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  1. 1

    Child mortality in developing countries: challenges and policy options.

    Oloo JA

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. 2005 Jun; 21(2):1-17.

    The objective of this study is to understand determinants of mortality rates of children under the age of five years in developing countries. The study uses secondary data to investigate the relationship between under-five mortality rates and such socioeconomic variables as fertility, literacy, immunization, access to clean drinking water, HIV/AIDS prevalence, and human and material resources using linear regression analysis. Results show that while most of these variables have a significant relationship with under-five mortality rate, the proportion of doctors for every 100,000 population, and health expenditure per capita have an insignificant predictive value. Conclusion: Reducing child mortality rates requires multiple intervention strategies, such as access to safe drinking water, improvement in education opportunities, family planning, and tackling HIV/AIDS. (author's)
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  2. 2

    The state of the world's children 1988.

    Grant JP

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. [9], 86 p.

    The 1988 UNICEF report on the world's children contains chapters describing the multi-sectorial alliance to support child health, the current emphasis on ORT and immunization, the effect of recession on vulnerable children, family rights to knowledge of basic health facts, and support for women in the developing world. Each chapter is illustrated by graphs. There are side panels on programs in specific countries, including Senegal, Syria, Colombia, Bangladesh, Turkey, India, Honduras, Japan and Southern Africa, and highlighted programs including immunization, AIDS, ORT, breast-feeding and tobacco as a test of health. The SAARC is a new regional organization of southern Asian countries committed to immunization and other health goals. Tables of health statistics of the world's nations, divided into 4 groups by "Under 5 Mortality Rate" present basic indicators, nutrition/malnutrition data, health information, education, literacy and media data, demographic indicators, economic indicators and data pertaining to women. The absolute numbers of child deaths had fallen to 16 million in 1980, from 25 million in 1950. Saving children's lives will not exacerbate the population problem because, realizing that their children will survive, families will have fewer children. Furthermore, the methods used to reduce mortality, such as breast feeding and empowerment of families to control their lives, are known to reduce fertility.
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  3. 3

    Demographic trends and their development implications.

    United Nations. Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific [ESCAP]

    In: Third Asian and Pacific Population Conference (Colombo, September 1982). Selected papers. Bangkok, Thailand, Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, 1984. 9-40. (Asian Population Studies Series No. 58)

    This report summarizes the recent demographic situation and considers prospective trends and their development implications among the 39 members and associate members of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). It presents data on the following: size, growth, and distribution of the population; age and sex structure; fertility and marriage; mortality; international migration; growth and poverty; food and nutrition; households and housing; primary health care; education; the working-age population; family planning; the elderly; and population distribution. Despite improvements in the frequency and quality of demographic data collected in recent years, big gaps continue to exist in knowledge of the demographic situation in the ESCAP region. Available evidence suggests that the population growth rate of the ESCAP region declined between 1970 and 1980, as compared with the preceding decade, but that its rate of decline was slow. Within this overall picture, there is wide variation, with the most developed countries having annual growth rates around 1% and some of the least developed countries having a figure near 3%. The main factors associated with the high growth rates are the past high levels of fertility resulting in young age structures and continuing high fertility in some countries, notably in middle south Asia. The population of countries in the ESCAP region is expected to grow from 2.5 billion in 1980, to 2.9 billion in 1990, and to 3.4 billion persons by the year 2000. This massive growth in numbers, which will be most pronounced in Middle South Asia, will occur despite projected continuing moderation in annual population growth rates. Fertility is expected to continue its downward trend, assuming a more widespread and equitable distribution of health, education, and family planning services. Mortality is expected to decline further from its current levels, where life expectancy is often at or around 50 years. In several countries, more than 10 in every 100 babies born die before their 1st birthday. The extension of primary health care services is seen as the key to reducing this figure. Rapid population growth and poverty tend to reinforce each other. Low income, lack of education, and high infant and child mortality contribute to high fertility, which in turn is associated with high rates of natural increase. High rates of natural increase feed back to depress socioeconomic development. High population growth rates and their correlates of young age structures and heavy concentrations of persons in the nonproductive ages tend to depress production and burden government expenditure with high costs for social overhead needs. Rapid population growth emerges as an important factor in the persistence of chronic undernutrition and malnutrition. It increases the magnitude of the task of improving the educational system and exacerbates the problem of substandard housing that is widely prevalent throughout Asia.
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  4. 4

    Ghana: situation analysis of women and children.


    [Unpublished] 1984 Jul. [10], 520, 20 p.

    This 2-volume, 520-page report represents the 1st attempt at a situation analysis of Ghana. Its focus is the effect of Ghana's economic crisis on women and children. Volume I characterizes the macroeconomic situation in Ghana, the dimensions of poverty in the country, recent demographic trends, and the factors affecting infant, child, and maternal nutrition and mortality. Volume II discusses environmental sanitation, Ghana's health sector, education, general living conditions of families, and social services available for children. It is concluded that external assistance is needed to address the massive and widespread problems created by poverty in Ghana. Since the immediate problems of children and mothers are social, assistance is particularly needed in the form of outright grants or official development assistance. It is suggested that UNICEF should support both local and national interventions. There must be clear indications that all projects or programs are within government priorities. In the case of area-specific projects, local support should be assured and the main beneficiaries should be women and children. Finally, 4 possible areas of interventions are outlined: health, water and sanitation, education, and programs for slums. In the area of health, it is recommended that UNICEF devote particular attention to nutrition, immunization, oral rehydration, growth monitoring, and infection control within the context of general support to the development of primary health care.
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  5. 5

    Operational responses to the World Population Plan of Action in programmes of the UNFPA in the areas of fertility, family and family planning.

    United Nations Fund for Population Activities [UNFPA]

    In: United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. Fertility and family. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 439-66. (International Conference on Population, 1984; Statements)

    This paper reviews briefly the experience of UNFPA supported programs related to family, fertility and family planning in developing countries, through the analysis of recommendations of the 1974 World Population Plan of Action and corresponding UNFPA programs. The paper also identifies some programmatic areas that need emphasis in the further implementation of the recommendations of the Plan. Among the Plan's many recommendations, those dealing with the protection of the family, with the improvement of the status of women, with modernization and fertility and with the right of individuals and couples to plan their families, are of special importance to family and fertility. With the accumulation of experience throughout the last decade, the Fund has moved from its original projects approach to a program approach comprising a set of complementary population activities. More recently a needs assessment approach has been adopted. Many UNFPA activities touch upon the reduction of infant, child and maternal mortality, and the improvement of the role and status of women. The Fund takes family planning to include those practices that help individuals or couples to avoid unwanted births, to bring about wanted births, to control the timing of births and to determine the number of children in a family. The Fund supports a broad spectrum of activities in family planning. Among the most important are education and communication programs, activities to strengthen service delivery and to expand population coverage; program management and evaluation, operational, behavioral, and clinical research. Collaboration between UNFPA and individual countries has led to changes in ways of thinking about population. The most important finding, perhaps, relates to the perception of the many dimensions of the population problem. Issues which need further action in the implementation of the Plan include the urgent need to formalize national commitment to fertility, family and related population activities. To improve the link between population and development activities, greater efforts should be made to involve women in the design, implementation and management of population and family planning projects. In general, there is an urgent need to improve family planning services. In spite of an impressive number of research studies on fertility behavior, there is a need for a policy-oriented analysis of fertility decline. Finally, in view of the increased interest in natural family planning as a method of fertility regulation, there is an important need to collect data on the subject, to train natural family planning teachers and to develop teaching materials. Appendices list UNFPA assisted projects in fertility, family and family planning.
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  6. 6

    Health, mortality and population, statement made at the National Council for International Health, Washington D.C., 26 September, 1983.

    Salas RM

    New York, N.Y., UNFPA, [1983]. 7 p. (Speech Series No. 99)

    There are well-eatablished links between patterns of health and population growth. In most of the countries for which there are reliable figures, a fall in birth rates follows a decline in rates of mortality. It is particularly important to reduce infant mortality, both as an end in itself and because, according to the evidence of the World Fertility Survey, the loss of a child shortens the interval between births. The result in many cases is a larger family. A considerable improvement in infant mortality can be made by spreading awareness of the causes of disease and helping to eliminate them. It has been shown that the children of uneducated mothers, or those least likely to know about the importance of nutrition and hygiene, are twice as likely to die in infancy as the children of literate mothers. The most important single element in bringing down mortality is access to health care. The steady building of an effective health service, although costly, is one of the most effective investments a country can make. Included in this report are selected recommendations to the International Conference on Population, in 1984.
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