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  1. 1

    Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution A/RES/54/263 of 25 May 2000, not yet in force.

    United Nations. General Assembly

    [Unpublished] 2000 8 p.

    This document presents the optional protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution, and child pornography. This was adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by the General Assembly resolution of May 25, 2000. It demonstrates the concerns of States Parties on the rights of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. Elimination of these offenses will be facilitated by adopting a holistic approach that address the contributing factors and raising public awareness to reduce consumer demand, as well as strengthening global partnership among all actors. This protocol shall enter into force 3 months after the deposit of the 10th instrument of ratification or accession. For each State ratifying the protocol or acceding to it after force, the protocol shall enter into force 1 month after the date of the deposit of its own instrument of ratification or accession.
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  2. 2

    Hard realities of a crowded world.

    Mann J

    WASHINGTON POST. 1994 Aug 24; E13.

    The Turner Broadcasting's People Count programming is focusing attention on the global population explosion and the September 1994 United Nations Conference on Population and Development in Cairo. The documentary "The Facts of Life" presents a tour of overpopulated regions in both the developed and developing world. Los Angeles, once the city of citrus groves, is now a city of too many cars, too many people, stifling smog and not enough water. Its air quality is expected to violate federal standards for 20 more years. In a Sub-Saharan African village, a couple has 10 children. In such villages, children help families survive. Women in Ghana have an average of 6 children each. In Bangladesh women still have an average of 4 children each, despite the successes of Concerned Women for Family Planning, a group that has trained 30,000 health care workers for that country. Mexico City has run out of water. It has one of the lowest birth rates in the developing world--3 children per woman--yet thousands of people live in garbage dumps. 93 million people are added to the world's population each year. At the present rate of growth, the world total of about 5.6 billion is expected to double by the year 2035. The UN conference centers on a document that delineates how to curb population growth: give women and men access to contraceptives and good health care; educate girls so they will delay childbearing and so they will be able to provide for their children; and shore up the environment so people can support their families. Muslim interests have joined the Vatican in condemning the language that asserts women's rights to regulate their fertility and to terminate pregnancy. Nonetheless, Indonesia's family planning success story was accomplished with the support of the Muslim leaders. The media, a new and modern force, may erode ecclesiastical authority, as evidenced by CNN's examination of the population crisis to help find answers.
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  3. 3

    Development goals and strategies for children in the 1990s.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 1990 Aug. 61 p. (UNICEF Policy Review)

    The UNICEF approach in brief is the development of human capabilities and meeting basic needs with a country program approach. The UNICEF goals and strategies for children approved by the Executive Board in 1990 included in this document cover the following general areas: an earlier development review; unmet needs of children; unprecedented opportunities; goals for children for child survival, development, and protection in the year 2000; and sectoral goals for maternal health, child health, nutrition, safe water supply and environmental sanitation, basic education, literacy, early childhood development, and children in distress; strategic priorities such as: going to scale, reaching the unreached and (from small scale projects to a larger leading to universal coverage), hard to reach, disparity reduction, community participation, area-based program approaches, research and development, women's empowerment, advocacy and social mobilization, development addressing human concerns, environment soundness and sustainability, monitoring and evaluation, national capacity and building, building economic bases to meet human goals (alleviate critical poverty, debt relief, trade and commodity agreements, increased resource flows for development, and growth in industrialized countries); operational strategies for UNICEF, and UNICEF Board Decision. A table is provided as a review of selected goals and achievements of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd UN development decades and achievements in 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1988, as well as a figure for the annual number of under 5 years childhood mortality by 5 main causes and a figure for estimated deaths and lives saved under 5 years, 1980-2000.
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  4. 4

    Interview: Mr. Tevia Abrams, UNFPA Country Director for India.

    ASIA-PACIFIC POPIN BULLETIN. 1991 Dec; 3(4):10-2.

    The government of India set up a population program 25 years ago, yet the population is expected to surpass that of China in the near future. The current UN Population Fund (UNFPA) program for India covers the period 1991-95 with coordination, implementation, and evaluation. Improved services focus on states with high fertility and mortality, high infant mortality, self-reliance in contraceptive production, models for maternal health care and traditional health care, national communication strategy, public awareness enhancement, and raising women's status by female literacy expansion and employment generation. UNFPA trains, provides equipment and contraceptives, and nongovernmental organization participation. The bulk of the $90 million cost of the program will come from UNFPA: maternal-child health, family planning (FP), and information, education, and communication (IEC) will receive the most funding. Ethnic and tribal areas will get attention under a decentralized scheme in accordance with the concept of a multicultural society where early age at marriage and high economic value of children are realities. The Ministry is responsible for IEC and FP targets and allocation of funds. Government institutes and universities carry out population research. The creation of India POPIN patterned after the Asia-Pacific Population Information Network is under development under IEC activities. The status of women is varied throughout India, in the state of Kerala literacy reaches 100%, and the birth rate of 19.8%/1000 women is below the national average of 30.5. In contrast, the states of Bihar and Rajasthan with female literacy of 23% and 21%, respectively, have birth rates of 34.4% and 33.9%.
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  5. 5

    [Population growth, development work, and family planning (the church's experience in the third world)] Bevolkerungswachstum, Entwicklungsarbeit und Familienplanung (kirchliche Erfahrung in der Dritten Welt).

    Schoop W

    In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 308-15.

    This paper approaches the problem of population growth, development and family planning from the point of view of Christian church activities in the 3rd World. It is an oversimplification of the situation to believe that development policy in a country can be guided only by population considerations. The challenge of population growth must be seen in the context of many barriers to development in the 3rd World which are closely associated with population trends. Thus, birth control measures will succeed only when they are part of a unified multi-sector development aid that is integrated into the life of the country taking into consideration cultural and ecological factors. The author traces the evolution of viewpoints among development specialists since the Bucharest conference of 1974 in which contraception was no longer accepted as the basic principle in development aid, unless it is integrated into a complete system of satisfying the basic needs of a population. The target group for this strategy is primarily the family, representing as it does the smallest unit of human society in village and urban communities. The author lists and discusses a number of general criteria for acceptability of methods of contraception. Development leaders trained in the western churches can accept methods of natural family planning (NFP) such as rhythm methods but in many societies local cultures unquestionably accept richness in children as a blessing. The use of NFP requires the acceptance of a new life style by both husband and wife.
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  6. 6

    Keynote address.

    Moniba H

    In: The 1984 International Conference on Population: the Liberian experience, [compiled by] Liberia. Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs. Monrovia, Liberia, Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs, [1986]. 9-17.

    The purpose of the National Seminar on Population is to disseminate in Liberia the results of the World Population Conference held in Mexico City in August 1984. Due to the complex interrelationships between population and development, one must conclude that rapid population growth has an adverse effect on development. Liberia has a high level of fertility (48-51 lives births per 1000 population) and a high mortality (18 per 1000 population). One result of these population trends is that the population is youthful, about 50% of the people being under 18. This high growth potential means that in future the resources necessary to support the population will be scarcer. Secondly, increasing rural to urban migration means that the cities will have more people than they have jobs, housing, education, or health facilities to support them and that the rural areas will be depopulated with attendant lowered agricultural production and rural poverty. Education is at least partly responsible for the rural-urban migration because it alerts young people to the increasing opportunities in the towns. The current trend of increasing fertility and declining mortality means decreased economic growth and a lower standard of living. To reduce this trend people must be made aware of the necessity to lower the birth rate as well as of the means to do it. People regard a large family as a status symbol and children as a source of labor and support in old age. These attitudes will not change until people trust that the Government is committed to the socioeconomic changes that will make practicable the shift from large households with low productivity to small families with high productivity. As part of this effort, the National Committee on Population is being expanded into a National Population Commission, responsible for coordinating population programs and drafting a national population policy.
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  7. 7

    The changing roles of women and men in the family and fertility regulation: some labour policy aspects

    Oppong C

    In: Family and population. Proceedings of the "Scientific Conference on Family and Population," Espoo, Finland, May 25-27, 1984, edited by Hellevi Hatunen. Helsinki, Finland, Vaestoliitto, 1984. 62-83.

    There is growing evidence that labor policies, such as those advocated by the International Labor Organization (ILO), promote changes in familial roles and that these changes in turn have an impact on fertility. A conceptual model describing these linkages is offered and the degree to which the linkages hypothesized in the model are supported by research findings is indicated. The conceptual model specifies that: 1) as reliance on child labor declines, through the enactment of minimum age labor laws, the economic value of children declines, and parents adopt smaller family size ideals; 2) as security increases for the elderly, through the provision of social security and pension plans, the elderly become less dependent on their children, and the perceived need to produce enough children to ensure security in old age is diminished; and 3) as sexual equality in job training and employment and the availability of flexible work schedules increase, sexual equality in the domestic setting increases, and women begin to exert more control over their own fertility. ILO studies and many other studies provide considerable evidence in support of these hypothesized linkages; however, the direction or causal nature of some of the associations has not been established. Development levels, rural or urban residence, and a number of other factors also appear to influence many of these relationships. Overall, the growing body of evidence accords well with ILO programs and instruments which promote: 1) the enactment of minimum age work laws to reduce reliance on child labor, 2) the establishment of social security systems and pension plans to promote the economic independence of the elderly, 3) the promotion of sexual equality in training programs and employment; 4) the promotion of the idea of sexual equality in the domestic setting; and 5) the establishment of employment policies which do not unfairly discriminate against workers with family responsibilities.
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  8. 8

    Familial roles and fertility.

    Oppong C

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and familiy. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 321-51. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    This paper presents a conceptual model indicating some of the established and hypothesized links between a number of labor laws and policies, in particular International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions, divisions of labor and resources by sex and age, familial roles and fertility. Brielfy outlined are the content and goals of some of the ILO conventions and programms that have a bearing on the conditions widely thought to be related to fertility decline. These include improved status of relatively deprive groups, such as women and children, and individual access to training, employment and incomes. These changes are viewed in terms of their potential impact on family relations, including changing parental roles and costs of bearing and raising children in view of the impact of diminishing child labor, and the increasing availability of social security benefits. Another aspect is sexual equality, in particular the impact of equality in the occupational sphere on equality in the domestic sphere and the consequent effects on reproduction. In addition, the impacts of social and spatial mobility are indicated and the potential effects on role conflicts, individualism and lower fertility. A thrust of the paper is to emphasize the critical intervening nature of changing familial roles, which have been neglected, both in labor reports and related activities as well as in the documentation and policy-making related to fertility. Micro-evidence from a variety of cultural contexts shows how changes and differences in allocations of tasks and resources and status benefits between kin, parents and offspring, wives and husbands are associated with changes and differences in fertility-related aspirations and patterns of regulation. Finally, the discussion serves to underline the pervasive and profound nature of the potential impacts of divisions of labor and employment policies on fertility levels, demonstrating that changes in familial roles and relations are central to this process of linkage. Thus, the need is made apparent for more knowledge and understanding of the dynamics of change in this area at the micro-level and in a variety of cultural areas, if government policies and programms are to achieve their specific goals with respect both to employment and demographic policies.
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  9. 9

    Fertility and the family: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    United Nations. Secretariat

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 45-73. (International Conference on Popualtion, 1984; Statements)

    This paper uses as its organizing principle 5 major themes which run through the sections of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action (WPPA) devoted to fertility and the family. The purpose of this paper it to assure that their discussion is comprehensive and that it reviews all the major research and policy concerns with respect to fertility and the family that have played an important role in the general debate about these issues since 1974. Summerized here are the contributions included in this volumen, as each deals with at least 1 of these issues. The 1st major theme focuses on fertility response to modernization as a facet of the interrelationship between population and development. Discussed are aspects of modernization leading to fertility increases, in particular the reduced incidence and shorter duration of breastfeeding, and those leading to fertility decline, namely the decline in the value of children as a source of labor and old-age support. Freedom of choice, information and education are the principal approaches within which childbearing decision making is discussed. Women's reproductive and economic activity during their life cycle, and the relationship of family types and functions to fertility levels and change are equally addressed. Finally, demographic goals and policy alternatives with respect to fertility change are discussed in terms of a number of policy options: family planning programs, economic incentives and disincentives and more global socioeconomic measures. Although primary attention is given to the problems and policies of developing countries, the special problems of certrain developed countries which view their fertility as too low are also considered. The issues raised in this paper are put forward as an aid to assist in the identification of emderging areas of policy concern and of fruitful new research directions.
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  10. 10

    Policy implications.

    Gille H

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertiltiy and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 365-76. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    While considering policy implications, it is important to focus on those that are operationally relevant and action that can realistically be implemented. Programs have to be broadly conceived and be sensitive to national and local conditions. In view of the widespread concern of most developing countries about undesirably high levels of fertility and population growth, the main attention is given here to policy intervention which may reduce fertility. Social and economic factors can have an influence upon fertility by affecting the demand for children, the supply of children and the costs of access to and use of fertility regulation. Considered on the demand side is the fertility impact of development variables such as value of children, economic costs of children, and child survival. On the supply side, attention is focused mainly on age at marriage and infecundity due to breastfeeding. Family planning is chiefly considered in the area of fertility regulation. In the best interests of sound policy-making and program development, it will be necessary to assist many developing countries in the future in collecting data at the aggregate, community and family levels to meet the need. The capacity of countries to analyse, interpret and apply data also needs to be strengthened. Future research efforts should be more problem-oriented and consider the various socioeconomic settings in which jprograms are to be developed. The World Population Plan of Action refrains from setting global or regional targets relating to fertility; it urges countries which have a policy to set their own targets. While global or regional demographic targets in fertility may not be useful, serious consideration should be given to establishing certain operational targets which policy-makers in all countries should relate to action, and have as goals. The work program of WHO established in the 1980s, illustrates the kind of targets that may be considered for adoption: at least 2/3 of all births should be attended by trained health workers; training in maternal and child health and family planning should be given to all health workers; finally, at least 60% of all couples of reproductive age should be given access to birth-spacing services.
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  11. 11

    The family and fertility control: a discussion of some central issues in the Symposium on Population and the Family.


    In: The Population Debate: Dimensions and Perspectives, Vol. II. N.Y., U.N., 1975, pp. 343-346. (Population Studies, No. 57)

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  12. 12

    The women of rural Asia.

    Whyte RO; Whyte P

    Boulder, Colorado, Westview, 1982. 262 p. (Westview Special Studies on Women in Contemporary Society)

    This book provides a descriptive analysis of the historical, cultural, and environmental causes of women's current status in rural Asia. This analysis is requisite to improving the quality of these women's lives and enabling them to contribute to the economy without excessive disruption of family life and the social structure of the rural communities. Many studies of rural areas have ignored this half of the population. Analyzed in detail are social and economic status, family and workforce roles, and quality of life of women in the rural sectors of monsoonal and equatorial Asia, from Pakistan to Japan, where life often is characterized by unemployment, underemployment, and poverty. It has become increasingly necessary for rural women in this region to contribute to family budgets in ways beyond their traditional roles in crop production and animal husbandry. Many women are responding by taking part in rural industries, yet the considerable disadvantages under which they labor--less opportunity for education, lower pay, and poor access to resources and high status jobs--render them much less effective than they could be in their efforts to increase production and reduce poverty. A review of the activities of national and international agencies in relation to the status of women is also included, as well as an outline of major needs, and current indicators of change.
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  13. 13

    Familial roles and fertility: some labour policy aspects.

    International Labour Office [ILO]

    [Unpublished] 1983. Presented at the International Conference on Population, 1984, Expert Group on Fertility and Family, New Delhi, January 5-11, 1983. 69 p.

    This discussion presents a conceptual model indicating some of the established and hypothesized links between a number of labor laws and policies, in particular International Labor Organization (ILO) conventions, divisions of labor and resources by sex and age, familial roles, and fertility. The labor laws and policies considered include: legal protection of the young through adoption and execution of conventions regarding the minimum age for employment and thus the suppression of child labor; protection for the elderly and incapacitated through employment related social security systems; support for sexual equality; maternity protection legislation and assistance for workers with family responsibilities; and programs and laws to increase individual access to training, employment, and income generating opportunities in nonfamilial contexts. The paper outlines briefly the content and goals of some of the ILO conventions and programs which have a bearing on the conditions widely thought to be related to fertility decline, i.e., improved status of relatively deprived groups, women, children, the aged, and individual access to training, employment, and incomes. These changes are viewed in the context of their potential impact on family relatins. Thus, the 2nd section focuses on changing parental roles and the impacts of diminishing child labor upon the benefits and costs of bearing and raising children and increasing availability of social security benefits. Comparative empirical evidence of change in relation to fertility is mentioned. The next section examines sexual equality and in particular impacts of equality in the occupational sphere upon equality in the domestic domain and consequent effects upon reproduction. Evidence from different countries is reported. Changing kin roles is the subject of the 4th section. The impacts of social and spatial mobility on kin roles are indicated as well as the potential impacts upon role conflicts, individualism, and lower fertility. From a global perspective, fertility rates remain high in regions of the world where children continue to supply an important labor source to their parents and other elders and where women lack equality of opportunity in labor markets and remain dependent throughout life upon kin, husbands, and sons. In countries where old and young are protected by child labor laws and social security systems and the sexes are relatively equal with respect to training and employment, problems of fertility rates being perceived as too low are encountered and corresponding policies to lighten parental burdens and increase benefits of childbearing have been introduced.
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  14. 14

    Analysis of India's population policies and programs.

    Brown GF; Jain A; Laing J; Jansen W

    Bangkok, Thailand, Population Council, Regional Office for South and East Asia, Aug. 1982. 152 p.

    Summarizes the Population Council's review of Indian population policy and programs, including their recommendations to USAID concerning future assistance over the next 5 years in this area. The review starts with the assumption that there are no simple or universally applicable approaches for achieving desired demographic objectives. Approaches suitable to local needs and social, economic, and political realities must be found and applied. The report analyzes both the family planning program and nonprogram elements in the Indian development process, assesses the past and present state of population policies and programs in India, examines program and nonprogram constraints, discusses direction for the future and makes recommendations regarding future USAID involvement including the role of other U.S.-based institutions. The population of India has nearly doubled in the past 34 years. The past performance in reducing the growth rate has been disappointing. However, there seems to be a renewed political commitment to reducing population growth rates. The need for continued and if possible, increased USAID support is stressed.
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  15. 15

    Maternal role rewards, opportunity costs and fertility.

    Oppong C

    Geneva, Switzerland, International Labour Office, Oct. 1982. 52 p. (World Employment Programme Research. Working Paper WEP 2-21/WP .120; Population and Labour Policies Programme. Working Paper No. 120; UNFPA Project no. GLO/77/P14)

    Discusses the rewards, socioeconomic advantages and disadvantages of maternity, and the effect these have on fertility in different levels of societies. The author lists the roles of women as maternal, conjugal, domestic, occupational, kin, community, and individual. The maternal role rewards include 1) Economic status: Children help in agricultural production, trade, house work, and can also help secure the husband's provision of such things as food, shelter, land, income, and inheritance to wives. 2) Political status: children may be a woman's only allies in an alien world, and may help to expand the political and economic power of their mothers. 3) Social status: childbirth frequently validates a woman's marital status, and prestige is gained. 4) Psychic status: mutual satisfaction and love in the maternal-child bond is seen as the most emotionally gratifying tie. The author also discusses the demerits of maternity, particularly in developing nations where women can seek employment outside the home and thus become economically independent. Women can also achieve power and influence in a range of nonfamilial contexts. The author hypothesizes that as long as child care delegation is feasible and acceptable, infants are not perceived as constraining a woman's time, and therefore, women will not decide to limit their births or use contraceptives.
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