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  1. 1

    Statement: Malaysia.

    Karim R

    [Unpublished] 1999. Presented at the United Nations Commission on Population and Development, Thirty-second session, New York, New York, March 22-31, 1999 3 p.

    The reactions by the Malaysian delegation at the 32nd session of the Commission on Population and Development on March 23, 1999 in New York are presented. The delegation feels that the reports given at the Commission are historical documents, as they serve as a benchmark for countries at the close of the century. The Malaysian delegate, Dr. Raj Karim, stresses her concern about Malaysia as one of the many countries undergoing a demographic transition. A rapid progress of urbanization and industrialization together with improvement in basic social services and health care and the reduction of poverty has led to lowering of its maternal and child mortality and fertility rates and increased its average life expectancy. The Malaysian delegation seriously considers resources and priority needs as critical issues. Malaysia has urged the secretariat to address these issues in its analyses of population and development trends. In her concluding remarks, Dr. Raj Karim emphasizes that the Malaysian delegation strongly supports the Program of Work of the Population Division for the 2000-2001 biennium and congratulates the Commission for its timely analysis and dissemination of information.
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  2. 2

    Tackling population in Sierra Leone.

    JOICFP NEWS. 1994 Jun; (240):6.

    In this interview (April 21) with Yoshio Koike, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) country director, the population situation in Sierra Leone is described. 4.5 million persons inhabit an area of 74,000 sq. km. Independence was achieved in 1961, but the country was under the patronage of the United Kingdom until April 1992 when a military coup occurred. The new leaders are young (22-29 years) and enthusiastic; a democratic general election will be held in 1996 and the municipal assembly election will occur in 1995. Sierra Leone was the ninth African country receiving aid from UNFPA to establish a population policy (1989). A National Population Commission, which has remained dormant, was also established. The population growth rate is 2.4% annually (average for west African countries); the total fertility rate is 6.8. The maternal mortality rate is estimated to be 1400-1700/100,000 live births. The infant mortality rate (IMR) is about 180; for those under 5 years of age, it is 275. Although the country has 470 clinics available on paper, only 25% are operational according to UNFPA. This is the third year of the MCH/FP project, but only 76 clinics provide family planning information and services. Through coordination of nongovernmental and governmental efforts, 20,000 newcomers and acceptors are being recruited for family planning annually. If expansion continues at this rate and repeaters are maintained for 5 years, the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) should reach 20%. Currently, it is 2% in rural areas and 9% in cities. The national average is about 4-6%. The CPR should approach the goal of 60% in 10 years. There is no serious objection to family planning on the basis of religion; however, people are not informed about the importance of birth spacing and about where they can obtain services. Information, education, and communication (IEC) activities are being improved.
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  3. 3

    Operational responses to the World Population Plan of Action in programmes of the UNFPA in the areas of fertility, family and family planning.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 439-66. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    This paper reviews briefly the experience of UNFPA supported programs related to family, fertility and family planning in developing countries, through the analysis of recommendations of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action and corresponding UNFPA programs. The paper also identifies some programmatic areas that need emphasis in the further implementation of the recommendations of the Plan. Among the Plan's many recommendations, those dealing with the protection of the family, with the improvement of the status of women, with modernization and fertility and with the right of individuals and couples to plan their families, are of special importance to family and fertility. With the accumulation of experience throughout the last decade, the Fund has moved from its original projects approach to a program approach comprising a set of complementary population activities. More recently a needs assessment approach has been adopted. Many UNFPA activities touch upon the reduction of infant, child and maternal mortality, and the improvement of the role and status of women. The Fund takes family planning to include those practices that help individuals or couples to avoid unwanted births, to bring about wanted births, to control the timing of births and to determine the number of children in a family. The Fund supports a broad spectrum of activities in family planning. Among the most important are education and communication programs, activities to strengthen service delivery and to expand population coverage; program management and evaluation, operational, behavioral, and clinical research. Collaboration between UNFPA and individual countries has led to changes in ways of thinking about population. The most important finding, perhaps, relates to the perception of the many dimensions of the population problem. Issues which need further action in the implementation of the Plan include the urgent need to formalize national commitment to fertility, family and related population activities. To improve the link between population and development activities, greater efforts should be made to involve women in the design, implementation and management of population and family planning projects. In general, there is an urgent need to improve family planning services. In spite of an impressive number of research studies on fertility behavior, there is a need for a policy-oriented analysis of fertility decline. Finally, in view of the increased interest in natural family planning as a method of fertility regulation, there is an important need to collect data on the subject, to train natural family planning teachers and to develop teaching materials. Appendices list UNFPA assisted projects in fertility, family and family planning.
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  4. 4

    Fertility and family.

    United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division

    New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. ix, 476 p. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    The Expert Group on Fertility and Family was one of 4 expert groups assigned the task of examining critical, high priority population issues and, on that basis, making recommendations for action that would enhance the effectiveness of and compliance with the World Population Plan of Action. The report of the Expert Group consisted of 6 topics: 1) fertility response to modernization; 2) family structure and fertility; 3) choice with respect to childbearing, 4) reproductive and economic activity of women, 5) goals, policies and technical cooperation, and 6) recommendations. Contained in this report are also selected background papers with discuss in detail fertility determinants such as modernization, fertility decision processes, socioeconomic determinants, infant and child mortality as a ddeterminant of achieved fertility in some developed countries, the World Fertility Survey's contribution to understanding of fertility levels and trends, fertility in relation to family structure, measurement of the impact of population policies and programs on fertility, and techinical cooperation in the field of fertility and the family.
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  5. 5

    Afghanistan: report of Mission on Needs Assessment for Population Assistance.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    New York, UNFPA, 1978 Jun. 53 p. (Report No 3)

    The present report presents the findings of the Mission which visited Afghanistan from October 3-16, 1977 for the purpose of assessing the country's needs for population assistance. Report focus is on the following: the national setting (geographical, cultural, and administrative features; salient demographic, social, and economic characteristics of the population; and economic development and national planning); basic population data; population dynamics and policy formulation; implementing population policies (family health and family planning and education, communication, and information); and external assistance (multilateral and bilateral). The final section presents the recommendations of the Mission in detail. For the past 25 years Afghanistan has been working to inject new life into its economy. Per capita income, as estimated for 1975, was $U.S. 150, a relatively low figure and heavily skewed in favor of a very small proportion of the population. The country is still predominantly rural (85%) and agricultural (75%). In the absence of reliable data, population figures must be accepted tentatively. According to the 7-year plan, the population in 1975 was 16.7 million and the rate of growth around 2.5% per annum. The crude birth rate is near 50/1000 and the crude death rate possibly 25/1000. The Mission endorses the priority given by the government to the population census and recommends continued support on the part of the United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA) to help the Central Statistical Office in the present effort and in building up capacity for future work. The Mission recommends that efforts be concentrated on the reduction of infant, child, and maternal mortality levels and that assistance be continued to the family health services and to programs of population education. Emphasis should be on services to men and women in rural areas. The Mission also recommends a training program for traditional birth attendants.
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  6. 6

    Can youth save 40 thousand children who die everyday of malnutrition and infection.

    Abraham S

    In: World Assembly of Youth. International workshop on youth participation in population, environment, development at Colombo, 28th Nov. 83 to 2nd Dec. 83. Copenhagen, Denmark, WAY, [1983]. 62-8.

    Social welfare has undergone a revolution in the past century--from paternalism to participative development; from poor houses to self-help. A more holistic approach is being made with the growing realization that since development is for the people, it should be people-oriented. The new International Development Strategy recognizes that economic development alone in terms of GNP is not adequate indicator of improved quality of life in the 3rd world. Human development results from the totality of development efforts. In its 1980 World Development Report, the World Bank concluded that since primary education investments had better returns than industrial undertakings, development should combine both the economic and social dimensions. There is a direct importance of the well-being of the human resources of the country for production, productivity and profits. Infant and young children's mortality rates in several poor countries have been reduced more than those in countries 4 or 5 times richer. Maximum utilization of resources has stated and Sri Lanka is a prime example in the 3rd world, indicating the priority of the government in working for the well-being of the people, especially women and children. Malnutrition, the theme of Universal Children's Week, is a major but invisible problem. A study showed that 80% of mothers did not even know their childred were undermourished. UNICEF, the leading agency advocating the cause of children's well-being, was created by the General Assembly of the UN in 1946 to provide emergency relief to the young, destitute victims of the 2nd World War. Today UNICEF is involved both directly and indirectly in more long-term development strategies which benefit children, particularly the disadvantaged. The basic services for the poor include the provision of health, education, income, water and sanitation, food and nutrition. The primary health care approach emphasized prevention and provides a system for curative services. UNICEF's Executive Director suggested a Children's Revolution in his 1982/83 report on the state of the world's children. He made 4 proposals: nutrition education to mothers; treatment of diarrhea; immunization of all children; increasing food production and consumption; and wiser spacing of children. Educational programs can be particularly valuable.
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