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  1. 1

    WHO Programme in Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning. Report of the second meeting of the WHO Programme Advisory Committee in Maternal and Child Health, Geneva, 21-25 November 1983.

    World Health Organization [WHO]. Division of Family Health. Maternal and Child Health Unit

    [Unpublished] 1984. 95 p. (MCH/84.5)

    The objectives of the 2nd meeting of the Program Advisory Committee (PAC) for the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Program in Maternal and Child Health, including Family Planning (MCH/FP) were to 1) assess the MCH/FP program's achievements since the 1st PAC meeting in June, 1982, 2) determine the level of scientific and financial resources available for the program, and 3) to examine the role of traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in the delivery of MCH/FP services. The committee reviewed the activities and targets of the program's 4 major areas (pregnancy and perinatal care, child health, growth, and development, adolescent health, and family planning and infertility), and developed a series of recommendations for each of these areas. Specific recommendations were also made for each of the major program areas in reference to the analysis and dessimination of information and to the development and use of appropriate health technologies. Upon reviewing the role of TBAs in the delivery of MCH/FP services, PAC recommended that all barriers to TBA utilization be removed and that training for TBAs should be improved and expanded. PAC's examination of financial support for MCH/FP activities revealed that for a sample of 26 countries, the average annual amount allocated to MCH activities was less than US$3/child or woman. This low level of funding must be taken into account when setting program targets. International funding agencies did indicate their willingness to increase funding levels for MCH programs. The appendices included 1) a list of participants, 2) an annotated agenda, 3) detailed information on the proposed activities of the program's headquarters for 1986-87, and 4) a description of the the function, organizational structure, and technical management of the MCH/FP program. Also included in the appendices was an overview of the current status of MCH and a series of tables providing information on infant, child, and maternal health indicators. Specifically, the tables provided information by region and by country on maternal, child, and infant mortality; causes of child deaths; maternal health care coverage; contraceptive prevalence; infant and child malnutrition; the number of low weight births; adolescent health; teenage births; breast feeding prevalence and duration; and the proportion of women and children in the population.
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  2. 2

    UNICEF partners Uganda in new programme. [Partenariat UNICEF/Ouganda pour un nouveau programme]

    AFRICA HEALTH. 2001 Jan; 23(2):38.

    UNICEF has signed a 5-year program of collaboration with the Ugandan government in which it will provide US$101 million, while the latter provides US$40 million in new financial commitments to children. The agreement was signed in Kampala by Michel Sidibe, UNICEF representative to Uganda, and Minister of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, Gerald Sendawula. The program is anchored to the theme of human rights, and recognizes how poverty erodes the gains made in the area of child survival and development. Specific aims of the program are to reduce the infant mortality rate from 97 per 1000 live births to 68, the under-five mortality rate from 147 per 1000 live births to 103, and the maternal mortality rate from 506 per 100,000 live births to 354. Other commitments include the reduction of HIV infections by a further 25% and reducing moderate to severe stunting in under-3-year-olds from 38% to 28%. UNICEF noted that the government's increasing expenditure on UNICEF-supported programs has contributed to their success in reducing the main threats to children's lives, and the new partnership will build on the good work of the 1995-2000 program. At present, 51% of Ugandans have access to health care services, compared with only 42% in 1996, while average life expectancy has risen from 41.8 years in 1991 to 50.4 years in 1999. Other statistics show infant mortality has fallen sharply from 121 to 97 per 1000 live births between 1980 and 1995, while polio and Guinea worms are close to eradication and measles and diarrhea have largely been brought under control. In its fight against iodine-deficiency disorders, UNICEF supported legislation against importation of non-iodized salt, resulting in an increase in the percentage of households consuming iodized salt from 2% in 1995 to 67% in 1999. With the formation and training of more than 1200 parish development and healthcare unit management committees, communities are now participating in the management of their healthcare services. (full text)
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  3. 3

    The state of the world's children 1996.

    Bellamy C

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1996. 103 p.

    This special issue on the state of the world's children commemorates the 50th year of UNICEF. Three main topics are addressed: 1) an anti-war plan and protection of children in armed conflict; 2) a review of 50 years of UNICEF activities directed toward improving child welfare and health; and 3) for each of 150 countries, a statistical compendium of basic indicators of child health, nutrition, education, demography, economic conditions, and women's status. For 40 less populous countries, some basic indicators are compared. The final country-specific table presents measures of human development (the under-five mortality rate and total fertility rate) for 1960, 1980, and 1994 and the average annual rate of reduction during 1960-80 and 1980-94, and required during 1994-2000. Regional summaries are presented in a separate table for the same indicators in the country-specific tables. Chapter I describes the effects of war on children that includes "children thrown into mass graves, wandering without parents, or wasting away in refugee camps." Chapter II delineates the response to the needs of children over a period of 50 years and addresses issues such as violence against children, poverty, and hunger. Child mortality rates have dropped by about 50% and basic immunization has saved many millions of lives. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child was ratified by 179 countries by September 1995. UNICEF believes that the gap between rhetoric and reality presents a challenge for the future and that peacemaking and care efforts have accompanied the tragedies. Today's disputes are viewed as struggles for resources and survival that require an investment in the physical, mental, and emotional development of children. UNICEF's anti-war agenda includes removing child soldiers from battlefields, banning the manufacture of anti-personnel land mines, establishing zones of peace for children, and other preventive actions.
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  4. 4

    Child survival strategy for Sudan, USAID/Khartoum.

    Harvey M; Louton L

    Arlington, Virginia, John Snow, Inc. [JSI], Resources for Child Health Project [REACH], 1987. iii, 33, [22] p. (USAID Contract No.: DPE-5927-C-00-5068-00)

    Sudan is one of 8 USAID African child survival emphasis countries. This documents focuses upon linking the discrete areas of child survival to each other in efforts to achieve sustained reductions in national morbidity and mortality rates. The scope of the problem is briefly considered as background in the text, followed by a more in-depth presentation of government policy and programs. This section includes examination of the structure and organization of existing health services, child survival activities, and current progress and constraints. Child survival activities are listed as immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, malaria control, acute respiratory infections, and AIDS. The current strategy of USAID support for these activities is outlined, and includes mention of private volunteer organization and private sector participation. The role of UNICEF, WHO, and the World Bank in child survival in Sudan is also highlighted. Recommendations for child survival strategy in Sudan are presented and discussed at length in the text. Continued support to UNICEF, cost recovery and health care financing efforts through WHO, child spacing and population program support, and support to on-going USAID projects constitute USAID's priorities and emphasis in child survival strategy for Sudan. Detailed short- and long-term recommendations for immunization, control of diarrheal diseases, nutrition, child spacing, and child survival and health care financing are provided following the section on priorities. In closing, staffing and recommendations for malaria and other endemic disease, acute respiratory infections, AIDS, and management are considered. Appendices follow the main body of text.
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  5. 5

    AIDS: a maternal and child health problem in developing countries.

    Preble EA

    [Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the 116th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Boston, Massachusetts, November 13-17, 1988. 7 p.

    In most developing countries, particularly those in Africa and the Caribbean, equal numbers of women as men are affected by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and have the potential to infect their fetuses. Thus, any consideration of the AIDS problem in developing countries must give serious attention to women and children. Current research suggests a perinatal transmission rate of 30-40% and there is concern that AIDS-related pediatric deaths will undermine child survival efforts in countries that have begun to reduce infant and child mortality rates. A number of clinical issues that are now poorly understood require immediate research so that findings can be incorporated into AIDS prevention strategies. Among these issues are: the impact of pregnancy on progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to AIDS; factors that affect an HIV-infected mother's chance of infecting her fetus; the safety of breastfeeding; immunization; the relationships between HIV infection and various contraceptives; and the potential impact of HIV infection on fertility. The extent and nature of the social and financial impact of AIDS at the family and community levels must also be better understood. In the interim, UNICEF has proposed 6 programmatic approaches to prevent women from becoming infected, to prevent perinatal transmission, and to address the AIDS-related needs of women and children. 1st, traditional birth attendants should be trained in AIDS prevention measures and provided with supplies to ensure infection control. 2nd, women must be able to receive consistent, appropriate advice from both maternal-child health workers and family planning staff about contraception and their future health. 3rd, the issue of counseling for women should be broadened beyond that associated with routine prenatal HIV screening. 4th, AIDS education efforts for school-age children must be expanded. 5th, more attention should be given to the social service needs of AIDS-infected women and children. And 6th, there is an urgent need to improve protocols and treatment facilities for those affected with HIV and AIDS.
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  6. 6

    Operational responses to the World Population Plan of Action in programmes of the UNFPA in the areas of fertility, family and family planning.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 439-66. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    This paper reviews briefly the experience of UNFPA supported programs related to family, fertility and family planning in developing countries, through the analysis of recommendations of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action and corresponding UNFPA programs. The paper also identifies some programmatic areas that need emphasis in the further implementation of the recommendations of the Plan. Among the Plan's many recommendations, those dealing with the protection of the family, with the improvement of the status of women, with modernization and fertility and with the right of individuals and couples to plan their families, are of special importance to family and fertility. With the accumulation of experience throughout the last decade, the Fund has moved from its original projects approach to a program approach comprising a set of complementary population activities. More recently a needs assessment approach has been adopted. Many UNFPA activities touch upon the reduction of infant, child and maternal mortality, and the improvement of the role and status of women. The Fund takes family planning to include those practices that help individuals or couples to avoid unwanted births, to bring about wanted births, to control the timing of births and to determine the number of children in a family. The Fund supports a broad spectrum of activities in family planning. Among the most important are education and communication programs, activities to strengthen service delivery and to expand population coverage; program management and evaluation, operational, behavioral, and clinical research. Collaboration between UNFPA and individual countries has led to changes in ways of thinking about population. The most important finding, perhaps, relates to the perception of the many dimensions of the population problem. Issues which need further action in the implementation of the Plan include the urgent need to formalize national commitment to fertility, family and related population activities. To improve the link between population and development activities, greater efforts should be made to involve women in the design, implementation and management of population and family planning projects. In general, there is an urgent need to improve family planning services. In spite of an impressive number of research studies on fertility behavior, there is a need for a policy-oriented analysis of fertility decline. Finally, in view of the increased interest in natural family planning as a method of fertility regulation, there is an important need to collect data on the subject, to train natural family planning teachers and to develop teaching materials. Appendices list UNFPA assisted projects in fertility, family and family planning.
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  7. 7

    Analysis of India's population policies and programs.

    Brown GF; Jain A; Laing J; Jansen W

    Bangkok, Thailand, Population Council, Regional Office for South and East Asia, Aug. 1982. 152 p.

    Summarizes the Population Council's review of Indian population policy and programs, including their recommendations to USAID concerning future assistance over the next 5 years in this area. The review starts with the assumption that there are no simple or universally applicable approaches for achieving desired demographic objectives. Approaches suitable to local needs and social, economic, and political realities must be found and applied. The report analyzes both the family planning program and nonprogram elements in the Indian development process, assesses the past and present state of population policies and programs in India, examines program and nonprogram constraints, discusses direction for the future and makes recommendations regarding future USAID involvement including the role of other U.S.-based institutions. The population of India has nearly doubled in the past 34 years. The past performance in reducing the growth rate has been disappointing. However, there seems to be a renewed political commitment to reducing population growth rates. The need for continued and if possible, increased USAID support is stressed.
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