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The African Development Bank, structural adjustment, and child mortality: a cross-national analysis of Sub-Saharan Africa.
International Journal of Health Services. 2013; 43(2):337-61.We conduct a cross-national analysis to test the hypothesis that African Development Bank (AfDB) structural adjustment adversely impacts child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. We use generalized least square random effects regression models and two-step Heckman models that correct for selection bias using data on 35 nations with up to four time points (1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005). We find substantial support for our hypothesis, which indicates that Sub-Saharan African nations that receive an AfDB structural adjustment loan tend to have higher levels of child mortality than Sub-Saharan African nations that do not receive such a loan. This finding remains stable even when controlling for selection bias on whether or not a Sub-Saharan African nation receives an AfDB structural adjustment loan. We conclude by discussing the methodological implications of the article, policy suggestions, and possible directions for future research.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2013 Sep.  p.Despite rapid progress in reducing child deaths since 1990, the world is still failing to renew the promise of survival for its most vulnerable citizens. Without faster progress on reducing preventable diseases, the world will not meet its child survival goal (MDG 4) until 2028 -- 13 years after the deadline -- and 35 million children will die between 2015 and 2028 who would otherwise have lived had we met the goal on time. Of the 6.6 million under-five deaths in 2012, most were from preventable causes such as pneumonia, diarrhoea or malaria; around 44% of deaths in children under 5 occurred during the neonatal period. Accelerating progress in child survival urgently requires greater attention to ending preventable child deaths in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, which together account for 4 out of 5 under-five deaths globally. West and Central Africa in particular requires a special focus for child survival, as it is lagging behind all other regions, including Eastern and Southern Africa, and has seen virtually no reduction in its annual number of child deaths since 1990.The good news is that much faster progress is possible. Country experience shows that sharp reductions in preventable child deaths are possible at all levels of national income and in all regions. A Promise Renewed is a movement based on shared responsibility for child survival, and is mobilizing and bringing together governments, civil society, the private sector and individuals in the cause of ending preventable child deaths within a generation. (Excerpts)
Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 2013 Apr 26; 88(17):173-80.Add to my documents.