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Science. 2010 Jul 9; 329(5988):147-9.This article focuses on the United Nations' goal of universal access to comprehensive programs for HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support by 2010, which has failed to deliver. It discusses how universal access can benefit other health programs such as progress towards universal access has directly advanced efforts to achieve several of the U.N. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) but also includes why some criticize HIV-specific programs.
New York, New York, UNICEF, 2010 Sep.  p. (Progress for Children No. 9)‘Achieving the MDGs with Equity’ is the focus of this ninth edition of Progress for Children, UNICEF’s report card series that monitors progress towards the MDGs. This data compendium presents a clear picture of disparities in children’s survival, development and protection among the world’s developing regions and within countries. While gaps remain in the data, this report provides compelling evidence to support a stronger focus on equity for children in the push to achieve the MDGs and beyond. (Excerpt)
Last chance for the world to live up to its promises? Why decisive action is needed now on child health and the MDGs. A World Vision policy briefing.
Milton Keynes, United Kingdom, World Vision International Policy and Advocacy, 2008 Sep. 15 p. (World Vision Policy Briefing)Now is the window of opportunity to ensure that 2015 will be remembered as the year the world lived up to its promise to the world's poorest and most vulnerable people. This short briefing paper considers child health in the context of the three health-focused MDGs, identifies concrete steps needed in the coming months to put the MDGs back on track, and summarises World Vision's own efforts to contribute to their achievement. (Excerpt)
Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2007 Nov; 110(5):999-1002.Family planning plays a pivotal role in population growth, poverty reduction, and human development. Evidence from the United Nations and other governmental and nongovernmental organizations supports this conclusion. Failure to sustain family planning programs, both domestically and abroad, will lead to increased population growth and poorer health worldwide, especially among the poor. However, robust family planning services have a range of benefits, including maternal and infant survival, nutrition, educational attainment, the status of girls and women at home and in society, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, and environmental conservation efforts. Family planning is a prerequisite for achievement of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals and for realizing the human right of reproductive choice. Despite this well-documented need, the U.S. contribution to global family planning has declined in recent years. (author's)
Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine. 2005 Oct-Dec; 6(4):268-274.At the Millennium Summit held at the United Nations (New York) in September 2000, 189 countries reaffirmed their commitment to working towards a world in which sustaining development and eliminating poverty would have the highest priority. Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDG) were adopted by a consensus of experts to measure progress in all the major areas related to the well-being of people. These included extreme poverty, education, health, gender equality, and the environment. All goals are interlinked, and efforts to achieve one goal will have positive spillover effects on several others. 18 Targets and 48 Indicators have been adopted to monitor the Eight Millennium Development Goals. Of these, 8 Targets and 18 Indicators are directly related to health. While many health indicators are "truly health indicators" such as prevalence and death rates associated with malaria and tuberculosis, some are related to critical factors for health such as access to improved water supply or dietary energy consumption (health-related indicators). India is committed to achieve the Targets under the MDGs by 2015. Incidentally, certain targets have been set under the National Population Policy 2000 (NPP-2000), National Health Policy 2002 (NHP-2002), National AIDS Prevention and Control Policy 2004, and the Tenth Five Year Plan. This paper compares goals and targets mentioned in these documents vis-a-vis selected Millennium Development Goals and Targets. This also highlights the current progress towards attaining the MDGs as well as the challenges ahead. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2003 Sep 13; 362(9387):917.I find reassuring the fact that the Child survival series could constitute a renaissance in child-health matters, as suggested by Boniface Kalanda in the accompanying Debate section online. To remain quiet while 10 million children die every year, mostly in developing countries, is certainly unacceptable. (excerpt)
Human development report 2003. Millennium Development Goals: a compact among nations to end human poverty.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 2003. xv, 367 p.The central part of this Report is devoted to assessing where the greatest problems are, analysing what needs to be done to reverse these setbacks and offering concrete proposals on how to accelerate progress everywhere towards achieving all the Goals. In doing so, it provides a persuasive argument for why, even in the poorest countries, there is still hope that the Goals can be met. But though the Goals provide a new framework for development that demands results and increases accountability, they are not a programmatic instrument. The political will and good policy ideas underpinning any attempt to meet the Goals can work only if they are translated into nationally owned, nationally driven development strategies guided by sound science, good economics and transparent, accountable governance. That is why this Report also sets out a Millennium Development Compact. Building on the commitment that world leaders made at the 2002 Monterrey Conference on Financing for Development to forge a “new partnership between developed and developing countries”—a partnership aimed squarely at implementing the Millennium Declaration—the Compact provides a broad framework for how national development strategies and international support from donors, international agencies and others can be both better aligned and commensurate with the scale of the challenge of the Goals. And the Compact puts responsibilities squarely on both sides: requiring bold reforms from poor countries and obliging donor countries to step forward and support those efforts. (excerpt)
Lancet. 2000 Dec; 356 Suppl:S33.In 1988, the impressive effort to eradicate the health-service inequalities of the racist White regime was showing signs of success in Zimbabwe. The child mortality rate had sunk to an all-time low of 23 deaths per 1000. However, in 1997, the national statistic was back at 36 deaths per 1000, and the rate continues to climb. The main cause of this increase in child mortality is AIDS, in which 1 in 4 children in the country is born to a woman living with HIV. Consequently, a new demographic structure emerged with the onset of HIV epidemics. Meanwhile, the growing childhood mortality due to HIV in Africa is capturing the world's attention and prevention efforts are being initiated. Although logistical problems exist, money exists to solve them. In their resource allocation decisions, international agencies should count the disability-adjusted life-years saved through mother-to-child transmission projects.
CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. 1992 Jul; 38(7):314-5.Participants at a 1992 WHO/UNICEF consultation meeting on HIV transmission and breast feeding weigh the risk of death from AIDS with the risk of death from other causes. Breast feeding reduces the risk of death from diarrhea, pneumonia, and other infections. Artificial or inappropriate feeding contributes the most to the more than 3 million annual childhood deaths from diarrhea. The rising prevalence of HIV infection among women worldwide results in more and more cases of HIV-infected newborns. About 33% of infants born to HIV-infected. Some HIV transmission occurs through breast feeding, but breast feeding does not transmit HIV to most infants HIV-infected mothers. Participants recommend that, in areas where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the leading causes of death and infant mortality is high, health workers should advise all pregnant women, regardless of their HIV status, to breast feed. The infant's risk of HIV infection via breast milk tends to be lower than its risk of death from other causes and from not being breast fed. HIV-infected women who do have access to alternative feeding should talk to their health care providers to learn how to feed their infants safely. In areas where the leading cause of death is not infectious disease and infant mortality is low, participants recommend that health workers advise HIV-infected pregnant women to use a safe feeding alternative, e.g., bottle feeding. Yet, the women and their providers should not be influenced by commercial pressures to choose an alternative feeding method. Health care services in these areas should provide voluntary and confidential HIV testing and counseling. Participants stress the need to prevent women from becoming HIV-infected by providing them information about AIDS and how to protect themselves, increasing their participation in decision-making in sexual relationships, and improving their status in society.
[Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the 116th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Boston, Massachusetts, November 13-17, 1988. 7 p.In most developing countries, particularly those in Africa and the Caribbean, equal numbers of women as men are affected by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and have the potential to infect their fetuses. Thus, any consideration of the AIDS problem in developing countries must give serious attention to women and children. Current research suggests a perinatal transmission rate of 30-40% and there is concern that AIDS-related pediatric deaths will undermine child survival efforts in countries that have begun to reduce infant and child mortality rates. A number of clinical issues that are now poorly understood require immediate research so that findings can be incorporated into AIDS prevention strategies. Among these issues are: the impact of pregnancy on progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to AIDS; factors that affect an HIV-infected mother's chance of infecting her fetus; the safety of breastfeeding; immunization; the relationships between HIV infection and various contraceptives; and the potential impact of HIV infection on fertility. The extent and nature of the social and financial impact of AIDS at the family and community levels must also be better understood. In the interim, UNICEF has proposed 6 programmatic approaches to prevent women from becoming infected, to prevent perinatal transmission, and to address the AIDS-related needs of women and children. 1st, traditional birth attendants should be trained in AIDS prevention measures and provided with supplies to ensure infection control. 2nd, women must be able to receive consistent, appropriate advice from both maternal-child health workers and family planning staff about contraception and their future health. 3rd, the issue of counseling for women should be broadened beyond that associated with routine prenatal HIV screening. 4th, AIDS education efforts for school-age children must be expanded. 5th, more attention should be given to the social service needs of AIDS-infected women and children. And 6th, there is an urgent need to improve protocols and treatment facilities for those affected with HIV and AIDS.