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  1. 1
    332634

    Progress for children. Achieving the MDGs with equity.

    UNICEF

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2010 Sep. [92] p. (Progress for Children No. 9)

    ‘Achieving the MDGs with Equity’ is the focus of this ninth edition of Progress for Children, UNICEF’s report card series that monitors progress towards the MDGs. This data compendium presents a clear picture of disparities in children’s survival, development and protection among the world’s developing regions and within countries. While gaps remain in the data, this report provides compelling evidence to support a stronger focus on equity for children in the push to achieve the MDGs and beyond. (Excerpt)
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  2. 2
    332020

    Last chance for the world to live up to its promises? Why decisive action is needed now on child health and the MDGs. A World Vision policy briefing.

    World Vision

    Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, World Vision International Policy and Advocacy, 2008 Sep. 15 p. (World Vision Policy Briefing)

    Now is the window of opportunity to ensure that 2015 will be remembered as the year the world lived up to its promise to the world's poorest and most vulnerable people. This short briefing paper considers child health in the context of the three health-focused MDGs, identifies concrete steps needed in the coming months to put the MDGs back on track, and summarises World Vision's own efforts to contribute to their achievement. (Excerpt)
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  3. 3
    321986
    Peer Reviewed

    The role of family planning in poverty reduction.

    Allen RH

    Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007 Nov; 110(5):999-1002.

    Family planning plays a pivotal role in population growth, poverty reduction, and human development. Evidence from the United Nations and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations supports this conclusion. Failure to sustain family planning programs, both domestically and abroad, will lead to increased population growth and poorer health worldwide, especially among the poor. However, robust family planning services have a range of benefits, including maternal and infant survival, nutrition, educational attainment, the status of girls and women at home and in society, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, and environmental conservation efforts. Family planning is a prerequisite for achievement of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals and for realizing the human right of reproductive choice. Despite this well-documented need, the U.S. contribution to global family planning has declined in recent years. (author's)
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  4. 4
    305838

    Malaria vaccine R & D: the case for greater resources.

    Moree M

    [Seattle, Washington], Program for Appropriate Technology in Health [PATH], Malaria Vaccine Initiative, [2002]. [2] p.

    Malaria kills more than one million people each year. In Africa, it is the leading cause of death among children under the age of five. Although prevention and treatment are crucial, a vaccine offers the greatest hope for controlling the disease. Despite malaria's tremendous social and economic impact, global spending for malaria vaccine research and development (R&D) is far less than the estimated $300 to $500 million required to advance one vaccine through the product development process. Industry-wide, the vast majority of vaccine candidates fail during development. To increase the odds of achieving a successful vaccine, malaria researchers must drive several candidates forward simultaneously. Given the urgency of the public health crisis, malaria vaccine R&D requires an aggressive development schedule--which will only be possible with a substantial increase in funding. (excerpt)
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  5. 5
    182047

    Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.

    United Nations Development Programme [UNDP]

    New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.

    The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
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  6. 6
    131691
    Peer Reviewed

    [Children in poor countries also have a right to good health care. A new health care program will reduce child mortality] Aven barn v fattiga lander har ratt till god vard. Nytt omvardnadsprogram skall minska barnadodligheten.

    Wekell P; Hakanson A; Krantz I; Forsberg B; Troedsson H; Gebre-Medhin M

    LAKARTIDNINGEN. 1997 Oct 8; 94(41):3637-41.

    This article discusses the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) approach, developed by WHO and UNICEF based on international experience, which allows the care and treatment of sick children in countries with limited resources. It is estimated that every year 12 million children die in low-income countries before age 5. 70% of these deaths are related to common diseases: respiratory infections, diarrhea, measles, malaria, and malnutrition. The guidelines were developed for local health workers. Two flowcharts were designed for presenting the guidelines: one for children aged 1 week to 2 months and one for children aged 2 months to 5 years. For infants, the treatment of bacterial infections, diarrhea and feeding, and low weight are paramount. Fever and breathing difficulty may be the expression of severe general infection. The care of children aged 2 months to 5 years should consider four general warning symptoms: cramps, loss of consciousness, inability to drink or suckle, and constant vomiting. The presence of one of these symptoms indicates serious illness and the need for immediate care. Coughing and breathing difficulties are signs of severe pneumonia or serious respiratory illness, which requires transfer to a hospital after administering a dose of antibiotics. The use of trimethoprim-cotrimoxazole is recommended for treatment of pneumonia, while trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is indicated for malaria. The diagnosis, classification, and treatment of diarrhea is performed according to earlier WHO guidelines. General erythema and either coughing, a cold, or red eyes are the signs of measles.
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  7. 7
    133054

    Validation of outpatient IMCI guidelines.

    United States. Agency for International Development [USAID]. Child Health Research Project

    SYNOPSIS. 1998 Jan; (2):1-8.

    The World Health Organization (WHO)/UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) guidelines were designed to maximize detection and appropriate treatment of illnesses due to the most common causes of child mortality and morbidity in developing countries: pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles, bacterial infections in young infants, malnutrition, anemia, and ear problems. The health worker first examines the child and checks immunization status, then classifies the child's illness and identifies the appropriate treatment based on a color-coded triage system. By May 1997, 17 countries had introduced IMCI and 16 others were in the process of introduction. This issue reports on field tests of the guidelines conducted in Kenya, the Gambia, Uganda, Bangladesh, and Tanzania. Health workers who used the guidelines performed well when compared to physicians who had access to laboratory and radiographic findings as well as health workers trained in full case management. Of concern, however, are research findings suggesting the potential for overdiagnosis in some disease classifications. Current IMCI research priorities include the following: 1) determining health workers' ability to learn to detect lower chest wall indrawing; 2) identifying clinical signs to increase the specificity of referral for severe pneumonia; 3) identifying other clinical signs to increase the specificity of hospital referrals, thereby reducing unnecessary referrals; 4) investigating how clinical care for severely ill children could be expanded in areas where referral is not feasible; 5) finding ways to increase the specificity of the diagnosis of malaria; and 6) recognizing clinical signs to increase the specificity of the diagnosis of severe anemia and the specificity of the diagnosis of moderate or mild anemia, with the possible goal of regional adaptation of the anemia guidelines.
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  8. 8
    080081

    Usefulness of clinical case-definitions in treatment of childhood malaria or pneumonia [letter]

    Gove S; Tulloch J; Cattani J; Schapira A

    Lancet. 1993 Jan 30; 341(8840):304-5.

    WHO provides health workers with guidelines for case management strategies for children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) to reduce child mortality. Its clinical case definitions for ARI do not assume that a child has only 1 disease, however. The guidelines also help health workers diagnose and treat other conditions in those children with fever who live in malaria endemic areas such as Africa where Plasmodium falciparum is transmitted. They also guide health workers on how to refer children with danger signs of severe malaria, meningitis, or severe malnutrition to the hospital. Based on studies in Malawi and the Gambia, WHO 1st recommended using co-trimoxazole and chloroquine to treat children with malaria who have a cough and fever and who are breathing quickly. Experts at a WHO meeting in April 1991 now recommend 5 days of co-trimoxazole alone to treat such children in areas where malaria is moderately to highly endemic, the leading parasite is P. falciparum, and it is sensitive to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. WHO has incorporated this change into its clinical guidelines and training materials. The guidelines emphasize that local health workers must adapt the guidelines for children with concomitant malaria as necessary to guarantee appropriate identification and referral of children with severe anemia. WHO and UNICEF are developing a fully integrated training package to address case management of children with pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, measles, and/or malnutrition. This package also instructs health workers on how to manage middle ear inflammation, anemia, meningitis, and acute ocular problems from measles and vitamin A deficiency. WHO and UNICEF hope to have this integrated training package available in late 1993.
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