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Geneva, Switzerland, WHO,  27 p.This is the 1st interim report issued by the Diarrhoeal Diseases Control (CDD) Programme, summarizing progress in its main areas of activity during the previous calendar year. Most of the information is presented in the form of tables, graphs and lists. Other important developments are mentioned briefly in each section. The information is presented according to major program areas; health services; research; and program management. Within the health services component, national program planning, training, the production of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS), health education and promotion are areas of priority activity. Progress in the rate of development of national programs, participants in the various levelsof training programs, and the countries producing their own ORS packets and developing promotional and educational materials are presented. An evaluation of the health services component, based on a questionnaire survey to determine the impact of Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT), indicates significant decreases in diarrheal admission rates and in overall diarrheal case-fatality rates. Data collected from a total of 45 morbidity and and mortality surveys are shown. Biomedical and operational research projects supported by the program are given. Thhe research areas in which there was the greatest % increase in the number of projects funded were parasite-related diarrheas, drug development and management of diarrheal disease. Research is also in progress on community attitudes and practices in relation to diarrheal disease and on the development of local educational materials. The program's organizational structure is briefly described and its financial status summarized. The report ends with a list of new publications and documents concerning health services, research and management of diarrheal diseases.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Administrative Committee on Coordination, Subcommittee on Nutrition, 1989 Oct. , 136 p. (ACC / SCN State-of-the-Art Series; Nutrition Policy Discussion Paper No. 5)This state-of-the-art UN nutrition policy discussion paper focuses on the interaction of malnutrition and infection in child mortality in developing countries. Given the cyclic nature of the interaction, it is appropriate to define a malnutrition-infection complex. Inadequate dietary intake can cause weight loss or failure of growth in children and lead to low nutritional reserves. This is associated with a lowering of immunity, probably with all nutrient deficiencies. In the case of protein-energy and vitamin A deficiencies, there may be progressive damage to mucosa, lowering resistance to colonization and invasion by pathogens. Under these circumstances, the incidence, severity, and duration of diseases are increased. The disease process itself exacerbates loss of nutrients, inducing malnutrition, which leads, in turn, to further damage to defense mechanisms. The first part of this report reviews present knowledge on malnutrition and infection. The second includes an annotated bibliography of research on the following topics: infection as a risk factor for poor growth, poor growth as a risk factor for infection, vitamin a deficiency as a risk factor for infection, iron deficiency as a risk factor for infection, zinc deficiency as a risk factor for infection, and other vitamins and minerals.