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  1. 1
    131691
    Peer Reviewed

    [Children in poor countries also have a right to good health care. A new health care program will reduce child mortality] Aven barn v fattiga lander har ratt till god vard. Nytt omvardnadsprogram skall minska barnadodligheten.

    Wekell P; Hakanson A; Krantz I; Forsberg B; Troedsson H; Gebre-Medhin M

    LAKARTIDNINGEN. 1997 Oct 8; 94(41):3637-41.

    This article discusses the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) approach, developed by WHO and UNICEF based on international experience, which allows the care and treatment of sick children in countries with limited resources. It is estimated that every year 12 million children die in low-income countries before age 5. 70% of these deaths are related to common diseases: respiratory infections, diarrhea, measles, malaria, and malnutrition. The guidelines were developed for local health workers. Two flowcharts were designed for presenting the guidelines: one for children aged 1 week to 2 months and one for children aged 2 months to 5 years. For infants, the treatment of bacterial infections, diarrhea and feeding, and low weight are paramount. Fever and breathing difficulty may be the expression of severe general infection. The care of children aged 2 months to 5 years should consider four general warning symptoms: cramps, loss of consciousness, inability to drink or suckle, and constant vomiting. The presence of one of these symptoms indicates serious illness and the need for immediate care. Coughing and breathing difficulties are signs of severe pneumonia or serious respiratory illness, which requires transfer to a hospital after administering a dose of antibiotics. The use of trimethoprim-cotrimoxazole is recommended for treatment of pneumonia, while trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is indicated for malaria. The diagnosis, classification, and treatment of diarrhea is performed according to earlier WHO guidelines. General erythema and either coughing, a cold, or red eyes are the signs of measles.
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  2. 2
    133054

    Validation of outpatient IMCI guidelines.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Child Health Research Project

    SYNOPSIS. 1998 Jan; (2):1-8.

    The World Health Organization (WHO)/UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines were designed to maximize detection and appropriate treatment of illnesses due to the most common causes of child mortality and morbidity in developing countries: pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles, bacterial infections in young infants, malnutrition, anemia, and ear problems. The health worker first examines the child and checks immunization status, then classifies the child's illness and identifies the appropriate treatment based on a color-coded triage system. By May 1997, 17 countries had introduced IMCI and 16 others were in the process of introduction. This issue reports on field tests of the guidelines conducted in Kenya, the Gambia, Uganda, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. Health workers who used the guidelines performed well when compared to physicians who had access to laboratory and radiographic findings as well as health workers trained in full case management. Of concern, however, are research findings suggesting the potential for overdiagnosis in some disease classifications. Current IMCI research priorities include the following: 1) determining health workers' ability to learn to detect lower chest wall indrawing; 2) identifying clinical signs to increase the specificity of referral for severe pneumonia; 3) identifying other clinical signs to increase the specificity of hospital referrals, thereby reducing unnecessary referrals; 4) investigating how clinical care for severely ill children could be expanded in areas where referral is not feasible; 5) finding ways to increase the specificity of the diagnosis of malaria; and 6) recognizing clinical signs to increase the specificity of the diagnosis of severe anemia and the specificity of the diagnosis of moderate or mild anemia, with the possible goal of regional adaptation of the anemia guidelines.
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