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  1. 1
    065147

    AIDS, women and education.

    WHO / UNESCO AIDS Education and Health Promotion Materials Exchange Centre for Asia and the Pacific

    Bangkok, Thailand, WHO/UNESCO AIDS Education and Health Promotion Materials Exchange Centre for Asia and the Pacific, 1990. [2], 10, [53] p.

    A resource booklet for use by Asian and Pacific country AIDS education programs, published on World AIDS Day, 1 December 1990 entitled "AIDS and Women" is made up of a background introduction, a set of 1-page country profiles, and annexes chiefly documents issued by international agencies on AIDS and topics related to women. Women are particularly vulnerable in the oncoming AIDS epidemic both because they are getting infected in higher numbers, and because they bear the burdens of family care, income and food production, caring for the sick, and the personal, social and economic problems resulting from death of a spouse. While women increasingly become infected via heterosexual intercourse, and they must decide whether to become pregnant, they often do not have the power to coerce a partner to use condoms, nor do they have the benefit of literacy or education to deal with the issues. Female education, of in-school and out-of-school women, will help a country's total fertility rate and infant mortality rate, but is more important for controlling AIDS. Each country statistical profile includes demographic and health items such as population, age structure, life expectancy, birth, death and total fertility rate, infant, maternal and under-5 mortality rates, adult female illiteracy rate, expenditure on health and education, and number of reported AIDS cases.
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  2. 2
    083936
    Peer Reviewed

    HIV and breast-feeding.

    World Health Organization [WHO]

    CENTRAL AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. 1992 Jul; 38(7):314-5.

    Participants at a 1992 WHO/UNICEF consultation meeting on HIV transmission and breast feeding weigh the risk of death from AIDS with the risk of death from other causes. Breast feeding reduces the risk of death from diarrhea, pneumonia, and other infections. Artificial or inappropriate feeding contributes the most to the more than 3 million annual childhood deaths from diarrhea. The rising prevalence of HIV infection among women worldwide results in more and more cases of HIV-infected newborns. About 33% of infants born to HIV-infected. Some HIV transmission occurs through breast feeding, but breast feeding does not transmit HIV to most infants HIV-infected mothers. Participants recommend that, in areas where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the leading causes of death and infant mortality is high, health workers should advise all pregnant women, regardless of their HIV status, to breast feed. The infant's risk of HIV infection via breast milk tends to be lower than its risk of death from other causes and from not being breast fed. HIV-infected women who do have access to alternative feeding should talk to their health care providers to learn how to feed their infants safely. In areas where the leading cause of death is not infectious disease and infant mortality is low, participants recommend that health workers advise HIV-infected pregnant women to use a safe feeding alternative, e.g., bottle feeding. Yet, the women and their providers should not be influenced by commercial pressures to choose an alternative feeding method. Health care services in these areas should provide voluntary and confidential HIV testing and counseling. Participants stress the need to prevent women from becoming HIV-infected by providing them information about AIDS and how to protect themselves, increasing their participation in decision-making in sexual relationships, and improving their status in society.
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  3. 3
    055403

    AIDS: a maternal and child health problem in developing countries.

    Preble EA

    [Unpublished] 1988. Presented at the 116th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association [APHA], Boston, Massachusetts, November 13-17, 1988. 7 p.

    In most developing countries, particularly those in Africa and the Caribbean, equal numbers of women as men are affected by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and have the potential to infect their fetuses. Thus, any consideration of the AIDS problem in developing countries must give serious attention to women and children. Current research suggests a perinatal transmission rate of 30-40% and there is concern that AIDS-related pediatric deaths will undermine child survival efforts in countries that have begun to reduce infant and child mortality rates. A number of clinical issues that are now poorly understood require immediate research so that findings can be incorporated into AIDS prevention strategies. Among these issues are: the impact of pregnancy on progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to AIDS; factors that affect an HIV-infected mother's chance of infecting her fetus; the safety of breastfeeding; immunization; the relationships between HIV infection and various contraceptives; and the potential impact of HIV infection on fertility. The extent and nature of the social and financial impact of AIDS at the family and community levels must also be better understood. In the interim, UNICEF has proposed 6 programmatic approaches to prevent women from becoming infected, to prevent perinatal transmission, and to address the AIDS-related needs of women and children. 1st, traditional birth attendants should be trained in AIDS prevention measures and provided with supplies to ensure infection control. 2nd, women must be able to receive consistent, appropriate advice from both maternal-child health workers and family planning staff about contraception and their future health. 3rd, the issue of counseling for women should be broadened beyond that associated with routine prenatal HIV screening. 4th, AIDS education efforts for school-age children must be expanded. 5th, more attention should be given to the social service needs of AIDS-infected women and children. And 6th, there is an urgent need to improve protocols and treatment facilities for those affected with HIV and AIDS.
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  4. 4
    268020

    The ORT opportunity: putting children at the forefront of accelerated primary health care.

    Grant JP

    In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, June 7-10, 1983, Washington, D.C., edited by Richard Cash. Washington, D.C., Agency for International Development [AID], Bureau for Science and Technology, 1983. 8-13. (International Conference on Oral Rehydration Therapy, 1983, proceedings)

    The worst economic setbacks since the 1930s do not augur well for the 100s and millions of children already trapped in the day-to-day silent emergency resulting from the conjunction of extreme poverty and underdevelopment which contributes so greatly to the death and disability toll which afflict over 40,000 small children per day. In the absence of special measures to accelerate health progress significantly, millions more children and mothers in low income areas are likely to die in the decade ahead. This meeting on promoting oral rehydration therapy is a concrete reminder that the key to the effectiveness in improving children's conditions is a refusal to accept a limitation upon what can be done with the available resources. In September, 1982, UNICEF invited a group of experts drawn from international agencies and nongovernmental groups involved in improving the lives of children to meet and discuss the problem. They recognized that certain elements of the primary health care strategy, including oral rehydration therapy, could greatly contribute to the realization of the health for all goal. They focused on community-based services and primary health care and how to improve health services. The improved techniques and technologies, the increased acceptance of the primary health care approach, and a new capacity of social organization for reaching low-income families could save a high proportion of children's lives. Nutritional surveillance, oral rehydration, breastfeeding and better weaning practices, immunization, family spacing, food supplements, and health education will contribute to the health of millions of mothers and families. Everyone is urged to make a commitment to strive for the health for all goal. The media, private organizations and ministeries of health must all join in the effort.
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  5. 5
    037646

    The state of the world's children 1984.

    Grant JP

    New York, New York, UNICEF, [1984]. 42 p.

    In the last 12 months, world-wide support has been gathering behind the idea of a revolution which could save the lives of up to 7 million children each year, protect the health and growth of many millions more, and help to slow down world population growth. This document summarizes case studies which illustrate the techniques which make this revolution possible. These techniques are: oral rehydration therapy (ORT); growth monitoring; expanded immunization using newly improved vaccines to prevent the 6 main immunizable diseases which kill an esitmated 5 million children a year and disable 5 million more (measles, whooping cough, neonatal tetanus, polio, diphtheria and tuberculosis); and the promotion of scientific knowledge about the advantages of breastfeeding and about how and when an infant should be given supplementary foods. Results are summarized from Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Barbados, the Philippines, Nicaragua and Honduras, Malawi, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Colombia, and Ethiopia. The impact of economic recession and female education on childrens' health is discussed, and basic statistics for developed and underdeveloped countries are given.
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  6. 6
    265892

    The state of the world's children.

    Grant JP

    In: Grant JP. The state of the world's children, 1982-83. New York, Oxford Univ. Press, 1982. 3-42.

    40 thousand young children died each day from malnutrition and infection in developing countries during 1982. For each child that died, 6 live on in hunger and ill-health. A continuation of present trends would result in an increase in the nubers to some to 650 million seriously undernourished children by the year 2000. This report indicates that organized communities and trained paraprofessional development workers backed by government services and international assistance can bring basic education, primary health care, cleaner water, and safer sanitation to the majority of poor communities in the developing world. Specifically, oral rehydration therapy, universal child immunization, promotion of breast feeding, and the use of growth charts are touted as low-cost, low-risk people's health actions that do not depend on economic and political changes. 1/3 of the families whose children are malnourished are simply too poor to provide enough food for the children to eat. For these people, the long-term solution to eradicate malnutrition lies in having the land to grow food or the jobs and income with which to buy it. Employment and land reform are therefore areas that must eventually be addressed in the quest for reduced child mortality levels.
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