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  1. 1
    Peer Reviewed

    Comparison of WHO growth standards with Indian Academy of Pediatrics standards of under five children in an urban slum.

    Dhone AB; Chitnis UB; Jethani S

    Indian Journal of Community Health. 2013 Jul-Sep; 25(3):277-280.

    Background: Child undernutrition is internationally recognized as an important public health indicator for monitoring nutritional status and health in populations. Prevalence of under nutrition is very high in India; especially in urban slums. Objective: To compare the prevalence of under nutrition among underfive children using WHO growth standards with IAP standards.Methods: Community based cross sectional study was done during November-2008 to December-2009 in urban field practice area of Medical College Pune, India. All the underfive children (336) were enumerated by house to house survey. Parents were informed about the objectives of the study and their written consent was obtained. Anthropometric measurements of the children who were available during the study period were carried out as per WHO guidelines and IAP standards. Various indices of nutritional status were expressed in standard deviation units (z scores) from the reference median. Epi-Info 2002 and Primer of Bio-statistics software package was used for statistical analysis.Results: Total 336 children were enumerated by house to house visit. Only 319 children were available during the study. Weights were recorded according to WHO and IAP standards. It was found that boys were more undernourished than girls by using WHO standards (P<0.005). When weights of girls were compared according to these two standards the girls were found to be more undernourished by WHO standards but difference was not statically significant.
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  2. 2

    Gender and child protection policies: Where do UNHCR's partners stand? A report by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children.

    Kim P

    New York, New York, Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, 2006 Jul. 15 p.

    The purpose of this study is to gauge what kind of policies, tools and accountability mechanisms are in place at partner organizations with respect to gender equality and child/youth protection. The aim is to find out if and what specific policies exist and the level of partner interaction with UNHCR to implement AGDM through information sharing and training. This report is not meant to evaluate UNHCR partners' policies and tools. Rather, it is meant to make a contribution to UNHCR and partners' work by documenting progress and good practice as well as obstacles and challenges they face in mainstreaming. As pertinent, these survey findings are to be taken into consideration within the overall context of strengthening UNHCR's multi-year AGDM global rollout by enhancing its impact through the promotion of relevant policy and accountability mechanisms development with its key partners. (excerpt)
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  3. 3

    Coordinated strategy to abandon female genital mutilation / cutting in one generation: a human rights-based approach to programming. Leveraging social dynamics for collective change.

    Gillespie G; De Vita MG

    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2007. [53] p. (Technical Note)

    The coordinated strategy presented in this technical note describes a human rights-based approach to female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) programming. The note aims to provide guidance to programmers who are supporting large-scale abandonment of FGM/C in Egypt, Sudan and countries in sub-Saharan Africa. To provide a more comprehensive understanding of FGM/C as a social convention, this coordinated strategy includes an in-depth examination of the research documented by the UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre in 'Changing a Harmful Social Convention: Female genital mutilation/cutting', Innocenti Digest. Its focus is limited to the social dynamics of the practice at the community level, and it applies game theory, the science of interdependent decision-making, to the social dynamics of FGM/C. This strategy does not cover everything that occurs at the community level, but rather, looks at the practice from the perspective of a particular type of social convention described by Thomas C. Schelling in The Strategy of Conflict. It introduces an innovative approach to FGM/C programming that is intended to bring about lasting social change. (excerpt)
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  4. 4

    Addressing sexual violence in post-conflict Burundi.

    Zicherman N

    Forced Migration Review. 2007 Jan; (27):48-49.

    Conflict and massive population movements in Burundi have resulted in dramatic increases in rape and other forms of sexual violence. Alarm about the high incidence of sexual violence against Burundian women was first sounded during the 1993-2003 civil war when large numbers of rebels and Burundian armed forces occupied villages and towns. Peace accords were finally signed in 2003, and general elections held in 2005, but Burundian women and girls continue to suffer high levels of sexual violence. In postconflict Burundi, the influx of returning refugees and displaced persons, the presence of large numbers of demobilised excombatants, the high prevalence of female-headed households, widespread lack of economic opportunity and general breakdown in social norms all contribute to increased levels of sexual violence. (excerpt)
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  5. 5

    'Scaling up' good practices in girls' education.

    Subrahmanian R

    Paris, France, UNESCO, 2005. 80 p.

    This publication focuses on the key issues to address and strategies to put in place in order to meet international targets and national goals for universalizing girls' access to, retention in and completion of quality education. The right of all children to education that is free from discrimination and of a sufficient quality to enable their full participation in society has been a goal emphasized through all major modern universal rights treaties, and development discourses. In particular, the Convention against Discrimination in Education, 1960, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), 1979, have defined discrimination in many spheres, including education, as a violation of universal rights. The Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989, has made the promotion of free primary education and quality education an obligation for governments to respect for children and youth up to the age of 18 years. The strong case for promoting universal rights and gender equality in education has been supported in more recent international documents. Girls' and women's education has been embedded in these international visions of development priorities. Two goals lay out the priorities for attention to gender issues in education. These are: (a) eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005; and (b) achieving gender equality in education by 2015. These goals have developed from the 1990 Jomtien World Conference on Education for All (EFA), and expanded in the follow-up World Education Forum (WEF), held in Dakar in 2000. They are supported by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) for gender equality and women's empowerment. (excerpt)
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  6. 6

    Activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women.

    United Nations Development Fund for Women [UNIFEM]

    New York, New York, United Nations, General Assembly, 2006 Aug 25. 23 p. (A/61/292)

    The present report provides a review and update of the programme and activities of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM) for 2005. The report tracks overall progress and highlights concrete results in the implementation of its multi-year funding framework 2004-2007 during the year under review. The report concludes with a set of recommendations on how the development and organizational effectiveness of UNIFEM can be further strengthened. (author's)
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  7. 7
    Peer Reviewed

    From the girl child to girls' rights.

    Croll EJ

    Third World Quarterly. 2006; 27(7):1285-1297.

    Within the development context, much of the new interest in girls has occurred under the rubric 'the girl child', which has become an increasingly common phrase on international and national platforms. This paper, based largely on field and documentary research across East, South and Southeast Asia, suggests that this platform has not translated into effective, sustained or transformative national programmes or local projects in support of girls. It also argues that the cause of girls might be served better by an emphasis on girls' rights embedded in frameworks that both gender entitlements and expectations of children and take campaigns directly into the familial environment. (author's)
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  8. 8

    Educate girls. Fight AIDS.

    Joint United Nations Programme on HIV / AIDS [UNAIDS]. Global Coalition on Women and AIDS

    Geneva, Switzerland, UNAIDS, Global Coalition on Women and AIDS, [2006]. [4] p. (What's Real. Issue No. 1)

    Growing evidence shows that getting and keeping young people in school, particularly girls, dramatically lowers their vulnerability to HIV. By itself, merely attending primary school makes young people significantly less likely to contract HIV. When young people stay in school through the secondary level, education's protective effect against HIV is even more pronounced. This is especially true for girls who, with each additional year of education, gain greater independence, are better equipped to make decisions affecting their sexual lives, and have higher income earning potential -- all of which help them stay safe from HIV. Higher education levels are also clearly correlated with delayed sexual debut, greater HIV awareness and knowledge about HIV testing sites, fewer sexual partners, higher rates of condom use, and greater communication about HIV prevention between partners -- all factors that substantially lower HIV risk. (excerpt)
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  9. 9
    Peer Reviewed

    Reliability of self reported form of female genital mutilation and WHO classification: cross sectional study.

    Elmusharaf S; Elhadi N; Almroth L

    BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2006 Jul 15; 333(7559):124.

    The objective was to assess the reliability of self reported form of female genital mutilation (FGM) and to compare the extent of cutting verified by clinical examination with the corresponding World Health Organization classification. Design: Cross sectional study. Settings: One paediatric hospital and one gynaecological outpatient clinic in Khartoum, Sudan, 2003-4. Participants: 255 girls aged 4-9 and 282 women aged 17-35. Main outcome measures: The women's reports of FGM the actual anatomical extent of the mutilation, and the corresponding types according to the WHO classification. All girls and women reported to have undergone FGM had this verified by genital inspection. None of those who said they had not undergone FGM were found to have it. Many said to have undergone "sunna circumcision" (excision of prepuce and part or all of clitoris, equivalent to WHO type I) had a form of FGM extending beyond the clitoris (10/23 (43%) girls and 20/35 (57%) women). Of those who said they had undergone this form, nine girls (39%) and 19 women (54%) actually had WHO type III (infibulation and excision of part or all of external genitalia). The anatomical extent of forms classified as WHO type III varies widely. In 12/32 girls (38%) and 27/245 women (11%) classified as having WHO type III, the labia majora were not involved. Thus there is a substantial overlap, in an anatomical sense, between WHO types II and III. The reliability of reported form of FGM is low. There is considerable under-reporting of the extent. The WHO classification fails to relate the defined forms to the severity of the operation. It is important to be aware of these aspects in the conduct and interpretation of epidemiological and clinical studies. WHO should revise its classification. (author's)
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  10. 10

    The inhumanity of human trafficking.

    Bolton S

    UN Chronicle. 2005 Dec; [1] p..

    A teenage girl screams in terror as she is beaten up by a man twice her size. Trapped in a squalid basement in a foreign country, bruised and bleeding, she is at the complete mercy of her captors. Having been repeatedly raped and forced into prostitution, the continued psychological torture has pushed her to the depths of despair. A victim of human trafficking-the forced movement of people across international borders--her story of sex slavery would ordinarily be considered by many too shocking to bear contemplation. However, Human Trafficking, a Lifetime Channel television mini-series that aired in the United States in October 2005, has put a human face to the countless women and children who are victims of the cruelest and most degrading treatment imaginable. Due to its subject matter, the mini-series is not easy to watch. The brutal and dehumanizing treatment that the victims of sex slavery are forced to endure is challenging to viewers, largely because it usually remains invisible and ignored. Producing such a television drama gives the issue the visibility needed to bring about change. Lifetime Channel also launched a comprehensive advocacy campaign in conjunction with the mini-series to draw attention to the problem and encourage people to do what they can to stop it. (excerpt)
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  11. 11

    Suffering in silence: a study of sexual and gender based violence (SGBV) in Pabbo camp, Gulu district, northern Uganda.

    Akumu CO; Amony I; Otim G

    Gulu, Uganda, Gulu District Sub Working Group on SGBV, 2005 Jan. [35] p.

    The study looks at the nature, causes and effects as well as the current interventions related to SGBV in Pabbo IDP camp. The purpose of the study was to generate information to enable the Sub Committee on Sexual and Gender-Based Violence to identify needs of the people in Pabbo camp and inform future interventions. The Gulu District Sub-Committee on Sexual and Gender Based Violence (SGBV) Group chaired by the District Community Service Department and co-chaired by UNICEF, commissioned the study. The research was conducted in Pabbo IDP camp between the 6th and 25th September 2004. (excerpt)
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  12. 12

    Educating the girl child: best foot forward?

    Pigozzi MJ

    UN Chronicle. 1999 Summer; 36(2):[5] p..

    What does it take to get girls in school and keep them there? This is a key question, as the United Nations and its partners move towards ensuring the right of every child to a basic education. Yet, fully two thirds of the out-of-school children are girls, many of them out of school by virtue of discrimination on the basis of gender alone. With regard to girls' education, progress is being made and experience gained worldwide, and the related knowledge base is expanding greatly. Initial efforts to promote such education focussed on the barriers that served as obstacles. These are fairly well documented now, and there is a growing understanding of the range of technical approaches that can be employed to overcome them according to the particular context. Thus, many successful strategies for addressing girls' education are known and have been documented. (excerpt)
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  13. 13

    UNICEF calls for priority focus on girl child.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Sep; 27(3):[2] p..

    All programmers of the United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF) and strategies in the 1990s will address explicitly the status of the girl child and her needs, particularly in nutrition, health and education, with a view to eliminating gender disparities. The recommendation was made by the UNICEF Executive Board at its 1990 regular session. Endorsing the priority focus given to the girl child, the Board also asked UNICEF to implement gender-sensitive monitoring and evaluation mechanisms to assess progress made in reducing disparities between girls and boys in health care and primary education programmes. The Board also requested UNICEF Executive Director James P. Grant to highlight the girl child in the annual report on women in development and to submit to the 1992 Board session and every second year thereafter, a full report on progress made on the situation of the girl child. (excerpt)
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  14. 14

    Female circumcision, AIDS discrimination to be monitored - Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women.

    UN Chronicle. 1990 Jun; 27(2):[1] p..

    The eradication of female circumcision and avoidance of discrimination against women victims of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were the subjects of two general recommendations adopted at the ninth annual session of States Parties to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. The 100 States Parties were asked to report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women-the 23-member body which monitors compliance with the instrument-on measures taken to eliminate female circumcision which, it stated, has "serious health and other consequences for women and children". (excerpt)
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  15. 15

    Gender achievements and prospects in education. The GAP report. Part One.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, 2005 Nov. 100 p.

    On 1 January 2006, the world will wake up to a deadline missed. The Millennium Development Goal - gender parity in primary and secondary education by 2005 - will remain unmet. What is particularly disheartening is that this was a realistic deadline and a reachable goal. The tragedy of this failure is that an unthinkable number of children, the majority of whom are girls, have been abandoned to a bleak future. The road to gender equality in education has had its successes, but the journey with its twists and turns is far from over. The fact that the total number of school-age children who are missing from school is projected to fall below 100 million for the first time since data have been recorded is a small victory. In 81 developing countries, participation in education will rise to 86 per cent in 2005, up from 82 per cent in 2001.2 But these accomplishments are baby steps compared to what could have - and should have - been achieved. (excerpt)
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  16. 16

    Gender, education and peace in southern Sudan.

    Kirk J

    Forced Migration Review. 2005 Nov; (24):55-56.

    The SPLM’s Secretariat of Education (SoE) has explicitly linked gender, education and peace within the Directorate of Gender Equity and Social Change. This forward-looking move recognises the potential of education to enhance a gender-just peace. The SoE now has the challenge of addressing very high expectations for education in ways which are regionally, ethnically and gender equitable. Regional disparities are significant: girls in Bahr El Ghazal, Upper Nile, Nuba Mountains and Southern Blue Nile face considerable and practical challenges in accessing education as there are so few schools in these areas. (excerpt)
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  17. 17
    Peer Reviewed

    Girls can't wait: why girls' education matters and how to make it happen now.

    Reproductive Health Matters. 2005; 13(25):19-25.

    THIS is the year that the world will miss the first and most critical of all the Millennium Development Goals – gender parity in education by 2005. The continuing denial of education to an estimated 60 million girls is a global emergency, even though the international community is refusing to acknowledge it as such. In response to this unacknowledged emergency, this paper proposes a new action plan to get every girl in school and learning. Education is a key economic asset for individuals and for nations. Every year of schooling lost represents a 10-20% reduction in girls’ future incomes. Countries could raise per capita economic growth by about 0.3% percentage points per year, or 3% in the next decade, if they attained parity in girls’ and boys’ enrolments. Failure to educate girls and women perpetuates needless hunger. Gains in women’s education contributed most to reducing malnutrition between 1970 and 1995, more important than increased food availability. Women with education are better able to resist practices such as female genital cutting, early marriage and domestic abuse by male partners. (excerpt)
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  18. 18

    UNESCO report reveals girls still lacking in education opportunities.

    Population 2005. 2003 Dec; 5(4):12.

    In most developing countries, girls continue to endure discrimination in access to schooling, according to a recently issued report by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The report, released in New Delhi, found that despite what it called “slow but significant progress” during the 1990’s, gender inequality remains widespread. In 54 countries, many across sub-Saharan Africa, gender parity in schools remains very unbalanced. The report also found that in China, boys will continue to outnumber girls in secondary schools for years to come. In addition, in at least 12 countries, girls’ enrollment in school is less than three-quarters that of boys. (excerpt)
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  19. 19
    Peer Reviewed

    Mobilization, meanings and measures: reflections on girls' education.

    Unterhalter E

    Development. 2005; 48(1):110-114.

    MDG3 on promoting gender equality and empowering women had a target for eliminating gender disparity in education by 2005. This target will be missed. Elaine Unterhalter highlights how, despite this failure, MDG3 has prompted a diverse discussion of meanings of gender equality and education, led to new ways for popular mobilization to articulate with UN institutions and prompted reassessment of the forms of measurement used to assess progress on this MDG. While these achievements need to be set in a context of the exclusion of certain key groups like teachers from these deliberations they indicate some elements of success on a constrained agenda. (author's)
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  20. 20

    Promises to keep: achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women. Background paper of the Task Force on Education and Gender Equality.

    Grown C; Gupta GR; Khan Z

    [New York, New York], United Nations Development Programme [UNDP], Millennium Project, 2003 Apr 18. [55] p.

    The purpose of the paper is to review progress countries have made in reaching this goal and to suggest recommendations to hasten progress. The paper has four key messages: First, the current MDG gender equality target and indicators do not capture all the major components of gender equality. The paper proposes three domains of gender equality: capability (basic human abilities as measured by education, health and nutrition), opportunity (access to assets, income, and employment), and agency (the ability to make choices that can alter outcomes) and suggests new targets and indicators to augment the ones proposed by U.N. member states. Second, each of these domains is amenable to policy intervention: “capabilities” can be addressed in large part through existing initiatives in health, education, and other sectors; “opportunities” requires some fundamental changes in the economic order; and “agency” is possible through electoral quotas, legislation on violence against women, and other measures. Third, internationally-funded initiatives (such as Education for All), conventions (such as the Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination Against Women), and other mechanisms (the ILO Decent Work Agenda) that currently exist provide reasonable frameworks for achieving gender equality. These should be complemented by a new international campaign for zero tolerance for violence against women. Finally, the paper urges the international community to translate rhetoric to action by improving the availability and quality of sex-disaggregated data, increasing financial and technical resources for agencies dedicated to promoting the status of women, and enhancing political commitment at the highest levels to end gender inequality and empower women. (excerpt)
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  21. 21

    Fact Sheet No. 23: Harmful traditional practices affecting the health of women and children.

    United Nations. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights

    Geneva, Switzerland, United Nations, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, [1997]. [39] p. (Fact Sheet No. 23)

    Despite the apparent slowness of action to challenge and eliminate harmful traditional practices, the activities of human rights bodies in this field have, in recent years, resulted in noticeable progress. Traditional practices have become a recognized issue concerning the status and human rights of women and female children. The slogan "Women's Rights are Human Rights", adopted at the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna in 1993, as well as the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted by the General Assembly the same year, captured the reality of the status accorded to women. These issues have been further emphasized in the reports of the Special Rapporteur on harmful traditional practices, Mrs. Halima Embarek Warzazi, appointed in 1988, and in the draft Platform for Action for the Fourth World Conference on Women, to be held in September 1995. The Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms. Radhika Coomaraswamy, appointed by the Commission on Human Rights in 1994, has also examined all forms of traditional practices referred to in this Fact Sheet, as well as other practices, including virginity tests, foot binding, female infanticide and dowry deaths, all of which violate female dignity. In her preliminary report, the Special Rapporteur pointed out that blind adherence to these practices and State inaction with regard to these customs and traditions have made possible large- scale violence against women. States are enacting new laws and regulations with regard to the development of a modern economy and modern technology and to developing practices which suit a modern democracy, yet it seems that in the area of women's rights change is slow to be accepted. (E/CN.4/1995/42, para.67.) The harmful traditional practices identified in this Fact Sheet are categorized as separate issues; however, they are all consequences of the value placed on women and the girl child by society. They persist in an environment where women and the girl child have unequal access to education, wealth, health and employment. In part I, the Fact Sheet identifies and analyses the background to harmful traditional practices, their causes, and their consequences for the health of women and the girl child. Part II reviews the action taken by United Nations organs and agencies, Governments and organizations (NGOs). The Conclusions highlight the drawbacks in the implementation of the practical steps identified by the United Nations, NGOs and women's organizations. (excerpt)
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  22. 22

    SARA: a role model for girls as they face HIV and AIDS in Africa. A review of the Sara Communication Initiative.

    UNICEF; Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Center for Communication Programs

    Accra, Ghana, UNICEF, [2003]. 92 p.

    The overall goal and general objectives of the SCI are as follows: To promote the Rights of the Child and support their implementation and realization, with special focus on adolescent female children in Eastern and Southern Africa (ESAR), and in other parts of Sub-Saharan Africa where the materials are found to be acceptable and appropriate. General objectives: To research, produce and disseminate a regional communication package on the Rights of the Child in order to: Create awareness and advocate for the reduction of existing disparities in the status and treatment of girls. Support social mobilization processes designed to realize the potential of female children and to foster their participation in development. Produce a dynamic role model for girls that will assist in their acquisition of psychosocial life skills essential for empowerment. Provide a model for improved gender relationships, beginning at an early age. Communicate information regarding the survival, protection and development of children, including specific messages on education, health, nutrition and freedom from exploitation and abuse. Build the capacity of African writers, researchers and artists through the development of the Sara communication packages. (excerpt)
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  23. 23

    Accelerating progress in girls' education.


    New York, New York, UNICEF, [2003]. 24 p.

    UNICEF is consolidating nearly six decades of experience and the expertise of our partners – other United Nations agencies, the academic community and hundreds of non-governmental organizations – to identify out-of- school girls and get them into the classroom. This means taking interventions that we know work and applying them to individual communities. Many of the measures are practical, such as creating double shifts in existing schools, making small rural schools viable through multigrade teaching, operating ‘mobile schools’ for nomadic communities or ‘tent schools’ in emergency situations, and using incentives for enrollment and attendance. The goal is to target interventions more effectively and help countries take them to scale. The lessons learned from the 25 pilot countries will be applied to other countries until all the world's children, girls as well as boys, enjoy their right to a quality education. UNICEF is providing a customized package of resources to support countries so that they can identify, implement and scale up interventions to get results. (excerpt)
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  24. 24

    Female genital circumcision: medical and cultural considerations.

    Little CM

    Journal of Cultural Diversity. 2003 Spring; 10(1):30-34.

    Female circumcision (FC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM), is a procedure that involves partial or complete removal of external female genitalia. The definition given by the World's Health Organization (WHO) states that female circumcision "comprise all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural, religious or other non-therapeutic reasons" (WHO, 1998, p.5). The United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Population Fund, and the WHO have jointly issued a statement that FC and FGM causes unacceptable harm and issued a call for the elimination of this practice worldwide. The WHO also contends that female circumcision is a "violation of internationally accepted rights" (WHO, p.1). Female circumcision is a widespread cultural practice and affects millions of young women. Issues related to female circumcision that are of special concern are health consequences, civil rights, cultural considerations, and legal and ethical aspects. The purpose of this paper is to address the incidence of FC and FGM, the historical background, the procedure, the medical complications and cultural considerations. Legal and ethical issues of FGM will also be discussed. (author's)
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  25. 25
    Peer Reviewed

    UNICEF gloomy on child development goals.

    Kapp C

    Lancet. 2003 Dec 13; 362(9400):1986.

    The Millennium Development Goals of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health, and combating diseases such as HIV/AIDS and malaria by 2015 are looking increasingly unrealistic because the war against terror is diverting resources away from development, according to the UN Children’s Fund. In its annual report State of the world’s children, issued on Dec 11, UNICEF said that one of the most crucial goals—to achieve gender equality in education by 2005—was slipping away. (excerpt)
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