.Twenty years on, the HIV/AIDS epidemic continues to spread without respite. Almost 40 million people are living with HIV and AIDS, half of them women. The impact of HIV/AIDS is unique because it kills adults in the most productive period of their lives, depriving families, communities, and nations of their most productive people. Adding to an already heavy disease burden in poor countries, the epidemic is deepening poverty, reversing human development, worsening gender inequalities, eroding the capacity of governments to provide essential services, reducing labour productivity, and hampering pro-poor growth. The epidemic is quickly becoming the biggest obstacle to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. (excerpt)
Kyiv, Ukraine, UNDP, . 15 p.Ukraine is at a critical point in its response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The country has the highest rate of HIV infection prevalence in Europe and the CIS, about one per cent of the adult population. At the heart of generating an effective national response on HIV/AIDS are committed, mobilized leaders who are speaking out and taking action in their respective spheres of influence. Analysis of successful responses around the globe has highlighted leadership as a key ingredient for overcoming stigma and effective action in both prevention and care. Leaders for an effective national response must come from all levels of society -- national, regional and local Government; NGOs; media; schools; youth organizations; and the household. In modern, democratic Ukraine, citizens enjoy unprecedented freedoms and choices. Each leads his or her own life in a very personal way. Faced with the present onslaught of HIV/AIDS such individuals need basic information and support for their safe behaviour choices to avoid infection, for their compassion for those living with the virus and for their inclusion in the nationwide response. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNDP, 2004 Jun. 34 p.Something remarkable is happening in many parts of the world. Faced with a common enemy, people from different countries are discovering a shared goal. These are ordinary men and women who until recently had thought of HIV/AIDS as something that happened to other people. Responding to the epidemic has today become a passionate cause for each one. These individuals and groups are linked by one common factor: They have all been part of UNDP's Leadership for Results programme-- a unique and innovative process that helps to create an enabling environment to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, by fostering hope, generating transformation and producing breakthrough results. (excerpt)
Global AIDSLink. 2003 Apr-May; (79):12-13.The media plays a unique role within society either to denounce or to perpetuate the bias and moral judgments against people with HIV/AIDS. Sometimes journalists can underestimate how influential their portrayal of HIV/AIDS is in shaping people's attitudes, especially when society fails to distinguish between people and the disease they suffer from; when denial is so pervasive that the infected are ostracized by their families. In addition, reporters, editors and producers constantly grapple with ways to find fresh angles to discuss HIV, and ensure their viewers and readers remain engaged by a topic that never appears to grow old. To address these and other key topics concerning the media and its treatment of HIV/AIDS, the World Bank organized a distance-learning course from June to November 2002 that simultaneously brought together journalists and HIV/AIDS project managers from Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Nigeria and Malawi. The course, entitled Fighting the HIV/AIDS Pandemic through Information and Strategic Communication, recognizes the role that successful communication campaigns can play in increasing understanding of the disease and promoting life-saving behaviors. Each program stream consisted of eight video-conferenced modules, which were followed up through in-country work. (excerpt)
SARA: a role model for girls as they face HIV and AIDS in Africa. A review of the Sara Communication Initiative.
Accra, Ghana, UNICEF, . 92 p.The overall goal and general objectives of the SCI are as follows: To promote the Rights of the Child and support their implementation and realization, with special focus on adolescent female children in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESAR), and in other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa where the materials are found to be acceptable and appropriate. General objectives: To research, produce and disseminate a regional communication package on the Rights of the Child in order to: Create awareness and advocate for the reduction of existing disparities in the status and treatment of girls. Support social mobilization processes designed to realize the potential of female children and to foster their participation in development. Produce a dynamic role model for girls that will assist in their acquisition of psychosocial life skills essential for empowerment. Provide a model for improved gender relationships, beginning at an early age. Communicate information regarding the survival, protection and development of children, including specific messages on education, health, nutrition and freedom from exploitation and abuse. Build the capacity of African writers, researchers and artists through the development of the Sara communication packages. (excerpt)
Towards putting farmers in control: a second case study of the rural communication system for development in Mexico's tropical wetlands. [Agricultores a las riendas: un segundo estudio de casos del sistema de comunicación rural para el desarrollo en los pantanos tropicales mexicanos]
Rome, Italy, FAO, 1990. v, 58 p. (Development Communication Case Study No. 9)This is the second Case Study of the Rural Communication System for Development in Mexico's Tropical Wetlands. The first was written in late 1985 and published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in early 1987. The important changes that have taken place in Mexico since 1985, in particular as they relate to development in the tropical wetlands and the communication system working in that context, now warrant a second Case Study. To set the present Case Study in its proper context, it should, ideally, be read in conjunction with the earlier one, but since this may not be possible for all readers, the salient information provided in the earlier study will be given in the Background section, below. The first part of this Study will set the scene and describe the approach and the work being carried out, while the last section will attempt to examine the situation from various perspectives and offer some views regarding its future prospects. It should be noted, however, that this Study is not an evaluation. (excerpt)
[Bangkok, Thailand], United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], South-East Asia HIV and Development Project, 2001 Feb.  p.This prompted me to wonder about the following two sides of the same consideration below: 1. Whether development decision makers and experts could explore how Communication could help them promote policies and activities on the interrelations between HIV/AIDS and development; and 2. Whether Communication experts could try to apply their talents to these complex but important interrelations. This is why, besides contributing to the Drum Beat chat, I would like to draw the attention of those interested in the relationship between HIV/AIDS and development to the potential role Communication could play. In other words, as HIV/AIDS is increasingly being recognized as a multisectoral issue, I would like to advocate for the need to develop appropriate Communication strategies for the development sectors (e.g. transport, construction, agriculture) most relevant for combating HIV/AIDS, besides the health one. (excerpt)
Victoria, Canada, Communication Initiative, 2002 Dec 19. 2 p.Implemented in 2001 by UNICEF-Peru as part of a five-year initiative, this programme addresses the issue of children's, adolescents', and women's rights by bolstering interpersonal communication skills among public services workers, intermediaries between supply and demand (community agents, teachers, and community leaders), and families and individuals. The programme, which includes remote communities of the Andes and Amazon in its reach, draws on the use of culturally relevant and non-threatening messages to increase the participation of communities and families so they can demand that their rights be respected. Other features of the project include providing technical assistance to improve communication among those who provide basic services, and revamping the manner in which the media treats issues related to children and women's rights. (author's)
Critical challenges in HIV communication. [Les défis critiques en matière de communication sur le VIH]
London, England, Panos Institute, 2002 Nov. 6 p. (Perspective Paper)More energy, money and international attention is now being focused on HIV/AIDS than on any other global public health issue. A pandemic that was being quietly forgotten by the global community only three years ago has hurtled up national and international policy agendas. Panos has been chronicling and providing analysis of the responses to this epidemic for 16 years - almost since its start. We have never known a time when fighting the pandemic has been such a global policy priority. Determined, courageous, and insistent advocacy by people at the highest level of governments, within the UN, among donors and by an increasingly organised global civil society and among grassroots communities, has succeeded in making the response to this epidemic an urgent international priority. Equally, there has never been a time when so much energy translates into so little hope. We believe - and the feeling seems widely shared - that the energy and commitment currently focused on fighting HIV/AIDS is in grave danger of being wasted. If coherent, robust strategies are not directed at the root causes of the epidemic, rather than the symptoms, then the same level of energy and attention may never again be catalysed. This paper argues that the history of the AIDS pandemic provides us with clear guidelines for future action. It also presents findings from a Panos survey which suggests that, particularly in donor terms, we are some way from putting those guidelines into practice. (excerpt)
AIDS WEEKLY. 2000 Jun 12-19; 18-9.This article reports the launch of the female condom by the Female Health Co. in Ghana on May 25, 2000. The development of this project has been assisted by a guide "The Female Condom: A Guide for Planning and Programming", that highlights the importance of training and communications to support the introduction of female condoms.
New York, New York, United Nations, Department of Public Information, 2001 Jun 9.  p. (DPI/2214/F)This fact sheet presents five priorities for action, six key factors to achieve these goals, and recommends partnering to carry out the campaign.
Brussels, Belgium, IPPF, European Network, . 32 p.During the UN World Conferences in Cairo and Beijing, the importance of young people having the right to information, education and health services in order to prevent unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS was emphasized. After these conferences, the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) undertook initiatives to provide services to improve sexual health for young people both at field and at the advocacy level. 'Make it Happen...Make it Now' is the motto IPPF chose for its strategy on young people's sexual and reproductive health and rights. This strategy has been implemented during the last 5 years in different ways. This publication entitled 'Youth and IPPF EN’ is the IPPF EN review of its strategy. The review noted that youth issues and services for youth have been at the core of many national family planning association's (FPA) efforts; there has, however, been disparity in terms of support for the Regional Office between the grant receiving and non grant-receiving health. Overall, the results obtained show an improvement in the provision of sexual health services to young people. However, in contrast, the involvement of young people at different governance levels within IPPF EN has not been equally satisfactory. IPPF EN recognized that there is still a lot more to do and it is of great importance to keep moving forward in relation to youth issues.
HEALTH EDUCATION QUARTERLY. 1991 Spring; 18(1):5-15.This article contains the findings and recommendations of a Working Group convened by the World Health Organizations (WHO) in 1989 in order to explore the application of health promotion concepts and strategies in developing countries. As the article's preamble explains, goal of health promotion is to foster health development by advocating policies, developing social support systems, and empowering people with the knowledge and skills needed to address health problems. The WHO Working Group, which included 26 representatives from around the world, focused on the following concerns: 1) how to mobilize the public and policy- makers in favor of health, and how to obtain an appropriate share of national resources; 2) how to encourage health planners to allocate resources to health promotion and disease prevention; and 3) how to intensify health education in developing countries. The article presents the highlights of the Working Group's discussions on the following 4 themes: 1) the issues facing health promotion in developing countries; 2) the formulation of health supportive public policies; 3) the empowerment of people for health action; and 4) the strengthening of nations' capability for health promotion. The article also issues a call for action around health promotion. Although the specific initiatives of individual countries invariably vary, the Working Group provides some of the high priority actions that developing nations need to take in order to move health promotion from concept to reality.
[Berne], Switzerland, Aide Suisse contre le SIDA, 1988 Apr.  p. (Documentation 1)This document contains 12 brief and nontechnical articles by experts on different aspects of AIDS diagnosis and control. The 1st 3 articles, on AIDS information and communications, include a discussion of the international exchange of information on AIDS, an outline of worldwide activities of the World Health Organization Special Program Against AIDS, and a discussion of information policy on AIDS. The next several articles, on AIDS transmission, include articles explaining why mosquitoes do not transmit AIDS and why AIDS is not spread by kissing. An article calls for fighting AIDS instead of using it as a vehicle for social control or discrimination against marginal groups. 3 others call for greater understanding and compassion rather than fear in dealing with AIDS patients. A more detailed article on means of contamination and the unlikelihood of infection through casual contact is followed by a work suggesting that screening for HIV be limited primarily to blood donors and individuals with symptoms suggesting HIV infection. The final article analyzes why Switzerland has the highest per capita prevalence of AIDS in Europe and explores the epidemiology of AIDS in Switzerland.
Science and Technology for Development: Prospects Entering the Twenty-First Century. A symposium in commemoration of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the U.S. Agency for International Development, Washington, D.C., June 22-23, 1987.
Washington, D.C., National Academy Press, 1988. 79 p.This Symposium described and assessed the contributions of science and technology in development of less developed countries (LDCs), and focused on what science and technology can contribute in the future. Development experts have learned in the last 3 decades that transfer of available technology to LDCs alone does not bring about development. Social scientists have introduced the concepts of local participation and the need to adjust to local socioeconomic conditions. These concepts and the development of methodologies and processes that guide development agencies to prepare effective strategies for achieving goals have all improved project success rates. Agricultural scientists have contributed to the development of higher yielding, hardier food crops, especially rice, maize, and wheat. Health scientists have reduced infant and child mortalities and have increased life expectancy for those living in the LDCs. 1 significant contribution was the successful global effort to eradicate smallpox from the earth. Population experts and biological scientists have increased the range of contraceptives and the modes for delivering family planning services, both of which have contributed to the reduction of fertility rates in some LDCs. Communication experts have taken advantage of the telecommunications and information technologies to make available important information concerning health, agriculture, and education. For example, crop simulation models based on changes in temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind, solar radiation, and soil conditions have predicted outcomes of various agricultural systems. An integration of all of the above disciplines are necessary to bring about development in the LDCs.
Communication: a guide for managers of national diarrhoeal disease control programmes. Planning, management and appraisal of communication activities.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Diarrhoeal Diseases Control Programme, 1987. vii, 78 p.When the World Health Organization's Diarrheal Diseases Control Program (CDD) began in 1978, it concentrated on producers and providers of oral rehydration salts. Communication efforts were directed at informing health care providers and training them to treat patients. The time has come for CDD programs to put more emphasis on enduser-oriented approaches, and it is to facilitate that aim that this guide for CDD program managers on enduser-directed communication has been developed. The guide is divided into 3 parts. Part 1 deals with nature and scope of communication in a CDD program. The 1st step is research and analysis of the target population -- find out what the target audience does and does not know and what are some of their misconceptions about the use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and the Litrosol packets. Communication can teach mothers how and when and why to use ORT, but it cannot overcome lack of supply and distribution of the salts; it cannot be a substitute for trained health care staff; and it cannot transform cultural norms. Part 2 deals with the communication design process. Step 1 is to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practice of both the endusers and the health care providers; to investigate what communication resources are available; and to investigate the available resources in terms of cost, time, and personnel. Step 2 is communication planning, in terms of: 1) definition of the target audience; 2) identification of needed behavior modification, and 3) factors constraining it; 4) defining the goals of the communication program in terms of improving access to and use of the new information; 5) approaches to change, e.g., rewards, motivation, and appeal to logic, emotion, or fear; 6) deciding what mix of communications methods is to be used, i.e., radio, printed matter; 7) identifying the institutions that will carry out the communicating; 8) developing a feasible timetable, and 9) a feasible budget. Step 3 is to develop the message to be communicated and to choose the format of the message for different communications media. Step 4 is testing, using a sample of the audience, whether the messages are having their intended effect in terms of acceptance and understanding by the target audience, and revision of the messages as necessary. Step 5 is the actual implementation of the communication plan in terms of using a media mix appropriate to the audience, phasing the messages so as to avoid information saturation; and designing the messages so that they are understandable, correct, brief, attractive, standardized, rememberable, convincing, practical, and relevant to the target audience. Step 6 is to monitor the program to be sure the messages are reaching their intended audiences, to evaluate the program in terms of its actual effects, and to use the results of the monitoring and evaluation to correct instances of communication breakdown. Part 3 deals with the CDD manager's role in communication. The manager must select a suitable communications coordinator, who will have the technical expertise necessary and the ability to call upon appropriate government and private information resources and consultants. The manager must brief the coordinator in the scope and objectives of the CDD program; and he must supervise and monitor the work of the coordinator.
[Workshop on Sensitization of Communication Professionals to Population Problems, Dakar, 29 August, 1986 at Breda] Seminaire atelier de sensibilisation des professionnels de la communication aux problemes de population, Dakar du 25 au 29 Aout 1986 au Breda.
Dakar, Senegal, UNICOM, Unite de Communication, 1986. 215 p. (Unite de Communication Projet SEN/81/P01)This document is the result of a workshop organized by the Communication Unit of the Senegalese Ministry of Planning and Cooperation to sensitize some 30 Senegalese journalists working in print and broadcast media to the importance of the population variable in development and to prepare them to contribute to communication programs for population. Although it is addressed primarily to professional communicators, it should also be of interest to educators, economists, health workers, demographers, and others interested in the Senegalese population. The document is divided into 5 chapters, the 1st of which comprises a description of the history and objectives of the Communication Unit, which is funded by the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Chapter 1 also presents the workshop agenda. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to population problems and different currents of thought regarding population since Malthus, a discussion of the utilization and interpretation of population variables, and definitions of population indicators. The 3rd chapter explores problems of population and development in Senegal, making explicit the theoretical concepts of the previous chapter in the context of Senegal. Topics discussed in chapter 3 include the role of UNFPA in introducing the population variable in development projects in Senegal; population and development, the situation and trends of the Senegalese population; socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of the Senegalese population; sources of sociodemographic data on Senegal; the relationship between population, resources, environment and development in Senegal; and the Senegalese population policy. Chapter 4 discusses population communication, including population activities of UNESCO and general problems of social communication; a synthesis and interpretation of information needs and the role of population communication; and a summary of the workshop goals, activities, and achievements. Chapter 5 contains annexes including a list of participants, opening and closing remarks, an evaluation questionnaire regarding the workshop participants, and press clippings relating to the workshop and to Senegal's population.
Report on the Preparatory Technical Consultation for the Meeting of ASEAN Heads of Population Programmes held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 22-24 November 1976.
[Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia], Regional Organization for Inter-Governmental Cooperation and Coordination in Population and Family Planning in Southeast Asia, 1976. 248 p.The Preparatory Technical Consultation for the Meeting of ASEAN Heads of Population Programs was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from November 22-24, 1976. It was organized by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Regional Organization for Inter-Governmental Cooperation and Coordination in Population and Family Planning in Southeast Asia. Sponsorship was also received from the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). From Nov. 24-26 the Meeting of ASEAN Heads of Population Programs hosted by ASEAN, Malaysia, and the National Family Planning Board of Malaysia (NFPB) was held. They met to exchange views and to compare experiences regarding population problems and programs, particularly those related to rural and urban under-privileged sectors; to define common needs of ASEAN population programs, and to delineate the likely thrust of population policies in the Region for the coming 10 years. The proposals for action which came from the discussions of the Preparatory Technical Consultation covered policy, programs, strategies, research, training, information, education, and communication. Particular emphasis was given to activities extending beyond traditional family planning approaches.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 19 p. (Series 1, Pt. 7)The population education documents and materials abstracted in this section focusing on curriculum and instructional materials are primarily meant for practitioners--teachers, trainers, extension workers, curriculum and material developers, whose role of disseminating population education concepts via the face-to-face approach is greatly enhanced by the use of the more impersonal forms of communication. The materials were selected to provide practitioners with a recommended list of teaching/learning tools and materials which they can use in their work. These materials come in the form of handbooks, manuals, guidebooks, packages, kits and reports. They cover all aspects of materials development, including the procedures in developing various types of materials and showing how population education concepts can be integrated into the various development themes. They also describe teaching/learning and training methods that are participatory in nature--games and simulations, role playing, problem solving, self-awareness exercises, communications sensitivity, human relations, projective exercises, programmed instructions and value clarification. In addition the abstracts provide a general summary of what curriculum areas can be used as entry points for population education concepts.
In: UNESCO. Regional Office for Asia and Oceania. Population Education Clearing House. Population education as integrated into development programs: a non-formal approach. Bangkok, Thailand, UNESCO Regional Office for Asia and Oceania, 1980. 15 p. (Series 1, Pt. 5)A compendium of abstracts of selected handbooks, case studies and monographs is presented. These abstracts describe how youth programs of various development agencies all over the region have innovatively involved the out-of-school youth in learning population education concepts and practices. A comprehensive inventory of case studies of organizations involved in educating the out-of-school youth on population education concepts in many Asian countries is provided. A variety of alternative strategies and approaches have been tried and tested in many pilot projects. The range of alternatives includes summer camps, vocational and income-generating activities, parents and youth clubs, and youth organizations via the medium of music, sports, education, work and others. A more significant feature of the abstracts is the consolidation of lessons learned from these activities as well as guidelines from these lessons which can be used for planning, designing, implementing and evaluating out-of-school population education programs.