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The Millennium Development Goals and the road to 2015: Building on progress and responding to crisis.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 2010.  p.The Millennium Development Goals provide a multidimensional framework for attacking poverty in a world of multipolar growth. By focusing on measurable results, they provide a scorecard for assessing progress toward mutually agreed targets. And by enlisting the support of national governments, international agencies, and civil society in a development partnership, they have brought greater coherence to the global development effort. In this way they take us beyond the old, sterile opposition of “developed” and “developing” or “north” and “south.” The evidence from the last 20 years, documented in the statistical record of the MDGs, is that where conditions and policies are right for growth with equity, rapid and sustainable progress toward improving the lives of the poorest people can take place. Not every country will achieve the global MDG targets in the time allowed. Success has not been distributed evenly and there have been serious setbacks. Some countries are still burdened by legacies of bad policies, institutional failures, and civil and international conflict. For them, progress toward the MDGs has been delayed, but the examples of good progress by others point the way for their eventual success.
In: War and public health, edited by Barry S. Levy, Victor W. Sidel. Washington, D.C., American Public Health Association [APHA], 2000. 254-278.War has always been disastrous for civilians, and the Persian Gulf War was no exception. Yet the image that has been perpetuated in the West is that the Gulf War was somehow "clean" and fought with "surgical precision" in a manner that minimized civilian casualties. However, massive wartime damage to Iraq's civilian infrastructure led to a breakdown in virtually all sectors of society. Economic sanctions further paralyzed Iraq's economy and made any meaningful post-war reconstruction all but impossible. Furthermore, the invasion of Kuwait and the subsequent Gulf War unleashed internal political events that have been responsible for further suffering and countless human fights violations. The human impact of these events is incalculable. In 1996, more than five years after the end of the war, the vast majority of Iraqi civilians still subsist in a state of extreme hardship, in which health care, nutrition, education, water, sanitation, and other basic services are minimal. As many as 500,000 children are believed to have died since the beginning of the Persian Gulf War, largely due to malnutrition and a resurgence of diarrheal and vaccine- preventable diseases. Health services are barely functioning due to shortages of supplies and equipment. Medicines, including insulin, antibiotics, and anesthetics, are in short supply. The psychological impact of the war has had a damaging and lasting effect on many of Iraq's estimated eight million children. (excerpt)
[Interview of M. Stanislas Adotevi: "...children first..."] Interview de M. Stanislas Adotevi: "...l'enfant d'abord..."
VIE ET SANTE. 1990 Apr; (3):3-7.10 years following the International Year of the Child (1979) Africa is facing a severe economic crisis worsened by the structural adjustment programs (SAP's) that have reduced government's social budgets affecting the most vulnerable populations, women and children. Each week more than 250,000 children are dying from malnutrition and preventable diseases. Since 1980 the revenues of some African countries decreased by 25%; minimum salaries decreased by 50% in some urban area; educational expenditures declined by 25% and by 1988 Africa's debt crisis represented 47% of its export revenues. UNICEF interventions such as vaccination have saved the lives of 3000 children of the 11,000 that die each day. But besides providing immediate solutions UNICEF has trained vaccination committees from the communities to maintain the health status of children and created alliances with all sectors of the population to protect and defend the rights of children as described in the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child adopted November 20, 1989.
New York, New York, UNFPA, 1986 Jun. x, 66 p. (Report No. 81)A UN mission was sent to assess and recommend areas for assistance in the field of population assistance in Lesotho. The mission recommends a population unit be set up and staffed with personnel able to initiate, coordinate, and document population research. It also should assist in the integration of population data into the planning process. Data needed to accomplish these tasks includes current statistics on the size, demographic, and socioeconomic details of the population; migration and geographical distribution; general health and nutritional status, including adult and infant mortality; the size and distribution of the work force; and the employment market and manpower in the private sector. Research is recommended in the following areas: resource limitations on development and job growth; international migration; effects of infertility on population growth and distribution; religion and culture in family planning; women's status in work force; effects of land tenure, land use and distribution; teen pregnancy; resources available to women; and effects of returning migrants on households. Also recommended are expanding health facilities and increasing staff training for this network. Family planning should be integrated with maternal and child health services. The mission finds that the government needs to promote a longterm formal program on population education, and designate an agency to coordinate such a program. The mission suggests that women's role in agriculture and other employment be analyzed, and also laws that effect their rights and responsibilities. It also recommends more small projects in rural areas and designating funds to help women gain self sufficiency.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-6.Uganda occupies 94,354 square miles in central Africa, bounded by Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, Zaire, and Sudan. It includes part of Lake Victoria, and the Ruwenzori mountains are on its border with Zaire. The country is largely on a plateau and thus has a pleasant climate. 12% of the land is devoted to national parks and game preserves. The northeast is semiarid; the southwest and west are rainy. The population of 15,900,896, growing at 3.7% a year, is mostly rural and is composed of 3 ethnic groups: The Bantu, including the Buganda, the Banyankole and the Basoga; the Nilo-Hamitic Iteso; and the Nilots. There are also some Asians and Arabs. The official language is English, but Luganda and Swahili are widely used. The majority of the people are Christian. Literacy is about 52%, and 57% of school-age children attend primary school. Infant mortality rate is 108/1000, and life expectancy is 49 years. The 1st Englishman to see Uganda was Captain John Speke in 1862. The Kingdom of Buganda became a British protectorate in 1894, and the protectorate was extended to the rest of the country in 1896. In the 1950s the British began an africanization of the government prior to formal independence, but the 1st general elections in 1961 were boycotted by the Bugandans, who wanted autonomy. In the 2nd election, in March, 1962, the Democratic Party, led by Benedicto Kiwanuka, defeated the Uganda People's Congress (UPC), led by Apollo Milton Obote; however, a month later, the UPC allied with the Buganda traditionalists, the Kabaka Yekka, and formed a collision government under Obote. Uganda became independent in 1962 with the King of Buganda, Sir Edward Frederick Mutesa II as president. Political rivalries continued, and in 1966 Prime Minister Obote suspended the constitution, and the Buganda government lost its semiautonomy. Obote's government was overthrown in 1971 by Idi Amin Dada, under whose 8-year reign of terror 100,000 Ugandans were murdered. Amin was ousted by an invading Tanzanian army, and various governments succeeded one another in Uganda, including one headed by Obote from 1980-85, which laid waste a large section of the country in an attempt to stamp out an insurgency led by the National Resistance Army (NRA). Obote was overthrown by an army brigade, but the insurgency continued until, in 1986, the NRA seized power and established a transitional government with Yoweri Museveni as president. The transitional government has established a human rights commission and has instituted wide-ranging economic reforms with the help of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to rehabilitate the economy, restore the infrastructure of destroyed transportation and communications facilities, and bring the annual inflation rate of 250% under control. Uganda has ample fertile land and rich deposits of copper and cobalt, but, due to economic mismanagement and political instability, is one of the world's poorest countries. The gross domestic product in 1983 was $5.9 billion. Exports totalled $380 million, 90% of which was accounted for by coffee. Most industry is devoted to the processing of agricultural produce and the manufacture of agricultural tools, but production of construction materials is resuming. Uganda has 800 miles of railroad, linking Mombasa on the Indian Ocean with the interior, and 20,000 miles of roads, radiating from Kampala, the capital. There is an international airport at Entebbe, built with Yugoslav assistance. The army, i.e., the National Resistance Army, receives military aid from Libya and the Soviet Union. The United States broke off diplomatic relations with Uganda during the Amin regime, but has provided roughly $43 million of aid and development assistance during the 1980s.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Mar; 1-8.The Republic of Kuwait occupies an area of 6,880 square miles at the head of the Persian Gulf, bounded on the north and west by Iraq and on the south by Saudi Arabia. 1.7 million people live in Kuwait, of whom 680,000 are Kuwaitis; the rest are expatriate Arabs, Iranians, and Indians. The annual growth rate of Kuwaitis is 3.8%. The Kuwaitis are 70% Sunni and 30% Shi'a Muslims. Arabic is the official language, but English is widely spoken. Kuwait is a highly developed welfare state with a free market economy. Education is free and compulsory, and literacy is 71%. Infant mortality among Kuwaitis is 26.1/1000, and life expectancy is 70 years. Medical care is free. Kuwait was first settled by Arab tribes from Qatar. In 1899 the ruler, Sheikh Mubarak Al Sabah, whose descendents still rule Kuwait, signed a treaty with Britain; and Kuwait remained a British protectorate until it became independent in 1961. A constitution was promulgated in 1962, and a National Assembly was elected by adult male suffrage in 1963. However, the Assembly has since been suspended due to internal friction. Kuwait and Iraq have been disputing Kuwait's northern border since 1913, and the southern border includes a Divided Zone, where sovereignty is disputed by Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Despite the fall in oil prices in 1982 and the loss of trade due to the Iran-Iraq war, Kuwait is one of the world's wealthiest countries with a per capita gross domestic product of $10,175. Oil accounts for 85% of Kuwait's exports, which total $7.42 billion; income from foreign investments (about $60 billion) makes up most of the balance. All petroleum-related activities are managed by the Kuwait Petroleum Corporation (KPC), which includes the nationalized Kuwait Oil Company, petrochemical industries, the 22-vessel tanker fleet, and refineries and service stations in Europe, where Kuwaiti oil is marketed under the brand name Q8. Kuwait has more than 66 billion barrels of recoverable oil but limits production to 999,000 barrels per day. Other industrial products include ammonia, chemical fertilizers, fishing and water desalinization (215 million gallons a day). Kuwait imports machinery, manufactured goods, and food. Nevertheless exports exceed imports by $2 billion, and the Kuwaiti dinar is a strong currency (1 KD=US$3.57). About $75 billion is kept in 2 reserve funds: the Fund for Future Generations and the General Reserve Fund. In addition to domestic expenditures and imports, Kuwait has extended $5 billion worth of loans to developing countries, made through the Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait has been engaged in continuing border disputes with Iraq since 1961, but the most immediate threat to Kuwait has been the Iran-Iraq war. Kuwait lent Iraq $6 billion, in retaliation for which Iran bombed a Kuwaiti oil depot, and Shi'a Muslim terrorists bombed the French and US embassies and hijacked a Kuwaiti airliner in 1984. Iran also attacked Kuwaiti tankers. In 1987 the US reflagged 11 Kuwaiti tankers to protect them from Iranian attacks. Kuwait has been modernizing its own military forces as well as purchasing sophisticated weapons from the UK, the US, France, and the USSR. In 1981 Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Oman formed the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) for mutual defense, and in 1987 Kuwait was elected chairman of the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC). Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the USSR and the People's Republic of China, as well as with the US, which has supplied Kuwait with $1.5 billion of sophisticated weaponry from foreign military sales (FMC). The US is Kuwait's largest supplier (after Japan), and Kuwait is the 5th largest market in the Middle East for US goods, despite the disincentives brought about by the Arab boycott of Israel.
BACKGROUND NOTES. 1988 Feb; 1-7.The Republic of Djibouti, an area of 9,000 square miles on the Horn of Africa, is bounded on 3 sides by Ethiopia and Somalia and on the 4th by the Gulf of Aden, where the capital city, Djibouti, with its good natural harbor, is located. The population of 387,000, growing at 5.1% a year, is divided between the majority Somalis (of the Issa, Ishaak and Gadaboursi tribes) and the Afars and Danakils. All are Cushite-speaking, although the official language is French. Almost all of the people are Muslim. The country became independent of France in 1977; it had been the French Territory of Afars and Issas from 1966-77 and French Somaliland from 1884 to 1966. During the Second World War, Djibouti was governed from Vichy until 1942, when the country joined the Free French, and a Djibouti battalion participated in the liberation of France. The country is governed by a president (Mr. Hassan Gouled Aptidon), a prime minister (Mr. Barkat Gourad Hammadou), and a 65-member parliament, elected by universal suffrage. There is only 1 permitted political party, the Rassemblement Populaire Pour le Progres (RPP), which is dominated by the Issas. There are no women in high government positions, but the status of women is somewhat higher than in most Islamic countries. Djibouti has a small army, navy, and air force, supplemented by 4000 French troops. The level of socioeconomic development is not good. The economy is stagnant, and the country is afflicted with recurring drought. Only 20% of the people are literate; infant mortality is 114/1000, and life expectancy is 50 years. Per capita income is $450. Malaria is prevalent; there is only 1 hospital; and drinking water is unsafe. There are no natural resources, no industry, and very little agriculture. Most of the country's gross domestic product of $339 million is derived from servicing the port's facilities for container shipment and transshipment and maintaining the Addis Ababa-Djibouti railroad. The unit of currency is the Djibouti franc, and the official exchange rate is 177 DF to US$1. Djibouti's imports amount to $230 million, most of which are consumed in the country and paid for by French economic assistance and $3 million a year from the US. Djibouti is a member of the UN, the Organization of African Unity, the Arab League, the Nonaligned Movement, the Organization of the Islamic Conference (OIC), and the Intergovernmental Authority for Drought and Development (IGADD).
New York, New York, UNICEF, . 42 p.In the last 12 months, world-wide support has been gathering behind the idea of a revolution which could save the lives of up to 7 million children each year, protect the health and growth of many millions more, and help to slow down world population growth. This document summarizes case studies which illustrate the techniques which make this revolution possible. These techniques are: oral rehydration therapy (ORT); growth monitoring; expanded immunization using newly improved vaccines to prevent the 6 main immunizable diseases which kill an esitmated 5 million children a year and disable 5 million more (measles, whooping cough, neonatal tetanus, polio, diphtheria and tuberculosis); and the promotion of scientific knowledge about the advantages of breastfeeding and about how and when an infant should be given supplementary foods. Results are summarized from Guatemala, Papua New Guinea, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Barbados, the Philippines, Nicaragua and Honduras, Malawi, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Colombia, and Ethiopia. The impact of economic recession and female education on childrens' health is discussed, and basic statistics for developed and underdeveloped countries are given.