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  1. 1

    The role of the World Bank.

    Claeson M; Wagstaff A

    Global HealthLink. 2003 May-Jun; (121):14-15.

    In 2000, roughly 11 million children died before their fifth birthday, almost all of them in the developing world. An estimated 140 million children under the age of five were underweight, almost half of them living in South Asia. In 1995, 515,000 women died during pregnancy or childbirth, only 1,000 of whom died in the industrialized world. Tuberculosis claimed another 2 million lives. As these numbers might well suggest, death and illness act as a brake on economic growth, and contribute to income poverty: health and demographic variables account for as much as half of the difference in growth rates between Africa and the rest of the world over the period 1965-1990. Nearly half of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) concern, directly or indirectly, health, nutrition and population issues. But based on present trends, relatively few low-income countries will achieve these goals. Only 17 percent of countries are on target for the under-five mortality goal (a two-thirds reduction between 1990 and 2015). Also, on present trends, sub-Saharan African as a whole will take 100 years to achieve the under-five mortality MDG. In all regions other than the Europe and Central Asia region, the under-five mortality rate declined faster during the 1980s than it did during the 1990s. The slowdown was particularly pronounced in Africa and the Middle East. In many countries, improvements in child mortality and malnutrition have been smallest among the poor. (excerpt)
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  2. 2

    Diarrhoeal and acute respiratory disease: the current situation.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Office of Information

    IN POINT OF FACT 1991 Jun; (76):1-3.

    This paper describes the serious effect of diarrheal and acute respiratory (ARI) disease upon children under 5 years old, and international efforts undertaken by the World Health Organization (WHO) to reduce such mortality. Combined, these diseases account for more then 1/2 of all deaths in this age group, and constitute the most serious threat to their health. WHO estimates for 1990 that diarrheal illnesses caused 3.2 million childhood deaths and that ARI caused 4.3 million. While some child deaths are due to measles and pertussis, the majority is caused by pneumonia and the consequences of diarrheal illnesses. These deaths could be readily averted through the timely, effective treatment of trained health workers with essential drugs. Immunization as well as improved nutrition, particularly through the practice of exclusive breast feeding of the child's 1st 4-6 months of life, are addition weapons potentially employed against child mortality. WHO programs for diarrhea and ARI control focus upon simplified treatment guidelines, training, communication messages, drug supplies, and evaluation methodology. Despite obstacles such as the marketing of useless and/or potentially dangerous anti-diarrheal drugs and cough and cold remedies, and inappropriate breastmilk substitutes and unnecessary foods, widespread progress in program development and implementation has been made over the past decade. Increased amounts of oral rehydration therapy and solutions are available and used, while many health workers have benefited from training programs.
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  3. 3

    Child survival strategy for Sudan, USAID/Khartoum.

    Harvey M; Louton L

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33, [22] p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)

    Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
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  4. 4

    Vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia, recent findings and some programme implications.

    Eastman SJ

    ASSIGNMENT CHILDREN. 1987; (3):3-84.

    Recent findings from xerophthalmia studies in Indonesia have served as a catalytic force within the international health and nutrition community. These analyses conclude that, in Indonesia, there is a direct and significant relationship between vitamin A deficiency and child mortality. Further research is under way to determine the degree to which these findings are replicable in other countries and contexts. At the same time, representatives from international, bilateral, national and private organizations are critically examining their programs in vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia control for future planning. At UNICEF, there has been a special concern for vitamin A issues because of the possible implications in child survival. This is noted in the 1986 State of the World's Children Report. UNICEF recruited a consultant in January 1986 to examine its existing vitamin A programs, review scientific findings and meet with specialists to prepare policy options for consideration in future UNICEF involvement in the area of vitamin A. A brief background is given on the absorption, utilization, and metabolism of vitamin A, and its role in vision, growth, reproduction, maintenance of epithelial cells, immune properties, and daily recommended allowances. Topics cover xerophthalmia studies, treatment and prevention, prevalence, morbidity and mortality, program implications and directions, and procurement of vitamin A. Target regions include Asia, the Americas and the Carribean.
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  5. 5

    Family planning and national development: proceedings of the conference of the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Bandung, 1-7 June 1969.

    Hankinson RK

    London, England, International Planned Parenthood Federation [IPPF], 1969. 260 p.

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  6. 6

    WHO global diarrhoeal diseases control programme.

    Merson MH

    [Unpublished] 1979. Paper prepared for World Health Organization Regional Office for South-East Asia Inter-country Consultation to Develop a Regional Programme on Diarrhoeal Disease Services and Research, New Delhi, 18-23 June 1979 (SE ICP RPD 002.104) 6 p.

    Reviews, from the global perspective, the development and direction of the new WHO Programme for the Control of Acute Diarrhoeal Diseases. Examines briefly the magnitude of the problem of diarrheal diseases, the relatively new research findings which have greatly stimulated the effort at control, and the global strategies for control that Member States may employ in technical cooperation with WHO.
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