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An evidence map of social, behavioural and community engagement interventions for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 190 p.The Every Woman Every Child (EWEC) Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health (2016-2030) calls for action towards three objectives: Survive (end preventable deaths), Thrive (ensure health and well-being) and Transform (expand enabling environments). The strategy recognizes that “women, children and adolescents are potentially the most powerful agents for improving their own health and achieving prosperous and sustainable societies”. Social, behavioural and community engagement (SBCE) interventions are key to empowering individuals, families and communities to contribute to better health and well-being of women, children and adolescents. Policy-makers and development practitioners need to know which interventions work best. WHO has provided global guidance on some key SBCE interventions, and we recognize there is more work to be done as this will be an area of increasing importance in the era of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and the EWEC Global Strategy. This document provides an evidence map of existing research into a set of selected SBCE interventions for reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH), the fruit of a collaboration between the WHO, the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH) and the International Initiative for Impact Evaluations (3ie), supported by other partners. It represents an important way forward in this area, harnessing technical expertise, and academia to strengthen knowledge about the evidence base. The evidence map provides a starting point for making available existing research into the effectiveness of RMNCH SBCE interventions, a first step toward providing evidence for decision-making. It will enable better use of existing knowledge and pinpoint where new research investments can have the greatest impact. An online platform that complements the report provides visualization of the findings, displaying research concentrations and gaps.
Advocacy, communication, and partnerships: Mobilizing for effective, widespread cervical cancer prevention.
International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2017 Jul; 138 Suppl 1:57-62.Both human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening/treatment are relatively simple and inexpensive to implement at all resource levels, and cervical cancer screening has been acknowledged as a "best buy" by the WHO. However, coverage with these interventions is low where they are needed most. Failure to launch or expand cervical cancer prevention programs is by and large due to the absence of dedicated funding, along with a lack of recognition of the urgent need to update policies that can hinder access to services. Clear and sustained communication, robust advocacy, and strategic partnerships are needed to inspire national governments and international bodies to action, including identifying and allocating sustainable program resources. There is significant momentum for expanding coverage of HPV vaccination and screening/preventive treatment in low-resource settings as evidenced by new global partnerships espousing this goal, and the participation of groups that previously had not focused on this critical health issue. (c) 2017 The Authors. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, Department of Nutrition for Health and Development, 2017 May.  p.Nutrition is a direct contributor and target to Sustainable Development Goal 2 (“End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition, and promote sustainable agriculture”), a foundation and pre-requisite to Sustainable Development Goal 3 (“Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages”), and a decisive enabler to the remaining goals of the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. The World Health Organization (WHO) supports all Member States to achieve “a world free of all forms of malnutrition where all people achieve health and well-being”, a vision supported by our work with Member States and their partners to ensure universal access to effective nutrition actions and to healthy and sustainable diets1, in the context of the overall effort to ensure universal health coverage2. To do this, WHO uses its convening power to help facilitate and align priority setting to mainstream nutrition in the health and development agenda; develop evidence-informed guidance supported by the highest quality science and ethical frameworks; support the adoption of guidance, its implementation and the integration of effective actions into existing or new delivery platforms in the health systems. WHO guidelines are documents developed by WHO containing recommendations for clinical practice or public health policy and programmes. A recommendation tells the intended end-user of the guideline what he or she can or should do in specific situations to achieve the best health and nutrition outcomes possible, individually or at the population level. It offers a choice among different interventions or measures having an anticipated positive impact on health and nutrition, and implications for the use of resources.3 The WHO Department of Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD) develops guidelines in accordance with the procedures established in the WHO Handbook for Guideline Development.2 The WHO guideline development process ensures that WHO guidelines are of high methodological quality and are developed through an independent, transparent, evidence-informed, consensual decision-making process. Though the process with which WHO develops guidelines is highly structured, systematic and transparent, the process for priority setting (i.e. prioritizing topics4 for guideline development) has been a dynamic one, in order to accommodate new and renewed high-level commitments from the WHO Secretariat as well as emerging issues arising from discussions among Member States in the Governing Body fora, such as the World Health Assembly (WHA). The priority issues are determined by their importance (i.e. magnitude, prevalence and distribution of disease or nutrition problems), or the existence of preventable or modifiable biological, behavioural and contextual determinants (risk factors). Updating guidelines is challenging if evidence has to be retrieved to support an increasing number of recommendations. In this situation it is important to give priority to assuring the principle of “primum non nocere” (first do no harm), to address controversial areas, and to set a position on areas in which new evidence has emerged and requires prompt action. Ensuring a well-understood and efficiently communicated prioritization process is therefore crucial as external partners and stakeholders play an important role in the WHO guideline implementation process. Independence and transparency of the prioritization process gives the Organization a means of providing assurance that the process is free of any undue influence that may affect the reputation and objectivity of WHO. Therefore, in an effort to maintain transparency in the normative work of WHO and to enhance the understanding of the process used to prioritize topics for guideline development among Member States and stakeholders, the Department of Nutrition for Health and Development (NHD) is leading the work on making the prioritization process more accessible and has developed an online tool to further facilitate the participation of Member States and their stakeholders in the guideline prioritization process. This process aims to complement the decisions of the World Health Assembly (WHA), the decision-making body of WHO. (Excerpts
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2016. 64 p.This report is a companion to the World Health Organization’s 2016 guide for “Introducing HPV Vaccine Into National Immunization Programmes.” It summarizes experiences introducing HPV vaccine and provides guidance for introduction.
[Geneva, Switzerland], International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, 2016 Feb 29.  p.This document is an emergency plan of action created by International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies for the country of Honduras. The document includes a situational analysis of the Zika emergency in Honduras and an operational strategy and plan to combat the outbreak.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2016 Jun 9.  p.As of 8 June 2016, 60 countries and territories report continuing mosquito-borne transmission of which: 46 countries are experiencing a first outbreak of Zika virus since 2015, with no previous evidence of circulation, and with ongoing transmission by mosquitos. 14 countries reported evidence of Zika virus transmission between 2007 and 2014, with ongoing transmission. In addition, four countries or territories have reported evidence of Zika virus transmission between 2007 and 2014, without ongoing transmission: Cook Islands, French Polynesia, ISLA DE PASCUA -Chile and YAP (Federated States of Micronesia). Ten countries have reported evidence of person-to-person transmission of Zika virus, probably via a sexual route. In the week to 8 June 2016, no new country reported mosquito-borne or person-to-person Zika virus transmission. As of 8 June 2016, microcephaly and other central nervous system (CNS) malformations potentially associated with Zika virus infection or suggestive of congenital infection have been reported by eleven countries or territories. Three of those reported microcephaly borne from mothers with a recent travel history to Brazil (Slovenia, United States of America) and Colombia (Spain), for one additional case the precise country of travel in Latin America is not determined. In the context of Zika virus circulation, 13 countries and territories worldwide have reported an increased incidence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and/or laboratory confirmation of a Zika virus infection among GBS cases. As of 8 June, Cabo Verde has reported a total of six cases of microcephaly and other neurological abnormalities with serological indication of previous Zika infection. Based on research to date, there is scientific consensus that Zika virus is a cause of microcephaly and GBS. The global Strategic Response Framework launched by the World Health Organization (WHO) in February 2016 encompasses surveillance, response activities and research. An interim report has been published on some of the key activities being undertaken jointly by WHO and international, regional and national partners in response to this public health emergency. A revised strategy for the period July 2016 to December 2017 is currently being developed with partners and will be published in mid-June. WHO has developed new advice and information on diverse topics in the context of Zika virus. WHO’s latest information materials, news and resources to support corporate and programmatic risk communication, and community engagement are available online. (Excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2015.  p.The World Health Organization (WHO) calls on enhanced global efforts to improve health in some of the world’s poorest and most vulnerable communities by tackling the root causes of disease and health inequalities. In order to address this and to spur up action, raise awareness and facilitate implementation of a Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach WHO launched this week a Health in All Policies training manual. This manual is a training resource to increase understanding of the importance of Health in All Policies among health and other professionals. The material will form the basis of 2- and 3-day workshops, which will: build capacity to promote, implement and evaluate HiAP; encourage engagement and collaboration across sectors; facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned; promote regional and global collaboration on HiAP; and promote dissemination of skills to develop training courses for trainers.
Handbook for supporting the development of health system guidance. Supporting informed judgements for health system policies.
Basel, Switzerland, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, 2011 Jul.  p.This handbook, commissioned by the WHO, describes the processes, approaches and outputs for developing health system guidance and is compliant with the existing ‘WHO handbook for guideline development’ (WHO Guidelines Review Committee (GRC)) and is the equivalent of the handbook to support the development of clinical guidelines for health systems guidance. It is based on a preliminary work that established the rationale and framework for health systems guidance and it is inspired by global trends encouraging to bridge the gap between research and policy and practice through knowledge translation. The handbook has been produced by a core team supported by the GRC staff, supported by a Task Force specifically set up for this project. The handbook deals with the process of developing full guidance, rather than the processes to adopt, adapt or endorse guidance developed by third parties. (Excerpt)
Brighton, United Kingdom, University of Sussex, Institute of Development Studies [IDS], 2011 Sep.  p. (IDS Practice Paper in Brief 7; ILT Brief 7)This paper draws on a study conducted on capturing innovation and lessons from across a ‘multi-sited’ organisation. The lessons in question were about effective social protection programmes, however the paper focuses on the general principles of learning in an international organisation spread across many countries. The study was undertaken in collaboration with UNICEF and Irish Aid. The implementing team developed an action research programme exploring how to capture, share and use findings and lessons, in an organisation like UNICEF. The paper describes the processes and limitations of studies like this in building an institutional learning environment.
Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, 2011.  p.30 years into the AIDS epidemic, 30 milestones, thoughts, images, words, artworks, breakthroughs, inspirations, and ideas in response.
Inter-agency field manual on reproductive health in humanitarian settings. 2010 revision for field review.
[New York, New York]. Inter-agency Working Group on Reproductive Health in Crises, 2010.  p.The 2010 Inter-agency Field Manual on Reproductive Health in Humanitarian Settings is an update of the 1999 Reproductive Health in Refugee Situations: An Inter-agency Field Manual, the authoritative guidance on reproductive health interventions in humanitarian settings. The 2010 version provides additional guidance on how to implement the Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) for Reproductive Health, a minimum standard of care in humanitarian response. It also splits the original chapter on HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) into two separate chapters to accommodate new guidance on HIV programming. A new chapter on Comprehensive Abortion Care has been developed to cover more than post-abortion care. The chapters on Program Design, Monitoring and Evaluation and Adolescent Reproductive Health have been placed earlier in the manual to address the cross-cutting nature of these topics. Information on human rights and legal considerations has been integrated into each of the thematic chapters to ensure that program staff can address rights-related concerns. The updated information is based on normative technical guidance of the World Health Organization. It also reflects the good practices documented in crisis settings around the world since the initial field-test version was released in 1996. The latest edition reflects the wide application of the Field Manual's principles and technical content beyond refugee situations, extending its use into diverse crises, including conflict zones and natural disasters.
Exchange. 2009; (3):14-15.Male circumcision is common in the Asia region, with high prevalence noted in eight out of 27 South and Southeast Asian and Pacific Island countries. Bangladesh, Indonesia, Pakistan and the Philippines have the highest number of circumcised men, estimated at 120 million. In these countries, circumcision is primarily for religious and cultural reasons with the exception in the Republic of Korea and the Philippines where circumcision is routine and widespread and with no linkages to religion.
[Geneva, Switzerland], WHO, 2009. 8 p.This report shows how countries with low prevalence of male circumcision but high prevalence of HIV have made progress to scale up male circumcision services.
Country experiences in the scale-up of male circumcision in the Eastern and Southern Africa Region: Two years and counting. A sub-regional consultation, Windhoek, Namibia, June 9-10 2009.
[Unpublished] 2009. 24 p.This report on a sub-regional consultation held in Windhoek, Namibia, 9-10 July 2009 summarises progress reports, lessons from programme experience, and priorities for the next year from nine countries.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2007.  p.Congress participants recognized a need to think further about what successful change looks like, in terms of both what is seen to be a success and what is considered to be good change. Reconsidering the nature of change is an increasingly pressing need in a development context that is increasingly driven by top-down global indicators of success and uniform measures of development. Communication for Development is not the miracle cure. It must not overlook the real politics and structural and power issues, which need to be addressed. The Congress showcased many examples of successful Communication for Development but recognized that there is inadequate documentation of these successes. The many voices at the Congress were evidence of just how far Communication for Development has come in 40 years and of the variety of people now working in this field from all over the world. "This Congress has given us confidence that we are not alone in our profession," said one participant. The words of some of its original founders still ring true: "The core of all development is empowerment, and the key to empowerment is communication" (Donald Snowden, Fogo Process activist). The next stage is for Congress participants to use the ideas gleaned during the three days to make this a reality in the world in which they work. (excerpt)
Integration of the human rights of women and the gender perspective. Violence against women. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Yakin Erturk. Addendum. Communications to and from governments.
[Geneva, Switzerland], United Nations, Commission on Human Rights, 2004 Mar 3. 51 p. (E/CN.4/2004/66/Add.1)The Special Rapporteur wishes to inform the Commission that during the period under review she transmitted communications to the Governments of: Angola, Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, China, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Greece, India, Indonesia, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Malaysia, Mexico, Nepal, Peru, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Uruguay. In addition the Governments of Argentina, Azerbaijan, Bhutan, China, Egypt, Greece, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Israel, Mexico, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey and Uruguay provided the Special Rapporteur with replies on cases and reports submitted during the year under review, whereas the Governments of Australia, China, India, Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka did so with respect to cases submitted in previous years. This report contains, on a country-by-country basis, summaries of general and individual allegations, as well as urgent appeals transmitted to Governments, and their replies thereto. Observations by the Special Rapporteur have also been included where applicable. The names of some of the victims whose cases are presented in this report have been replaced by initials, in order to respect their privacy and to prevent further revictimization. The full names of all victims have been provided to the Government concerned. (excerpt)
Evaluation of the World Health Organization's family planning decision-making tool: Improving health communication in Nicaragua.
Patient Education and Counseling. 2007 May; 66(2):235-242.The World Health Organization has led the development of a Decision-Making Tool for Family Planning Clients and Providers (DMT) to improve the quality of family planning counseling. This study investigates the DMT's impact on health communication in Nicaragua. Fifty nine service providers in Nicaragua were videotaped with 426 family planning clients 3 months before and 4 months after attending a training workshop on the DMT. The videotapes were coded for both provider and client communication. After the intervention providers increased their efforts to identify and respond to client needs, involve clients in the decision-making process, and screen for and educate new clients about the chosen method. While the DMT had a smaller impact on clients than providers, in general clients did become more forthcoming about their situation and their wishes. The DMT had a greater impact on sessions in which clients chose a new contraceptive method, as compared with visits by returning clients for a check-up or resupply. The DMT proved effective both as a job aid for providers and a decision-making aid for clients, regardless of the client's level of education. Job and decision-making aids have the potential to improve health communication, even or especially when clients have limited education and providers have limited training and supervision. (author's)
Live and let live: An analysis of HIV / AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in international campaign posters.
Journal of Health Communication. 2006 Dec; 11(8):755-767.As a corollary to The Declaration of Commitment adopted by the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS in June 2001, UNAIDS developed a World AIDS Campaign that sought to eradicate HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination. The campaign incorporated several educational strategies, including a poster campaign that advocated the just and equal treatment of people living with HIV/AIDS. In an effort to develop an understanding of these educational efforts, this study deconstructs the 2002-2003 World AIDS Campaign posters. While the overall results suggest that the campaign has been successful in redefining images of HIV/AIDS, they also show that certain aspects of these posters may actually serve to reinforce stigma and discrimination. Using a visual studies approach to textual analysis, this study explores the underlying ideological and cultural assumptions that exist within the posters and provides a method for evaluating such materials. (author's)
Seattle, Washington, Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH], Bill and Melinda Gates Children’s Vaccine Program, 2001 Jan.  p. (Bill and Melinda Gates Children's Vaccine Program Occasional Paper No. 4)Hepatitis B is a killer, taking the lives of 900,000 people each year. This disease is especially dangerous for infants, since those who are infected when young may carry the infection for the rest of their lives, often without knowing it. Chronic carriers can infect others and are themselves at risk of serious liver disease later in life, including cirrhosis and liver cancer. Fortunately hepatitis B vaccine, if provided to infants, helps protect them against these problems. In effect, it is the world's first anticancer vaccine. Due to the seriousness of hepatitis B disease, and because of the high effectiveness and safety of the vaccine, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that it be given to all children worldwide. A recent WHO "aide-memoire" on hepatitis B is included at the end of this paper. The hepatitis B vaccine has been available for decades, but introduction into the developing world only began in the late 1980s. Currently more than 100 countries routinely provide the vaccine, but many still cannot afford to do so. The partner agencies of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) and the Global Fund for Children's Vaccines are working to change this situation. (excerpt)
Challenging, changing, and mobilizing: a guide to PLHIV involvement in country coordinating mechanisms.
Washington, D.C., Futures Group, POLICY Project, 2004 Dec. 99 p.The aim of the handbook is to increase and improve the meaningful participation of PLHIV on CCMs across the world. This development will undoubtedly enhance the ability of the Global Fund to be an effective force in serving the communities most in need and will also contribute to facilitating PLHIV access to Global Fund resources. There are already many useful resources available nationally (though not in every country) and internationally to assist PLHIV in developing various types of skills and knowledge; however, none is specific to PLHIV who are involved in Global Fund CCM processes. We realized during the consultations that we could fill hundreds of pages with useful and relevant information, so instead of duplicating material that already exists, we will refer to it where appropriate. To the greatest extent possible these resources have been included on the CD that accompanies this handbook. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, 2004. 55 p. (ED-2004/WS/16)The World Education Forum held in Dakar (April, 2000) reemphasized and reiterated the importance of inter-agency partnerships, collaboration and coordination in pursuance of the EFA goals. This facilitated the launching of a number of multi-partner initiatives that focused on specific EFA-related areas and problems requiring special attention as well as the reinforcing of existing ones. EFA flagship initiatives were considered to constitute, among others, one of the mechanisms that would contribute in enhancing and strengthening multi-agency partnership and coherence on EFA related goals. Three years after Dakar, the EFA flagships continue to expand in terms of number of initiatives launched as well as their scope and membership. At present, nine initiatives have been established, involving United Nations organizations, bilateral and multilateral agencies and NGOs. (excerpt)
Paris, France, UNESCO, Bureau of Strategic Planning, Section for Youth, 2004.  p. (BSP.2004/YTH/001)UNESCO's involvement in the field of youth stems from the creation of the organization in 1946. After the Second World War, UNESCO (with only 20 Member States at that time) helped organize international volunteer youth work camps to aid in the reconstruction of Europe. Almost fifty years later in November 1996, 186 Member States at the 29th Session of the UNESCO General Conference reaffirmed and stressed their unanimous commitment to youth as a priority for the whole Organisation. The current policy, i.e. the promotion of 'youth' as a mainstreaming issue of the Organisation in all its activities, is guided by the World Action Programme for Youth to the year 2000 and beyond, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1995. It has also been inspired and informed by a number of recommendations, declarations and plans of actions of diverse regional and international youth meetings and forums held in recent years. (excerpt)
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Sep. 36 p.Defined as the second decade of life, adolescence is filled with great possibilities even in times of crisis, both for the individual child and for the community as a whole. Investing in adolescents is an urgent priority not only because it is their inalienable right to develop to their full potential but also because interventions during this period can lead to lasting social and economic benefits to the larger community. Time and again, adolescents and young people around the world have proved that they can provide innovative solutions in the midst of complex humanitarian crises. When given the opportunity to influence the plans and decisions that affect their lives, adolescents in emergency situations have spoken out against abuse or neglect, have joined hands with planners and managers in designing appropriate community programmes, and have initiated actions to support their peers. In each of these situations, they have brought their vision, idealism and sense of justice to the social agenda and have contributed to cohesion, peace-building and community reconstruction. At the same time, as experience from many countries shows, this participation has raised their confidence and self-esteem, given them citizenship and livelihood skills, and empowered them to protect their own rights. (excerpt)
Toronto, Canada, International Council of AIDS Service Organizations [ICASO], 1998 Jun. 16 p.Over the past few years, the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations (ICASO) and its component networks and organizations have undertaken a process to determine how best to highlight human rights activities within the work it does on HIV/AIDS. This process included the ICASO Inter-Regional Consultation on Human Rights, Social Equity and HIV/AIDS, which was held in Toronto, Canada, in March 1998. This consultation constituted the first ever international meeting specifically focussing on HIV/AIDS and human rights, social equity and community networking issues. The plan described in this document is an important milestone in this process. It is part of ICASO’s ongoing efforts to provide a framework that will be useful in the work of community-based HIV/AIDS organizations. The consultation also formally endorsed the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights issued by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights. Participants to the Consultation believe that the Guidelines provide a platform for the development of activities and initiatives, including advocacy education. Community-based organizations (CBOs) would need to prioritize and select specific issues they feel are critical to their efforts in prevention of HIV/AIDS, and in the care and support of those living and affected by HIV/AIDS. Section 2.0 of the document describes the links between human rights and HIV/AIDS. Section 3.0 outlines a framework for the work ICASO will be doing over the next several years in the area of human rights, social equity and HIV/AIDS. The framework consists of guiding principles, role statements, goals, objectives, activities and structures. The framework has been prepared primarily from a global perspective. Finally, Section 4.0 contains work-plans from three of the five regions of ICASO (Asia/Pacific, Africa, and Latin America and the Caribbean) showing how human rights issues will be incorporated into their work. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, .  p. (Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness [IMAI] No. 2; WHO/CDS/IMAI/2004.2)These principles can be used in managing many diseases or risk conditions. 1. Develop a treatment partnership with your patient. 2. Focus on your patient’s concerns and priorities. 3. Use the 5 A’s: Assess, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange. 4. Educate patient on disease and support patient self-management. 5. Organize proactive follow-up. 6. Involve “expert patients,” peer educators and support staff in your health facility. 7. Link the patient to community-based resources and support. 8. Use written information—registers, Treatment Plan, treatment cards and written information for patients—to document, monitor, and remind. 9. Work as a clinical team. 10. Assure continuity of care. (excerpt)