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AFRICA HEALTH. 2001 Jan; 23(2):38.UNICEF has signed a 5-year program of collaboration with the Ugandan government in which it will provide US$101 million, while the latter provides US$40 million in new financial commitments to children. The agreement was signed in Kampala by Michel Sidibe, UNICEF representative to Uganda, and Minister of Finance, Planning and Economic Development, Gerald Sendawula. The program is anchored to the theme of human rights, and recognizes how poverty erodes the gains made in the area of child survival and development. Specific aims of the program are to reduce the infant mortality rate from 97 per 1000 live births to 68, the under-five mortality rate from 147 per 1000 live births to 103, and the maternal mortality rate from 506 per 100,000 live births to 354. Other commitments include the reduction of HIV infections by a further 25% and reducing moderate to severe stunting in under-3-year-olds from 38% to 28%. UNICEF noted that the government's increasing expenditure on UNICEF-supported programs has contributed to their success in reducing the main threats to children's lives, and the new partnership will build on the good work of the 1995-2000 program. At present, 51% of Ugandans have access to health care services, compared with only 42% in 1996, while average life expectancy has risen from 41.8 years in 1991 to 50.4 years in 1999. Other statistics show infant mortality has fallen sharply from 121 to 97 per 1000 live births between 1980 and 1995, while polio and Guinea worms are close to eradication and measles and diarrhea have largely been brought under control. In its fight against iodine-deficiency disorders, UNICEF supported legislation against importation of non-iodized salt, resulting in an increase in the percentage of households consuming iodized salt from 2% in 1995 to 67% in 1999. With the formation and training of more than 1200 parish development and healthcare unit management committees, communities are now participating in the management of their healthcare services. (full text)
WORLD HEALTH. 1992 Sep-Oct; 28-9.Adding a tiny bit of iodine to salt is the standard and proven long-term strategy for controlling iodine-deficiency disorders such as endemic goiter and cretinism, physical and mental retardation, impaired school performance and work capacity, and increased rates of abortion, stillbirth, congenital anomalies, and perinatal, infant, and child mortality. The 1990 World Summit for Children acknowledged the magnitude and seriousness of this problem and called for efforts to eliminate the root cause of these conditions by the year 2000. Salt industry representatives and government officials from Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe subsequently met in April 1992 to decide how to ensure that all salt consumed in the region is iodinated at the production source. Workshop participants agreed on appropriate levels of iodine and suitable packaging to ensure the retention of iodine even after salt has been transported over great distances or stored for long periods. Moreover, the Botswana Company agreed to assume the cost of iodinating all salt for human and animal consumption which it will supply to 10 countries in southern and central Africa.
Baltimore, Maryland, Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Dept. of Population Dynamics, 1992. v, 60 p.During most of the 1980s, Iraq was at war with Iran. Despite the war, Iraq, with the help of UNICEF, was able to improve health services that impact on child health so that child survival also improved. They were able to do so because, in 1983, UNICEF, social organizations, the community, and the health sector joined forces to improve the health of the nation's children. They set up a district based primary health care system which saved the lives of 1000s of children annually. Their efforts concentrated on immunization, oral rehydration, unsafe birth practices, and increasing mothers' knowledge of childbearing and child health practices. Some achievements in child survival in Iraq during was included a sharp rise in neonatal tetanus immunizations from 8-72.5% (1985-1989) and a fall in neonatal tetanus deaths between 1983-1989 from 0.7-<.1, a rise in full immunization coverage from 13-85.5% and a fall in all vaccine preventable deaths (e.g., 58 pertussis deaths in 1980 to 0 deaths beginning in 1986), and a rise is use of oral rehydration therapy from 9-76% and a subsequent fall in diarrhea related deaths from 600-<100 (1980-1988). This monograph examined the factors responsible for the evolution of development trends, behavioral patterns, and program management style in Iraq. These factors centered around geopolitical and economic forces. Chapter 3 explains how child survival became a national priority and what strategies were undertaken to achieve child survival goals. Program implementation and the basis of program sustainability are laid out in chapters 4-5. Program achievements are presented in chapter 6. The last chapter discusses lessons learned and assesses child survival in wartime and continuing obstacles. This monograph points out that achieving child survival under adverse circumstances is possible when political will and commitment stands behind child survival efforts.
Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1988. , 86 p.The 1988 UNICEF report on the world's children contains chapters describing the multi-sectorial alliance to support child health, the current emphasis on ORT and immunization, the effect of recession on vulnerable children, family rights to knowledge of basic health facts, and support for women in the developing world. Each chapter is illustrated by graphs. There are side panels on programs in specific countries, including Senegal, Syria, Colombia, Bangladesh, Turkey, India, Honduras, Japan and Southern Africa, and highlighted programs including immunization, AIDS, ORT, breast-feeding and tobacco as a test of health. The SAARC is a new regional organization of southern Asian countries committed to immunization and other health goals. Tables of health statistics of the world's nations, divided into 4 groups by "Under 5 Mortality Rate" present basic indicators, nutrition/malnutrition data, health information, education, literacy and media data, demographic indicators, economic indicators and data pertaining to women. The absolute numbers of child deaths had fallen to 16 million in 1980, from 25 million in 1950. Saving children's lives will not exacerbate the population problem because, realizing that their children will survive, families will have fewer children. Furthermore, the methods used to reduce mortality, such as breast feeding and empowerment of families to control their lives, are known to reduce fertility.