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In: Sexual behaviour and networking: anthropological and socio-cultural studies on the transmission of HIV, edited by Tim Dyson. Liege, Belgium, Editions Derouaux-Ordina, . 249-67.Using a modified form of the WHO partner relations survey questionnaire on a sample of 222 adults, the authors explore seasonal out-migration from the rural area of Mlomp, Senegal, as it relates to coital frequency. Generally low levels of coital frequency were revealed. Unmarried individuals had sex less often than those married. Among married couples, 19% had last intercourse 1-6 days previously and 20% had last intercourse more than 1 year previously. Eliminating those never having experienced sexual intercourse and those having last sex at least 1 year previously, mean duration in the group since last intercourse was about 2 months. A taboo against postpartum sex and the absence of married men during the dry season of palm wine harvesting partially account for these long periods of relative abstinence. Coital frequency is also probably influenced by the overlap of menstrual cycles, seasonal out-migration cycles, and pregnancy and lactation. The authors note that while men are away from their homes during seasonal harvests, however, they definitely partake of extramarital sex. Accordingly, efforts must be made to educate these men about condoms and the risks of unprotected sexual intercourse.
Research on sexual behaviour that transmits HIV: the GPA / WHO collaborative surveys -- preliminary findings.
In: Sexual behaviour and networking: anthropological and socio-cultural studies on the transmission of HIV, edited by Tim Dyson. Liege, Belgium, Editions Derouaux-Ordina, . 65-87.6 national surveys were conducted over the period 1988-90 in the Central African Republic, Cote d'Ivoire, Lesotho, Togo, Kenya, and Rwanda in collaboration with the WHO Global Program on AIDS. The surveys include questions on sexual behavior; preliminary findings are reported in this paper. The authors point out the limitations of the survey approach and acknowledge the need for complementary anthropological research. At the aggregate level, however, the researchers found a higher degree of sexual activity in urban compared with rural areas; younger age cohorts may be having more premarital and extramarital sex than did older cohorts during the same stage of their lives; and that the rate of casual sex is higher for men, with the incidence positively related to urban residence and educational level. The surveys also suggest that in some societies a large number of men have casual/commercial sex with a relatively small group of women, while small groups of older men in other societies have sex with larger groups of younger women. These differences may be associated with the decline of polygyny in much of East and southern Africa compared with its relative persistence in West Africa.