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New York, New York, UNICEF, 2017 Jul. 32 p.This report provides compelling new evidence that backs up an unconventional prediction UNICEF made in 2010: The higher cost of reaching the poorest children with life-saving, high-impact health interventions would be outweighed by greater results. This new study combines modelling and data from 51 countries. The results indicate that the number of lives saved by investing in the most deprived is almost twice as high as the number saved by equivalent investment in less deprived groups.
How does progress towards the child mortality Millennium Development Goal affect inequalities between the poorest and least poor? Analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data.
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Nov 19; 331(7526):1180-1182.The millennium development goals (MDGs) have been widely accepted as a framework for improving health and welfare worldwide. Child mortality is one of the most crucial and avoidable global health concerns. In many low income countries, 10-20% of children die before reaching 5 years (compared with, for example, 0.7% in England and Wales). The child mortality MDG (to reduce the under 5 mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015) is formulated as a national average. The World Health Report 2003 posed an important question: how does progress towards the MDGs affect equity? We investigated this by examining, across a range of settings, how inequality in the under 5 mortality of the poorest and least poor changes as progress is made towards the MDG. (excerpt)
In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, June 7-10, 1983, Washington, D.C., edited by Richard Cash. Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development [AID], Bureau for Science and Technology, 1983. 8-13. (International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, 1983, proceedings)The worst economic setbacks since the 1930s do not augur well for the 100s and millions of children already trapped in the day-to-day silent emergency resulting from the conjunction of extreme poverty and underdevelopment which contributes so greatly to the death and disability toll which afflict over 40,000 small children per day. In the absence of special measures to accelerate health progress significantly, millions more children and mothers in low income areas are likely to die in the decade ahead. This meeting on promoting oral rehydration therapy is a concrete reminder that the key to the effectiveness in improving children's conditions is a refusal to accept a limitation upon what can be done with the available resources. In September, 1982, UNICEF invited a group of experts drawn from international agencies and nongovernmental groups involved in improving the lives of children to meet and discuss the problem. They recognized that certain elements of the primary health care strategy, including oral rehydration therapy, could greatly contribute to the realization of the health for all goal. They focused on community-based services and primary health care and how to improve health services. The improved techniques and technologies, the increased acceptance of the primary health care approach, and a new capacity of social organization for reaching low-income families could save a high proportion of children's lives. Nutritional surveillance, oral rehydration, breastfeeding and better weaning practices, immunization, family spacing, food supplements, and health education will contribute to the health of millions of mothers and families. Everyone is urged to make a commitment to strive for the health for all goal. The media, private organizations and ministeries of health must all join in the effort.
In: Grant JP. The state of the world's children, 1982-83. New York, Oxford Univ. Press, 1982. 3-42.40 thousand young children died each day from malnutrition and infection in developing countries during 1982. For each child that died, 6 live on in hunger and ill-health. A continuation of present trends would result in an increase in the nubers to some to 650 million seriously undernourished children by the year 2000. This report indicates that organized communities and trained paraprofessional development workers backed by government services and international assistance can bring basic education, primary health care, cleaner water, and safer sanitation to the majority of poor communities in the developing world. Specifically, oral rehydration therapy, universal child immunization, promotion of breast feeding, and the use of growth charts are touted as low-cost, low-risk people's health actions that do not depend on economic and political changes. 1/3 of the families whose children are malnourished are simply too poor to provide enough food for the children to eat. For these people, the long-term solution to eradicate malnutrition lies in having the land to grow food or the jobs and income with which to buy it. Employment and land reform are therefore areas that must eventually be addressed in the quest for reduced child mortality levels.
[Child health in Chile and the role of the international collaboration (author's transl)] Salud infantil en Chile y el rol de la colaboracion internacional.
Revista Chilena de Pediatria. 1982 Sep-Oct; 53(5):481-90.Assuring the rights sanctioned by the UN Declaration on the Rights of Children requires the participation of the family, community, and state as well as international collaboration. Health conditions in Chile have improved significantly and continuously over the past few decades, as indicated by life expectancy at birth of 65.7 years, general mortality of 9.2/1000 in 1972 and 6.2/1000 in 1981, infant mortality of 27.2/1000 in 1981. Although the country has experienced broad socioeconomic development, due to inequities of distribution 6% of households are indigent and 17% are in critical poverty. The literacy rate in 1980 was 94%, but further progress is needed in environmental sanitation, waste disposal, and related areas. Enteritis, diarrhea, respiratory ailments, and infections caused 60.4% of deaths in children under 1 in 1970 but only 37.8% in the same group by 1979. Measures to guarantee the social and biological protection of children in Chile, especially among the poor, date back to the turn of the century. Recent programs which have affected child health include the National Health Service, created in 1952, which eventually provided a wide array of health and hygiene services for 2/3 of the population, including family planning services starting in 1965; the National Complementary Feeding Program, which supervised the distribution in 1980 of 25,195 tons of milk and protein foods to pregnant women and small children; the National Board of School Assistance and Scholarships, which provides 300,000 lunches and 750,000 school breakfasts; and programs to promote breastfeeding and rehabilitate the undernourished. Health services are now extended to all children under 8 years in indigent families. Bilateral or multilateral aid to health services in Chile, particularly that offered by the UN specialized agencies and especially the World Health Organization, Pan American Health Organization, and UNICEF, have contributed greatly to the improvement of health care. The Rockefeller, Ford, and Kellogg Foundations have contributed primarily in the areas of teaching and basic and operational research. Aid from the US government assisted in the development of health units and in nutritional and family health programs. The International Childhood Center in Paris rendered educational aid in social pediatrics. (summary in ENG)