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  1. 1

    MDGs 4 and 5: maternal and child health/reproductive health in LAC.

    Gordillo-Tobar A

    [Washington, D.C.], World Bank, 2012 Jun. 4 p. (en breve No. 177)

    The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region fares well on achievement of the MDG targets when compared with other regions, but the region has great disparities between and within countries on these goals. The region is also performing better than the rest of the developing world in relation to child mortality, having achieved more than 70% of the progress needed to reduce under-five mortality by two-thirds. However, LAC still faces serious challenges regarding maternal mortality, achieving good public and individual health and alleviating poverty. For LAC, the MDGs are a historic opportunity to address all forms of inequality and attain the political will needed to achieve these goals. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    The state of the world's children 2016. A fair chance for every child.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2016 Jun. [184] p.

    Every child has the right to health, education and protection, and every society has a stake in expanding children’s opportunities in life. Yet, around the world, millions of children are denied a fair chance for no reason other than the country, gender or circumstances into which they are born. The State of the World’s Children 2016 argues that progress for the most disadvantaged children is not only a moral, but also a strategic imperative. Stakeholders have a clear choice to make: invest in accelerated progress for the children being left behind, or face the consequences of a far more divided world by 2030. At the start of a new development agenda, the report concludes with a set of recommendations to help chart the course towards a more equitable world.
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  3. 3

    Levels and trends in child mortality. Estimates developed by the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation (IGME). Report 2015.

    You D; Hug L; Ejdemyr S; Beise J

    New York, New York, United Nations Children's Fund [UNICEF], 2015. 36 p.

    Child mortality is a core indicator for child health and well-being. In 2000, world leaders agreed on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and called for reducing the under-five mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015 - known as the MDG 4 target. In recent years, the Global Strategy for Women's and Children’s Health launched by United Nations Secretary- General Ban Ki-moon and the Every WomanEvery Child movement boosted global momentum in improving newborn and child survival as well as maternal health. In June 2012, world leaders renewed their commitment during the global launch of Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed, aiming for a continued post-2015 focus to end preventable child deaths. With the end of the MDG era, the international community is in the process of agreeing on a new framework - the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The proposed SDG target for child mortality represents a renewed commitment to the world's children: By 2030, end preventable deathsof newborns and children under five years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 deaths per 1,000 live births and under-five mortality to at least as low as 25 deaths per 1,000 live births.
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  4. 4

    Committing to child survival: a promise renewed. Progress report 2015.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2015. [99] p.

    This report from A Promise Renewed – a global partnership initiative aimed at ending preventable child and maternal deaths – features updates and analyses of global, regional and national child mortality levels and trends. It also provides current information on causes of child and maternal deaths, and coverage of key interventions to prevent them, as well as projections for the 2015-2030 period. The report highlights impressive progress towards our commitment to increase child survival during the Millennium Development Goals era, which has saved the lives of some 48 million children under the age of 5 since 2000. Finally, it calls for intensified action in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals.
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  5. 5

    Committing to child survival: A promise renewed. Progress report 2013.

    UNICEF. Division of Policy and Strategy

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2013 Sep. [56] p.

    Despite rapid progress in reducing child deaths since 1990, the world is still failing to renew the promise of survival for its most vulnerable citizens. Without faster progress on reducing preventable diseases, the world will not meet its child survival goal (MDG 4) until 2028 -- 13 years after the deadline -- and 35 million children will die between 2015 and 2028 who would otherwise have lived had we met the goal on time. Of the 6.6 million under-five deaths in 2012, most were from preventable causes such as pneumonia, diarrhoea or malaria; around 44% of deaths in children under 5 occurred during the neonatal period. Accelerating progress in child survival urgently requires greater attention to ending preventable child deaths in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, which together account for 4 out of 5 under-five deaths globally. West and Central Africa in particular requires a special focus for child survival, as it is lagging behind all other regions, including Eastern and Southern Africa, and has seen virtually no reduction in its annual number of child deaths since 1990.The good news is that much faster progress is possible. Country experience shows that sharp reductions in preventable child deaths are possible at all levels of national income and in all regions. A Promise Renewed is a movement based on shared responsibility for child survival, and is mobilizing and bringing together governments, civil society, the private sector and individuals in the cause of ending preventable child deaths within a generation. (Excerpts)
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  6. 6

    Progress in introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine worldwide, 2000-2012.

    Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire. 2013 Apr 26; 88(17):173-80.

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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    Child mortality falls, but 19 000 under 5s still die every day.

    Gulland A

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2012; 345:e6229.

    New figures show that the number of children dying before the age of five has significantly fallen since 2000, but this progress needs to accelerate if the United Nations’ millennium development goal of reducing child mortality is to be reached. A report released by the UN’s Children’s Fund (Unicef), the World Health Organization, the World Bank and the UN Population Division provides statistical analyses of annual child mortality and its global concentrations; the highest rates of child mortality are still in sub-Saharan Africa. The report warns that securing accurate estimates of child mortality is a considerable challenge because many developing countries lack a registration system. It also warns that the decline in neonatal mortality rates has been slower than the decline in mortality rates among children overall.
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  8. 8

    The Millennium Development Goals and the road to 2015: Building on progress and responding to crisis.

    World Bank

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2010. [52] p.

    The Millennium Development Goals provide a multidimensional framework for attacking poverty in a world of multipolar growth. By focusing on measurable results, they provide a scorecard for assessing progress toward mutually agreed targets. And by enlisting the support of national governments, international agencies, and civil society in a development partnership, they have brought greater coherence to the global development effort. In this way they take us beyond the old, sterile opposition of “developed” and “developing” or “north” and “south.” The evidence from the last 20 years, documented in the statistical record of the MDGs, is that where conditions and policies are right for growth with equity, rapid and sustainable progress toward improving the lives of the poorest people can take place. Not every country will achieve the global MDG targets in the time allowed. Success has not been distributed evenly and there have been serious setbacks. Some countries are still burdened by legacies of bad policies, institutional failures, and civil and international conflict. For them, progress toward the MDGs has been delayed, but the examples of good progress by others point the way for their eventual success.
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  9. 9

    Committing to child survival: a promise renewed. Progress report 2012.

    UNICEF. Division of Policy and Strategy

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2012. [44] p.

    Across the world, the number of deaths among children under 5 has been on a continuous decline for over two decades, says the 2012 Progress Report on Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed. Data released today by UNICEF and the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation show that the number of children under the age of 5 dying globally has dropped from nearly 12 million in 1990 to an estimated 6.9 million in 2011. The report combines mortality estimates with insights into the top killers of children under 5 and the high-impact strategies that are needed to accelerate progress. The report shows that all regions of the world have seen a marked decline in under-5 mortality since 1990. Neither a country’s regional affiliation nor economic status need be a barrier to reducing child deaths; low-, medium- and high- income countries all have made tremendous progress in lowering their under-5 mortality rates. But under-5 deaths are increasingly concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. One in every nine children in sub-Saharan Africa dies before reaching the age of 5. And progress in lowering child mortality rates lags behind among disadvantaged and marginalized people, around the world. Undernutrition is a factor in one third of all under-5 child deaths. If disease and undernutrition are to be tackled successfully, broader issues such as water supply, sanitation and hygiene and education will also have to be addressed. The report provides further impetus for a renewed global movement to end preventable child deaths.
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  10. 10
    Peer Reviewed

    Child mortality estimation: Accelerated progress in reducing global child mortality, 1990-2010.

    Hill K; You D; Inoue M; Oestergaard MZ

    PLOS Medicine. 2012 Aug; 9(8):e1001303.

    Monitoring development indicators has become a central interest of international agencies and countries for tracking progress towards the Millennium Development Goals. In this review, which also provides an introduction to a collection of articles, we describe the methodology used by the United Nations Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation to track country-specific changes in the key indicator for Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG 4), the decline of the underfive mortality rate (the probability of dying between birth and age five, also denoted in the literature as U5MR and 5q0). We review how relevant data from civil registration, sample registration, population censuses, and household surveys are compiled and assessed for United Nations member states, and how time series regression models are fitted to all points of acceptable quality to establish the trends in U5MR from which infant and neonatal mortality rates are generally derived. The application of this methodology indicates that, between 1990 and 2010, the global U5MR fell from 88 to 57 deaths per 1,000 live births, and the annual number of under-five deaths fell from 12.0 to 7.6 million. Although the annual rate of reduction in the U5MR accelerated from 1.9% for the period 1990-2000 to 2.5% for the period 2000-2010, it remains well below the 4.4% annual rate of reduction required to achieve the MDG 4 goal of a two-thirds reduction in U5MR from its 1990 value by 2015. Thus, despite progress in reducing child mortality worldwide, and an encouraging increase in the pace of decline over the last two decades, MDG 4 will not be met without greatly increasing efforts to reduce child deaths.
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  11. 11

    Progress in the introduction of rotavirus vaccine--Latin America and the Caribbean, 2006-2010.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2011 Dec 2; 60:1611-4.

    Rotavirus disease is the leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality related to diarrhea in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), where an estimated 8,000 deaths related to rotavirus diarrhea occur annually among children aged <5 years. After two safe and effective rotavirus vaccines became available, the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2007 recommended inclusion of rotavirus vaccine in the immunization programs of Europe and the Americas, and in 2009 expanded the recommendation to all infants aged <32 weeks worldwide. This report describes progress in the introduction of rotavirus vaccine in LAC, where it was first introduced in 2006 in Brazil, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, and Venezuela; by January 2011, it was included in the national immunization schedules of 14 countries in LAC. Estimated national rotavirus vaccine coverage (2 doses of the monovalent vaccine or 3 doses of the pentavalent vaccine) among children aged <1 year in 2010 ranged from 49% to 98% (median: 89%) in the 11 LAC countries with vaccine introduction before 2010. Of the 14 countries that had introduced rotavirus vaccine into their national immunization programs, 13 participate in a hospital-based rotavirus surveillance network. Data from some countries in this network and from other monitoring efforts in LAC countries have shown declines in hospitalizations and deaths related to severe diarrhea after rotavirus vaccine introduction. The rapid introduction of rotavirus vaccine in LAC demonstrates the benefits of the early commitment of national decision makers to introduce these vaccines in low-income and middle-income countries at the same time as in high-income countries.
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  12. 12

    Progress for children. Achieving the MDGs with equity.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2010 Sep. [92] p. (Progress for Children No. 9)

    ‘Achieving the MDGs with Equity’ is the focus of this ninth edition of Progress for Children, UNICEF’s report card series that monitors progress towards the MDGs. This data compendium presents a clear picture of disparities in children’s survival, development and protection among the world’s developing regions and within countries. While gaps remain in the data, this report provides compelling evidence to support a stronger focus on equity for children in the push to achieve the MDGs and beyond. (Excerpt)
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  13. 13
    Peer Reviewed

    Child health and mortality.

    El Arifeen S

    Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition. 2008 Sep; 26(3):273-9.

    Bangladesh is currently one of the very few countries in the world, which is on target for achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 relating to child mortality. There have been very rapid reductions in mortality, especially in recent years and among children aged over one month. However, this rate of reduction may be difficult to sustain and may impede the achievement of MDG 4. Neonatal deaths now contribute substantially (57%) to overall mortality of children aged less than five years, and reductions in neonatal mortality are difficult to achieve and have been slow in Bangladesh. There are some interesting attributes of the mortality decline in Bangladesh. Mortality has declined faster among girls than among boys, but the poorest have not benefited from the reduction in mortality. There has also been a relative absence of a decline in mortality in urban areas. The age and cause of death pattern of under-five mortality indicate certain interventions that need to be scaled up rapidly and reach high coverage to achieve MDG 4 in Bangladesh. These include skilled attendance at delivery, postnatal care for the newborn, appropriate feeding of the young infant and child, and prevention and management of childhood infections. The latest (2007) Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey shows that Bangladesh has made sustained and remarkable progress in many areas of child health. More than 80% of children are receiving all vaccines. The use of oral rehydration solution for diarrhoea is high, and the coverage of vitamin A among children aged 9-59 months has been consistently increasing. However, poor quality of care, misperceptions regarding the need for care, and other social barriers contribute to low levels of care-seeking for illnesses of the newborns and children. Improvements in the health system are essential for removing these barriers, as are effective strategies to reach families and communities with targeted messages and information. Finally, there are substantial health-system challenges relating to the design and implementation, at scale, of interventions to reduce neonatal mortality.
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  14. 14

    Child and Adolescent Health and Development progress report 2006-2007. Highlights.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2008. 20 p.

    The first few days and weeks of life are among the most critical for child survival. Every year, an estimated 4 million children die during the first month of life. Almost all of these deaths (98%) occur in developing countries. Most neonatal deaths are due to ore-term birth, asphyxia and infections such as sepsis, tetanus and pneumonia. In 2006-2007, to support efforts by countries and regions to reduce newborn deaths, we worked to build capacity for the planning and delivery of improved newborn care services in health facilities and communities, to provide tools and guidance for extending population coverage, and to evaluate the impact of all those actions. (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Reproductive health emergency assistance - United Nations Population Fund airlift to Eritrea - Brief article.

    Rutsch H

    UN Chronicle. 2000 Summer; 37(2):[1] p..

    The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) on 22 June began airlifting life-saving motherhood and reproductive health supplies to help Eritreans displaced by the recent fighting with Ethiopia. UNFPA's emergency assistance, including home delivery kits and tools for blood transfusions, will help reduce maternal and child deaths and unwanted pregnancies for some 450,000 displaced persons for about three months. The reproductive health kit was first used in the Great Lakes region of Africa in 1996. Since then, UNFPA has responded to emergencies in 33 countries and territories. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Great Lakes Region: Burundi. [La région des Grands Lacs : Burundi]

    RNIS. Report on the Nutrition Situation of Refugees and Displaced Populations. 2003 Nov; 18-24.

    There was an upsurge in violence in August and September 2003, which, among other things, has led to the displacement of about 53,000 people in Bujumbura rural Province and 21,000 people in Bubanza Province (OCHA, 29/08/03; WFP, 26/09/03). After the signature of a peace agreement between the Burundian President and the country's largest Hutu rebel group, the Forces for the Defence of Democracy (FDD), in early October, the situation has calmed down but has remained volatile (AFP, 07/10/03; UNICEF, 06/11/03). An enlarged government with members of the FDD, should be formed by the end of November 2003 (AFP, 7/11/03). However, the other Hutu rebel group, the National Liberation Force (FNL) was not part of the cease-fire negotiations (AFP, 08/10/03). The deployment of about 3,000 peacekeepers from Ethiopia, Mozambique, and South Africa, to help in the demobilisation, disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of rebel troops and to monitor the transition to democracy, has been completed (OCHA, 02/11/03). As of end October 2003, UNHCR reported 26,690 facilitated returns of Burundian refugees and 42,103 spontaneous returns in 2003 (OCHA, 02/11/03). (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Health-related millennium development goals out of reach for many countries.

    Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2004 Feb; 82(2):156-157.

    Many developing countries will not be able to reach the health-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) unless clear and immediate action is taken combined with a concerted effort over the next 12 years, warned the World Bank and WHO in Geneva at a meeting on 8 and 9 January. The meeting brought together representatives from concerned countries, development agencies and UN organizations to assess progress towards the healthrelated goals and to map out a future strategy for their achievement. The World Bank and WHO noted that the health goals are particularly difficult to meet and that progress towards them is slower than towards some of the other goals. Four of the eight MDGs, set at the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2000, relate to health: to reduce maternal mortality by threequarters and child mortality by twothirds, halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger, combat HIV/ AIDS, malaria and other diseases, and improve access to safe drinking-water and essential drugs. (excerpt)
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  18. 18
    Peer Reviewed

    New and underused technologies to reduce maternal mortality.

    Tsu VD

    Lancet. 2003 Dec 31; 363(9402):75-76.

    In July, 2003, maternal health specialists from around the world gathered in Bellagio, Italy, to develop a list of proven and promising technologies, appropriate for low resource settings, to reduce maternal mortality. We defined technologies as equipment, consumable supplies including medicines, and techniques. While technology, especially in health care, often provokes thoughts of complex, costly interventions, the technologies identified at the Bellagio meeting are mostly simple and inexpensive. What is lacking are resources, human and financial, to scale-up and put proven technologies into widespread use and to assess and document the effectiveness of promising new interventions. There is an urgent need to accelerate the appropriate use of technologies and to reduce the inequitable burden of pregnancy-related mortality borne by women in poor countries. The 2003 Lancet series on child survival highlighted the interventions needed to ensure the health of children worldwide. We would add that saving the life of the mother is one of the best ways to prevent the death of a child. The half million women who die from pregnancy-related and childbirth-related causes every year leave behind at least 1 million motherless children who are all at increased mortality risk. (excerpt)
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  19. 19

    Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.

    The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
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  20. 20

    Diarrhoeal and acute respiratory disease: the current situation.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Information

    IN POINT OF FACT 1991 Jun; (76):1-3.

    This paper describes the serious effect of diarrheal and acute respiratory (ARI) disease upon children under 5 years old, and international efforts undertaken by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce such mortality. Combined, these diseases account for more then 1/2 of all deaths in this age group, and constitute the most serious threat to their health. WHO estimates for 1990 that diarrheal illnesses caused 3.2 million childhood deaths and that ARI caused 4.3 million. While some child deaths are due to measles and pertussis, the majority is caused by pneumonia and the consequences of diarrheal illnesses. These deaths could be readily averted through the timely, effective treatment of trained health workers with essential drugs. Immunization as well as improved nutrition, particularly through the practice of exclusive breast feeding of the child's 1st 4-6 months of life, are addition weapons potentially employed against child mortality. WHO programs for diarrhea and ARI control focus upon simplified treatment guidelines, training, communication messages, drug supplies, and evaluation methodology. Despite obstacles such as the marketing of useless and/or potentially dangerous anti-diarrheal drugs and cough and cold remedies, and inappropriate breastmilk substitutes and unnecessary foods, widespread progress in program development and implementation has been made over the past decade. Increased amounts of oral rehydration therapy and solutions are available and used, while many health workers have benefited from training programs.
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  21. 21

    Interim programme report, 1983.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Programme for Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases

    Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, [1984] 27 p.

    This is the 1st interim report issued by the Diarrhoeal Diseases Control (CDD) Programme, summarizing progress in its main areas of activity during the previous calendar year. Most of the information is presented in the form of tables, graphs and lists. Other important developments are mentioned briefly in each section. The information is presented according to major program areas; health services; research; and program management. Within the health services component, national program planning, training, the production of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS), health education and promotion are areas of priority activity. Progress in the rate of development of national programs, participants in the various levelsof training programs, and the countries producing their own ORS packets and developing promotional and educational materials are presented. An evaluation of the health services component, based on a questionnaire survey to determine the impact of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT), indicates significant decreases in diarrheal admission rates and in overall diarrheal case-fatality rates. Data collected from a total of 45 morbidity and and mortality surveys are shown. Biomedical and operational research projects supported by the program are given. Thhe research areas in which there was the greatest % increase in the number of projects funded were parasite-related diarrheas, drug development and management of diarrheal disease. Research is also in progress on community attitudes and practices in relation to diarrheal disease and on the development of local educational materials. The program's organizational structure is briefly described and its financial status summarized. The report ends with a list of new publications and documents concerning health services, research and management of diarrheal diseases.
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  22. 22

    A troubled decade for Africa's children. Trapped by poverty, disease, war and insufficient aid.

    Fleshman M

    Africa Recovery. 2002 Apr; 16(1):6-8, 11.

    Despite ambitious child health targets set in 1990, life for millions of Africa's children remains difficult, dangerous, and tragically short. Children in sub-Saharan Africa are more likely to be ill, less likely to be in school and far more likely to die before the age of 5 than children in other region. Statistics for another key indicator of well being for children and their families, maternal mortality, are equally disturbing. Nearly half of the estimated 515,000 women who die annually from pregnancy or childbirth are African. In addition, chronic malnutrition, inadequate immunizations, AIDS and war, insufficient investment, and the decline of official development assistance from wealthy countries aggravate the situation. However, there are reasons to hope that the next 10 years will be better. Efforts of individual countries have proved to forge new alliances to challenge the spread of HIV/AIDS and other diseases, strengthen health and education systems, open up the political process and strengthen transparency and accountability in budgeting and governance.
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  23. 23

    UNICEF partners Uganda in new programme. [Partenariat UNICEF/Ouganda pour un nouveau programme]

    AFRICA HEALTH. 2001 Jan; 23(2):38.

    UNICEF has signed a 5-year program of collaboration with the Ugandan government in which it will provide US$101 million, while the latter provides US$40 million in new financial commitments to children. The agreement was signed in Kampala by Michel Sidibe, UNICEF representative to Uganda, and Minister of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, Gerald Sendawula. The program is anchored to the theme of human rights, and recognizes how poverty erodes the gains made in the area of child survival and development. Specific aims of the program are to reduce the infant mortality rate from 97 per 1000 live births to 68, the under-five mortality rate from 147 per 1000 live births to 103, and the maternal mortality rate from 506 per 100,000 live births to 354. Other commitments include the reduction of HIV infections by a further 25% and reducing moderate to severe stunting in under-3-year-olds from 38% to 28%. UNICEF noted that the government's increasing expenditure on UNICEF-supported programs has contributed to their success in reducing the main threats to children's lives, and the new partnership will build on the good work of the 1995-2000 program. At present, 51% of Ugandans have access to health care services, compared with only 42% in 1996, while average life expectancy has risen from 41.8 years in 1991 to 50.4 years in 1999. Other statistics show infant mortality has fallen sharply from 121 to 97 per 1000 live births between 1980 and 1995, while polio and Guinea worms are close to eradication and measles and diarrhea have largely been brought under control. In its fight against iodine-deficiency disorders, UNICEF supported legislation against importation of non-iodized salt, resulting in an increase in the percentage of households consuming iodized salt from 2% in 1995 to 67% in 1999. With the formation and training of more than 1200 parish development and healthcare unit management committees, communities are now participating in the management of their healthcare services. (full text)
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  24. 24

    Report on progress in implementing the Health Initiative: Equitable Access to Basic Health Services. Informe sobre los avances en la implementacion de la Iniciativa de Salud: Acceso Equitativo a los Servicios Basicos de Salud.

    Pan American Health Organization [PAHO]

    Washington, D.C., PAHO, [1998]. [2], 42 p.

    This report presents the progress of the implementation of the Health Initiative: Equitable access to basic health services in the Americas. In accordance with the 1994 Miami Plan of Action, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and WHO presented this summary of the progress achieved in regional work towards the goal of Initiative 17: Equitable Access to Basic Health Services. Initiative 17 is the government s endorsement on the maternal and child health objectives for the 1990 World Summit for Children, and the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. The endorsement reaffirms their commitment toward reducing child mortality by one-third and maternal mortality by one-half from 1990 levels by the year 2000. Also included in this summary is progress in other initiatives that are also related to the work of PAHO in the Hemisphere. In parallel with the Summit of the Americas, the Wives of Heads of States and Governments of the Americas held a Symposium on Health of the Children of the Americas. This symposium resulted in several health actions that have impacted the Initiative 17 program and other related projects.
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  25. 25

    The state of the world's children 1988.

    Grant JP

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. [9], 86 p.

    The 1988 UNICEF report on the world's children contains chapters describing the multi-sectorial alliance to support child health, the current emphasis on ORT and immunization, the effect of recession on vulnerable children, family rights to knowledge of basic health facts, and support for women in the developing world. Each chapter is illustrated by graphs. There are side panels on programs in specific countries, including Senegal, Syria, Colombia, Bangladesh, Turkey, India, Honduras, Japan and Southern Africa, and highlighted programs including immunization, AIDS, ORT, breast-feeding and tobacco as a test of health. The SAARC is a new regional organization of southern Asian countries committed to immunization and other health goals. Tables of health statistics of the world's nations, divided into 4 groups by "Under 5 Mortality Rate" present basic indicators, nutrition/malnutrition data, health information, education, literacy and media data, demographic indicators, economic indicators and data pertaining to women. The absolute numbers of child deaths had fallen to 16 million in 1980, from 25 million in 1950. Saving children's lives will not exacerbate the population problem because, realizing that their children will survive, families will have fewer children. Furthermore, the methods used to reduce mortality, such as breast feeding and empowerment of families to control their lives, are known to reduce fertility.
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