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The global partnership for development: A review of MDG 8 and proposals for the post-2015 development agenda.
Washington, D.C., Center for Global Development, 2013 Jul.  p. (CGD Policy Paper No. 026)The eighth Millennium Development Goal (MDG 8) covered a ‘global partnership for development’ in areas including aid, trade, debt relief, drugs and ICTs. We have seen progress as well as gaps in the areas which were covered: more aid, but with quality lagging and a link to progress in MDG areas that was weak; a better rich world performance on tariffs but one that misses increasingly important parts of trade; broadly successful debt relief but an agenda on the support for private investment left uncovered; mixed progress on drugs access and absence of a broader global public health agenda; and a global ICT revolution with weak links to the MDGs or a global partnership. Migration, non-ICT technologies, the global environment, and global institutional issues were all completely unaddressed in MDG 8. Looking forward, by 2030, a global compact on development progress linking OECD DAC aid and policy reform to low income countries as target beneficiaries (the implicit model of MDG 8) would be irrelevant to three quarters of the world. Half of the rich world will be in non-DAC countries and the share of aid in global transfers will continue to shrink. Global public goods provision will increasingly require the active participation of (at least) the G20 nations. A post-2015 global partnership agenda should involve a mixed approach to compact and partnership issues: binding ‘global compact’ targets under specific post-2015 sectoral goals focused on the role for aid alongside a standalone global public goods goal with time bound, numerical targets covering trade, investment, migration, technology, the environment and global institutions.
Promoting access to medical technologies and innovation. Intersections between public health, intellectual property and trade.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2012.  p.Medical technologies -- medicines, vaccines and medical devices -- are essential for public health. Access to essential medicines and the lack of research to address neglected diseases have been a major concern for many years. More recently, the focus of health policy debate has broadened to consider how to promote innovation and how to ensure equitable access to all vital medical technologies. Today’s health policy-makers need a clear understanding both of the innovation processes that lead to new technologies and of the ways in which these technologies are disseminated in health systems. This study captures a broad range of experience and data in dealing with the interplay between intellectual property, trade rules and the dynamics of access to, and innovation in, medical technologies. The study is intended to inform ongoing technical cooperation activities undertaken by the three organizations (World Trade Organization, World Intellectual Property Organization and World Health Organization) and to support policy discussions. Based on many years of field experience in technical cooperation, the study has been prepared to serve the needs of policymakers who seek a comprehensive presentation of the full range of issues, as well as lawmakers, government officials, delegates to international organizations, non-governmental organizations and researchers.
Millennium Development Goal 8, The Global Partnership for Development: Time to deliver. MDG Gap Task Force Report 2011.
New York, New York, United Nations, 2011.  p.The objective of MDG 8 is to assist all developing countries in achieving the goals through a strengthened global partnership for international development cooperation. The present report describes how that partnership is producing significant results on many fronts, but notes that many important gaps between expectations and delivery remain. (Excerpt)
Global Public Health. 2009; 4(2):131-49.Brazil's large-scale, successful HIV/AIDS treatment programme is considered by many to be a model for other developing countries aiming to improve access to AIDS treatment. Far less is known about Brazil's important role in changing global norms related to international pharmaceutical policy, particularly international human rights, health and trade policies governing access to essential medicines. Prompted by Brazil's interest in preserving its national AIDS treatment policies during World Trade Organisation trade disputes with the USA, these efforts to change global essential medicines norms have had important implications for other countries, particularly those scaling up AIDS treatment. This paper analyses Brazil's contributions to global essential medicines policy and explains the relevance of Brazil's contributions to global health policy today.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Global HIV / AIDS Program, 2006 Aug. 11 p.AIDS has wide consequences for development, and presents enormous challenges to businesses in the worst hit countries. The epidemic affects workers, managers and markets by increasing costs and reducing productivity. The International Finance Corporation (IFC), the private sector arm of the World Bank Group, works with client companies to mitigate the effects of the epidemic on their operations through its IFC Against AIDS program. The program works with companies in Africa and India, and efforts are underway to raise awareness among clients in China and assess program conditions in Russia. (author's)
Pakistan Development Review. 2004 Winter; 43(4 Pt 1):423-440.Pakistan's development project that was initiated in the 1950s with a focus on creating a prosperous and equitable society, making the benefits of scientific advancement and progress available to all the people, got lost somewhere in the labyrinth of development fashions and econometric modelling learned in American universities and World Bank/IMF seminars. The latest of these fashions being eagerly followed by the economic managers of the state is the implementation of structural adjustments, termed "Washington Consensus" by some, flowing from the operative rules and ideological framework of neo-liberal globalisation. In practice these adjustments, euphemistically called reforms, have foreclosed the possibility of improving the condition of working masses, not only in Pakistan but globally, including the developed West. If Pakistan is to reclaim its original people-centred development project, it will have to set its own priorities of development in the context of indigenous realities shared in common with its South Asian neighbours. Following the globalisation agenda at the behest of the Washington-based IFIs will sink the country into ever greater debt and mass poverty. (author's)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Sep; 84(9):685-764.The International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce (IMPACT) aims to put a stop to the deadly trade in fake drugs, which studies suggest kill thousands of people every year. "We need to help people become more aware of the growing market in counterfeit medicines and the public health risks associated with this illegal practice," said Dr Howard Zucker, Assistant Director-General for the Health Technology and Pharmaceuticals cluster of departments at WHO. The taskforce will encourage the public, distributors, pharmacists and hospital staff to inform the authorities about their suspicions regarding the authenticity of a drug or vaccine. In a parallel move, the taskforce will help governments crack down on corruption in the sections of their police forces and customs authorities charged with enforcing laws against drug counterfeiting. Drug manufacturers will be encouraged to make their products more difficult to fake. (excerpt)
Structural adjustment in sub-Saharan Africa. Report on a series of five senior policy seminars held in Africa, 1987-88.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1989.  p. (EDI Policy Seminar Report No. 18)In June 1986, the National Economic Management Division of the World Bank's Economic Development Institute (EDI) designed a series of senior policy seminars on structural adjustment for Sub-Saharan Africa. The exercise led to three seminars in 1987: Lusaka I, Lusaka 11, and Abidjan I, and, after redesign, two more in 1988: Victoria Falls and Abidjan 11. Seminar participants were invited in teams typically composed of ministers, governors, permanent secretaries, senior advisors, and a significant number of senior technical staff of central banks, the core ministries of finance and planning, and spending ministries such as agriculture and industry. Twenty seven countries participated in the seminars. Of these, six participated in two separate seminars (see annex A). This report is a synthesized record of the five seminars and is likely to be of interest to all those interested in the reform process in Sub-Saharan Africa, namely, the seminar participants, other similarly placed policymakers, advisors to these policymakers, executives of the public and private sectors, staff of academic institutions, and the staff of international organizations such as the World Bank (the Bank) and the International Monetary Fund (the Fund) involved in studying the political economy of structural adjustment. (excerpt)
New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1996 Jan. 34 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 746)This paper accepts the premise that positive sum games exist in all dimensions of North-South economic contacts but that the management of conflicts concerning the distribution of the gains requires careful attention. It then proceeds to analyze the current state of play and the character of these conflicts in each of the main arenas, focussing heavily on trade, but also discussing public and private capital movements, technology transfer and intellectual property rights issues and labor mobility. It concludes with a discussion of possible changes in international institutions and governance. (author's)
New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1996 Sep. 28 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 762)This paper reviews the development experience since the 1980's and finds room for guarded optimism about what we can learn from it. Firstly, a global consensus is emerging on the need for macro-economic stability through prudent fiscal, monetary and foreign exchange policies. However, at the micro or structural level, while governments need to decentralize their decision- making authority more fully than they have thus far, in reaction to the recent reappraisal of the East Asian model there is some danger that development policy will swing too far in rejecting liberalization and returning to government intervention. Secondly, the paper points out that, while there exists a well-recognized causal nexus between exports and growth, the reverse causation also holds, i.e. domestic growth patterns conditioned by education and R&D expenditures and policies determine whether or not a country can take full advantage of existing export opportunities. Finally, although fast-disbursing policy-based loans have not been as successful as they could be, largely because of the World Bank's chosen modus operandi, they represent potentially highly effective instruments that should not be abandoned. Rather, the Bank should help render such loans more fully "owned" by recipients, replace country-specific lending quotas by aid ballooning related to carefully worked out reform packages, and develop a better division of labor with other multilateral and bilateral donors. (author's)
Poverty - World Bank's 'World Development Report - 1990' - Special Section - Future of the Global Economy: Challenges of the 90s.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..The World Bank has dedicated its thirteenth annual global development study to an exhaustive examination of the "poorest of the world's poor", analysing programmes which have successfully eliminated poverty. The 260-page analysis--World Development Report 1990--first measures poverty, qualitatively as well as quantitatively, and then draws lessons from the experience of countries which have successfully reduced poverty. The burden of poverty is spreading unevenly among countries, the Bank states. Nearly half of the world's poor live in South Asia, a region that accounts for roughly 30 per cent of the world's population. Sub-Saharan Africa has a smaller, but "still highly disproportionate, share of global poverty", the Report says. Within countries and regions, there are also disparate concentrations of poverty. The weight of poverty falls most heavily on women and children. (excerpt)
How the world sees the 1980s - excerpts from General Assembly Declaration - Special section - future of the global economy: challenges of the 90s.
UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3): p..Reaching a common view of the 1980s that all countries could live with was as crucial as the formulation of possible remedial action in the 1990s, it was generally felt. The following are excerpts from the Declaration which resulted from this process: In the 1980s, progress in developed and developing countries has been uneven. The decade was marked by an increasing gap between those groups of countries, as well as by relatively slow growth and large global financial and trade imbalances. Developed market-oriented countries have succeeded to a large extent in controlling inflation and in maintaining sustained, though modest, growth. (excerpt)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Sep 24; 331(7518):651.Inequality is the primary barrier to global development, and only welfare systems providing health and education to the poorest can tackle the problem, the World Bank’s annual World Development Report said this week. The report echoes the findings of the UN Human Development Report released earlier this month, in criticising the “trickledown” model of international development. “The dichotomy between policies for growth and policies specifically aimed at equity is false,” the authors argue. “The best policies for poverty reduction could involve redistributions of influence, advantage, or subsidies away from dominant groups.” (excerpt)
Africa Recovery. 1999 Sep; 13(2): p..The fact that half of the world's population lives in poverty today, up from one-quarter 25 years ago, is an "inescapable blot" on the record of human progress, remarked UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan in his opening address before the 1999 session of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). Poverty eradication was the overarching theme of the entire ECOSOC session, held in Geneva from 5- 30 July. The Secretary-General's report on "The role of employment and work in poverty eradication: the empowerment and advancement of women," provided the sub-theme for discussions during the ECOSOC session's opening (high-level) segment, held from 5-8 July. People living in sub-Saharan Africa are the most deeply mired in poverty, with incomes the furthest below the poverty line worldwide, observes Mr. Annan's report. Moreover, the number of absolute poor continues to rise while the "face of poverty" is changing: in the next century, a poor person will more likely be an unskilled female earning low wages and living in urban Africa or Latin America than a male small-holder living in rural Asia. Therefore, strategies designed to combat the discrimination and disadvantage faced by women "must be central to successful poverty reduction," the report says. (excerpt)
Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2003 Dec. 8 p. (Women’s Rights and Economic Change No. 6; Facts and Issues)Every day and in almost every aspect of life, gender equality and women’s rights are affected by economic policy. Choices and opportunities regarding education, health care, employment, and childcare, for example, are all directly impacted by national economic agendas and international financial forces. Women therefore have a lot to lose when economic policies do not take gender discrimination and gender roles into account. At the same time, women’s rights can be advanced through economic policies that put their concerns, needs, and livelihoods at the centre of the analysis. Neoliberal globalization, which is the dominant driving force for economic policies throughout the world today, is therefore a crucial focus of gender equality advocates. (excerpt)
Toronto, Canada, Association for Women's Rights in Development [AWID], 2002 Aug. 8 p. (Women’s Rights and Economic Change No. 4; Facts and Issues)The trade policies of national governments and the activities of the World Trade Organization (”WTO“) have important ramifications for economic and social development throughout the world. This primer describes the WTO and the relationship between trade policies and gender, and concludes with an agenda for action. The WTO is an international organization based in Geneva that was established in 1995. It was formed to oversee the series of trade agreements that had emerged from the “Uruguay Round” of negotiations on an international trade agreement called the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (“GATT”) and to implement a dispute settlement process regarding members’ rights and obligations under these agreements. As of January 2002, 144 countries are WTO members. Government representatives of these countries steer the activities of the organization. (excerpt)
Science in Africa. 2004 Jan;  p..Short-term relief followed by long-term disaster is not sound policy. Nonetheless, that could be a result of the Aids strategy being contemplated by the World Health Organisation, which on December 1 - World Aids Day - announced a plan to treat 3-million people with HIV/Aids by 2005. The WHO is proposing that billions of dollars be spent on increasing access to anti-retroviral drugs. That is a noble intention. However, it may not be the most cost-effective way to stem the tide of HIV/Aids: it may even be counterproductive. Let's be clear. Reducing the cost and increasing the supply of medicines to the poor is a good thing. But on its own it is not enough. Nor should it be today's priority. The roots of Africa's health care crisis run far deeper and broader than a mere shortage of drugs. Spending billions on drugs is likely to prove a disappointing waste. (excerpt)
Finance and Development. 2003 Dec; 40(4):14-19.With just 12 years left to achieve the W Millennium Development Goals, a greater sense of urgency is needed by all sides if the targets are to be met. Many developing countries are making substantial progress toward the MDGs as a result of improved policies, better governance, and the productive use of development assistance. But they could do more with the right mix of policy reforms and additional help. Scaling up efforts to meet the MDGs by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges. By acting now, developed countries can hasten progress by providing more and better aid and by allowing greater access to their markets. Developing countries, for their part, will need to continue to improve their policies and the way they are implemented. Without greater impetus, there is a serious risk that many countries will fall far short on many of the goals. (excerpt)
Bulletin Économique et Social du Maroc. 2000; (159):21-24.According to the 1998 World Human Development Report (HDR), Morocco ranks 125th with a human development indicator (HDI) of 0.557 points. The indicator elements pertaining to life expectancy, adult literacy and schooling levels remain unchanged in the HDI, but the revenue indicator has improved. These important changes have armed this HDI with a more solid methodological base. With an average per capita revenue of 3,310 dollars (PPP), Morocco finds itself in the revenue segment that has undergone the most significant revision of the standardized value. In effect, although it is not found among the principal Arab countries which have successfully reduced deficits in terms of human development during the last two decades, Morocco has, however, successfully reduced them by 27%. The progress made by this country in terms of human development in the last decade can be seen in the struggle against poverty and is reinforced and consolidated by the commitment of the Head of State for the purpose of improving the living conditions of the poor. The struggle against poverty constitutes the fundamental goal of the UNDP, around which are centered most of the programs and projects whose implementation should contribute to promoting the necessary environment for poverty reduction and consequently, to improved human development. The strategy chosen for the UNDP's intervention is broken into two parts: one is to support strategies and policies in the struggle against poverty, and the other lies in local initiatives for validating these same policies. It targets the socio-geographic aspect of action, on the one hand, benefiting the most vulnerable social groups such as women, children, and girls in the poorest areas, and on the other hand, is directed at those geographic areas that are the most ill-favored in the rural world as well as urban outskirts. The process of integrating Morocco into a free trade zone with the European Union has required the implementation of reforms at the legal and institutional level to manage ever stiffer competition in the world market.
Monday Developments. 2003 Jul 28; 21(13):6, 8.The familiar image of the poor African woman with her starving child, or the woman infected with HIV, needs to give way to a more vibrant image of African women's importance in the economy and society, she said. We want you to see African women as key actors, solving problems -- over-coming poverty; obtaining an education; demanding quality health care; and insisting on peace and security-- not only for their families and communities but also as a matter of national policy," stressed Zeitlin. (excerpt)
Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
American Journal of Law and Medicine. 2001; 27(4):469-485.This Note discusses how a narrowly tailored pharmaceutical product licensing program that is aimed at addressing the AIDS crisis in developing countries would be consistent with the World Trade Organization's (WTO) Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement), which governs IP rights within the WTO. This Note analyzes a recent WTO Panel decision in Canada--Patent Protection of Pharmaceutical Products (Canada), to discuss how a public health drug licensing program could fall within the exception to full patent protection contained in Article 30 of the TRIPS Agreement. Additionally, this Note argues that developing nations should use the WTO Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) to establish a uniform approach to drug licensing for public health purposes. Part II of this Note discusses how international trade affects the spread of AIDS in developing countries. Part II also discusses how the WTO functions, its IP regime, special provisions for developing countries and its dispute resolution mechanism. Part III analyzes the public health implications of the protection of IP rights within the WTO. This section discusses the impact of the TRIPS Agreement on the ability of developing countries to fight the AIDS crisis, focusing on the cases of Thailand, South Africa and India. Part IV looks at how the recent WTO Panel decision in Canada suggests that a program granting drug licenses for AIDS drugs could qualify as an exception under Article 30 of the TRIPS Agreement. This note focuses on the impact of trade policy on the AIDS crisis because AIDS is a deadly disease that is near crisis stage in developing countries and because it is treatable with the use of pharmaceutical products that are governed by the WTO. This Note concludes that countries should take advantage of the WTOs dispute resolution mechanism to establish a uniform approach to the AIDS crisis in the developing world. (excerpt)
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION TECHNICAL REPORT SERIES. 1992; (823):i-vi, 1-134.The WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations reports that several national and regional drug regulatory authorities have adopted guidelines for good manufacturing practices for drugs similar to those recommended by the Committee. Annex 1 discusses these practices and makes up most of the Committee's 32nd report. The report also presents provisional guidelines on inspection of pharmaceutical manufacturers. It reviews the WHO Certification Scheme on the Quality of Pharmaceutical Products Moving in International Commerce. The Committee-endorsed scheme depends on a more effective exchange of information to more rigorously control all international trade of pharmaceuticals. Chapter 6 looks at the international pharmacopoeia and related activities, including quality specifications for drug substances and dosage forms, validation of analytical procedures, a simple test methodology, national laboratories for drug surveillance and control, and quality control of products derived from medicinal plants. The report discusses and lists the International Chemical Reference Substances and International Infrared Reference Spectra. it also addresses stability of dosage forms and extemporaneous preparations. Annex 4 presents guidelines to guarantee the quality of pharmaceutical and biological drugs prepared by recombinant DNA technology. Another annex looks at validation of analytical procedures used to examine pharmaceutical materials. The last annex discusses the protocol for a proposed study on the quality of some drugs at the point of use in developing countries. WHO has already asked Benin, Guinea, Mozambique, Uganda, and Tanzania in Africa, Bangladesh and Myanmar in Asia, and Guatemala and Peru in the Americas to participate.
In: The global possible: resources, development, and the new century, edited by Robert Repetto. New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University Press, 1985. 491-519. (World Resources Institute Book)Participants at the Global Possible Conference in 1984 concluded that, despite the dismal predictions about the earth, we can still fashion a more secure, prosperous, and sustainable world environmentally and economically. The tools to bring about such a world already exist. The international community and nations must implement new policies, however. Government, science, business, and concerned groups must reach new levels of cooperation. Developed and developing countries must form new partnerships to implement sustained improvements in living standards of the world's poor. Peaceful cooperation is needed to eliminate the threat of nuclear war--the greatest threat to life and the environment. Conference working groups prepared an agenda for action which, even though it is organized along sectoral disciplines, illustrates the complex linkages that unite issues in 1 area with those in several others. For example, problems existing in forests tie in with biological diversity, energy and fuelwood, and management of agricultural lands and watersheds. The agenda emphasizes policies and initiatives that synergistically influence serious problems in several sectors. It also tries to not present solutions that generate as many problems as it tries to solve. The 1st section of the agenda covers population, poverty, and development issues. it provides recommendations for developing and developed countries. It discusses urbanization and issues facing cities. The 3rd section embodies freshwater issues and has 1 list of recommendations for all sectors. The agenda addresses biological diversity, tropical forests, agricultural land, living marine resources, energy, and nonfuel minerals in their own separate sections. It discusses international assistance and the environment in 1 section. Another section highlights the need to assess conditions, trends, and capabilities. The last section comprises business, science, an citizens.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2002; 80(9):762-763.This article reports that the 144 member countries of the World Trade Organization have approved another extension of the period during which least-developed countries can manufacture pharmaceuticals without paying royalties on their patents. There remains a highly contentious issue on the agenda for Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights agreement: how to allow poor countries without manufacturing capacities of their own to import urgently needed patented drugs from countries with generic drug industries.