Your search found 72 Results

  1. 1
    074857

    International Symposium: For the Survival of Mankind: Population, Environment and Development.

    Mainichi Shimbun; Japan. National Institute for Research Advancement; United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    Ann Arbor, Michigan, University of Michigan, Dept. of Population Planning and International Health, [1989]. xxxiii, 134 p.

    In August 1989, scientists and leaders of international and national groups met at the international symposium for the Survival of Mankind in Tokyo, Japan, to discuss ideas about the interrelationship between population, environment, and development and obstacles to attaining sustainable development. The President of the Worldwatch Institute opened the symposium with a talk about energy, food, and population. Of fossil fuels, nuclear power, and solar energy, only the clean and efficient solar energy can provide sustainable development. Humanity has extended arable lands and irrigation causing soil erosion, reduced water tables, produced water shortages, and increased salivation. Thus agricultural advances since the 1950s cannot continue to raise crop yields. He also emphasized the need to halt population growth. He suggested Japan provide more international assistance for sustainable development. This talk stimulated a lively debate. The 2nd session addressed the question whether the planet can support 5. 2 billion people (1989 population). The Executive Director of UNFPA informed the audience that research shows that various factors are needed for a successful population program: political will, a national plan, a prudent assessment of the sociocultural context, support from government agencies, community participation, and improvement of women's status. Other topics discussed during this session were urbanization, deforestation, and international environmental regulation. The 3rd session covered various ways leading to North-South cooperation. A Chinese participant suggested the establishment of an international environmental protection fund which would assist developing countries with their transition to sustainable development and to develop clean energy technologies and environmental restoration. Another participant proposed formation of a North-South Center in Japan. The 4th session centered around means to balance population needs, environmental protection, and socioeconomic development.
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  2. 2
    054796

    Population and sustainable development.

    International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources [IUCN]. Task Force on Population and Conservation for Sustainable Development

    Gland, Switzerland, IUCN, 1987. 63 p.

    A special Task Force Report by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources focusing on population contains chapters on demographic trends, structural changes and future growth, population policies, family planning programs, relations between population, conservation and development, and recommendations. Unprecedented population growth in this century is such that most countries have people living who have seen their population triple, and Zimbabwe as an example of an African country has grown 8-fold in this period. Population growth is only 1 among many factors that aggravate conservation and development; others include decreasing food supply, inappropriate development patterns fostered by debt, trade imbalances, misguided aid, and even the food surpluses of the North. Current environmental crises will contribute to a predicted 33% loss in arable land by 2000. The report ends with 12 recommendations, e.g., corroboration by country-level population, conservation and development agencies by identifying relevant institutions and introducing coordinating mechanisms. Every couple should be provided with means to plan their family, an effort estimated to cost $6 billion more than the current $2 billion being spent. Women should be given the right of choice about pregnancy, education, and integration into socio-economic development.
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  3. 3
    052159

    Our common future.

    World Commission on Environment and Development

    Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1987. xv, 400 p.

    In this report, the World Commission on Environment and Development does not predict ever increasing environmental decay, poverty, and hardship in a world becoming more polluted and experiencing decreasing resources but sees instead the possibility for a new era of economic growth. This era of economic growth must be based on policies that sustain and expand the environmental resource base. Such growth is absolutely essential to relieving the great poverty that is intensifying in much of the developing world. The report suggests a pathway by which the peoples of the world can enlarge their spheres of cooperation. The Commission has focused its attention in the areas of population, food security, the loss of species and genetic resources, and human settlements, recognizing that all are connected and cannot be treated in isolation from each other. 2 conditions must be satisfied before international economic exchanges can become beneficial for all involved: the sustainability of ecosystems on which the global economy depends must be guaranteed; and the economic partners must be satisfied that the basis of exchange is equitable. Neither condition is met for many developing nations. Efforts to maintain social and ecological stability through old approaches to development and environmental protection will increase stability. The Commission has identified several actions that must be undertaken to reduce risks to survival and to put future development on sustainable paths. Such a reorientation on a continuing basis is beyond the reach of present decision making structures and institutional arrangements, both national and international. The Commission has taken care to base its recommendations on the realities of present institutions, on what can and must be accomplished now; yet to keep options open for future generations, the present generation must begin to act now and to act together. The Commission's proposals for institutional and legal change at the national, regional, and international levels are embodied in 6 priority areas: getting at the sources; dealing with the effects; assessing global risks; making informed choices; providing the legal means; and investing in the future.
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  4. 4
    047405

    The global environment: reassessing the threat.

    Foreign Policy Association

    In: Great decisions 1988: foreign policy issues facing the nation, [by] Foreign Policy Association. New York, New York, Foreign Policy Association, 1988. 62-71.

    The impact of uncontrolled growth on the state of the world's limited resources and environment was alarmingly brought a public attention by "Global 2000," a report commissioned in 1977 by the Carter administration. A similar assessment was the "Brundtland Report" of the World Commission on Environment and Development, released by the UN in 1987. The question of national growth vs environment is often politically charged because conservation is expensive and often involves political relationships in 2 or more countries. Several specific instances are examined: ozone depletion, the greenhouse effect, acid rain, water pollution, energy resources, nuclear energy, species extinction, soil erosion, and population growth. The ozone hole came to public attention in 1985. Through chemical combination chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have been depleting the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere with resulting exposure of the earth to ultraviolet rays, which cause skin cancer. Signatories to an international agreement in 1986 agreed to curtail CFC usage by 50% by 1999. The greenhouse effect, recognized in 1957, involves raising the global temperature through burning of fossil fuels, which increases atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (C02), which prevent the sun's heat from escaping. Acid rain, caused by the release of nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere by fossil fuel smelters and power plants, has foreign policy implications; plants in the US cause forest damage in Canada, and plants in Britain cause forest damage in Germany and Scandinavia. Water pollution by toxic chemicals came to public attention when the pollution of Love Canal's water supply prompted Congress in 1980 to create the $1.6 billion Superfund to clean up toxic wastes. The limited supply of oil, controlled by the OPEC nations, was pointedly brought home to the US by the "gas crunch" of the 1970s. The dangers of nuclear energy, as illustrated by Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, have not caused the US to back off from the Shoreham and Seabrook projects. Massive species extinction is expected to result from the destruction of the Amazon rain forests to make way for development. Overfarming and forest destruction in order to increase food production, especially in Third World countries, have caused soil erosion and its attendant decline in soil fertility. Finally, probably the most urgent of all environmental problems is overpopulation. Despite the outstanding successes of China and India in attaining food self-sufficiency, most of the developing countries' population is fast outstripping their food supply. The US, due to the pronatalist policy of the Reagan administration, has withdrawn all financial support from the UN Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA). Conservation is expensive; it is argued that activities such as emission controls and development of alternative fuels will prove prohibitively expensive and hence limiting to growth. On the other hand, ecological degradation and uncontrolled population growth will inevitably lead to hunger, misery, and eventually to conflict over the control of the earth's limited resources.
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  5. 5
    273090

    Social studies and population education. Book Three: man in his environment.

    University of Sierra Leone. Institute of Education

    Freetown, Sierra Leone, Ministry of Education, 1984. 93 p. (UNFPA/UNESCO Project SIL/76/POI)

    The National Programme in Social Studies in Sierra Leone has created this textbook in the social sciences, with an emphasis on population education, for 2ndary school students. Unit 1, "Man's Origin, Development and Characteristics," describes Darwin's theory of evolution and explains how overproduction causes problems of rapid population growth and poor quality of life. Special attention is given to the problem of high infant mortality in Sierra Leone. Unit 2, "Man's Environment," discusses the interrelationships and interdependence among elements in the ecosystem, the food pyramid, and the effects of man's activities and numbers on the ecosystem. Unit 3, "Man's Culture," focuses on the processes of socialization and the different agents of socialization: the family, the group, the school, and the community. Unit 4, "Population and Resources," discusses human and natural resources as well as conservation measures. It also discusses the population composition, its effect on resources, and the uses and significance of population data. Unit 5, "Communication in the Service of Man," covers land, water and air transport; the effects of transport developments in Sierra Leone; and implications for population of changes in transport activities. Unit 6, "Global Issues: Achievements and Problems," deals with the young population, characteristics of the adolescent, common social problems among young people, and the role of the family unit. National and international action is also discussed.
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  6. 6
    030012

    Report of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development.

    United Nations. Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development

    In: Population, resources, environment and development. Proceedings of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment and Development, Geneva, 25-29 April 1983, [compiled by] United Nations. Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. New York, New York, United Nations, 1984. 1-60. (Population Studies No. 90; ST/ESA/SER.A/90; International Conference on Population, 1984)

    The primary objective of the meeting of the Expert Group on Population, Resources, Environment, and Development was to identify mechanisms through which poulation characteristics conditioned and were conditioned by resource use, environmental effects, and the development structure. This called for a systems approach in which all factors were treated simultaneously and in which the closing of loops through feedback effects was of foremost importance. The 1st item of the agenda called for a general discussion of past and future trends in population, resources, environment, and development. The Expert Group emphasized the need for better knowledge of how the trends of the various variables interacted and modified each other and particularly about the role of population within the interrelationships. The discussion of food and nutrition focused on the demographic, economic, social, political, and institutional aspects of meeting the needs for food and nutrition, while the physical aspects were given greater attention in the discussions of resources and environments. At the center of the deliberations were such concerns as poverty, the food versus feed controversy, food self sufficiency, and the role of population growth. The discussion on resources and the environment covered the resource base, environmental degradation, and nonrenewable resources. Attention was directed to the various mechanisms that could expand resource availability as well as those activities that had caused a degradation of the environment. The discussions of social and economic aspects of development involved 4 interrelated topics: income distribution, employment, health and education, and social security. The last items on the agenda addressed the issue of integrated planning and policy formation. Some members of the Expert Group were concerned with immediate problems. Viewing demographic trends as largely exogenous, they gave highest priority to finding the best way to accommodate the needs of growing populations. Others emphasized longrun problems and considered demographic trends as policy instruments for dealing with problems of resources, the environment, and development.
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  7. 7
    122688

    A discussion of human population growth.

    Bloembergen N

    CARRYING CAPACITY NETWORK FOCUS. 1997; 7(1):10-4.

    As human population increases (at a rate of about 8 million per month), the diversity of life is being threatened, the ozone layer is being depleted, and the oceans are being over-fished. Recent publications on the topic of population growth all point to the serious nature of the population issue. A look at the history and current status of human population growth shows that current genetic information indicates that all humans descended from a group of about 10,000 beings who lived in Africa about 200,000 years ago. Doubling of the population occurred in about 10,000 years until about 8000 B.C., when civilization allowed population doubling to occur in a mere 1000 years. This rate persisted until around 1750, when the population was 750 million. From 1750 to 1950, agricultural evolution and the industrial revolution created a doubling time of less than 40 years. The period of public health evolution has increased life expectancy and caused decreasing birth rates even before economic development created higher standards of living. Europe has nearly achieved a state of population equilibrium, but immigration keeps the US growth rate high. UN population conferences in 1974, 1984, and 1994 reflect changing views about population growth. The most recent conference placed an emphasis on world-wide promotion of family planning and contraception and improvements in women's status. Projections for the future include determinations that no positive growth rate can be maintained indefinitely and that food production and natural resources are limited. Population momentum will continue population growth even if fertility falls to replacement levels. Negative growth will require religious thinking and social mores to change and adopt the concept that quality of life is more important than quantity. In order to limit growth, we must educate and empower women, educate men, promote contraception, save children, and improve economic development.
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  8. 8
    122686

    Demographic entrapment -- a choice of uproar.

    King M

    CARRYING CAPACITY NETWORK FOCUS. 1997; 7(1):37-9.

    The subject of demographic entrapment is taboo in most UN agencies and in academia because of the upheaval that would occur if entrapment were acknowledged. Demographic entrapment occurs if a population has exceeded or is projected to exceed the combination of the carrying capacity of its own ecosystem and its ability to trade for its needs or to migrate to other ecosystems. Demographic entrapment leads populations to become progressively stunted physically (as is occurring in Malawi) or starve, die from disease, or implode in social chaos (Rwanda). Disentrapment can theoretically occur if communities increase the carrying capacity of their ecosystem, develop an export community, increase migratory opportunity, reduce population growth, or combine these measures. The major method of escaping entrapment seems to be reducing population growth by promoting one-child families. If developed countries urge developing countries to adopt this policy, developed countries should adopt it also because per capita consumption of natural resources in developed countries is perhaps 50 times greater than in developing countries. Discussion of demographic entrapment remains taboo because of fear that such discussion would challenge: 1) the materialistic, consumeristic, market economy that is the current foundation of global society; 2) the consumption and employment patterns of developed countries; 3) human rights notions about reproduction, anti-abortion attitudes, and pronatalist views; and 4) false assumptions about universal economic development. Countries (like Malawi) where entrapment is causing widespread malnutrition should receive interim food aid tied to population reduction. Developed countries should promote development of sustainable lifestyles that include having one-child families and consuming photon-efficient diets. UN agencies must face the uproar that will occur upon acknowledgement of entrapment in order to call for simultaneous reproductive and lifestyle changes throughout the world.
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  9. 9
    118018

    UN food summit tries to focus world attention on hunger.

    Scommegna P

    POPULATION TODAY. 1996 Nov; 24(11):1-2.

    This article discusses the November 1996 World Food Summit in Rome, women's role as food producers, overconsumption, and justification for a world conference focus. The Summit was planned by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and is to focus on how to provide people with food security and how to keep pace with growing needs without causing environmental damage. The Summit takes place during a time when 841 million of the world population are chronically undernourished, of which 200 million are children. Millions more suffer from contaminated food and water, micronutrient deficiencies, and blindness due to lack of vitamin A. Agricultural production in 88 countries is deficient. These countries cannot produce enough food to feed their populations an adequate diet and cannot afford to import needed food. These countries include China, India, and most of sub-Saharan Africa. World grain stocks have dropped to low levels, export prices for cereals have risen, and the world fish harvest has leveled off. Over the next 50 years the world must raise food for about 4 billion more people with a limited supply of land and uneven water resources. African countries must increase food production by 300%, Latin America by 80%, Asia by 69%, and North America by 30%. The former strategy of increasing yields with fertilizers is no longer effective and there is no other alternative. In developing countries women are the main producers of food for the family. Future policies must recognize women's role in food production. Poverty would decrease and food supplies increase if poor women were given access to credit and technical advice, education and health care, and a place in the center of the world agenda for increasing food productivity. The global food system is inequitably concentrated among few, and the food trade is increasingly controlled by multinationals. Overconsumption is as serious a problem as overpopulation.
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  10. 10
    117514

    New look at population-food nexus.

    POPULATION HEADLINERS. 1996 May-Jun; (252):2.

    Dr. Tim Dyson, professor of Population Studies at the London School of Economics, in his book entitled "Population and Food -- Global Trends and Future Prospects," claims the world will be able to feed its rapidly expanding population in 25 years, if fertilizer use doubles and world trade grows rapidly. He bases this conclusion on population, grain trade, and production data from UN sources and on the assumption that the world population is expanding at the rate of 1 billion people every 12 years. His prediction that several world regions will have great difficulty producing enough food to meet the demands of growing populations is more optimistic than that of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the UN, which believes a world disaster is impending. FAO Director-General Jacques Diouf, while speaking at the opening session of the FAO Asia and the Pacific regional conference at Apia, Samoa, stated that "extremely violent and serious conflict" was possible if food security was not improved. He said that the prime responsibility of the FAO was to alert world opinion and world leaders to the food situation: although world population has grown substantially per capita, arable land continues to diminish; current modes of exploitation are degrading the environment; fishery resources are over-exploited; and the current distribution of food is skewed.
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  11. 11
    082357

    Environmental sustainability in economic development -- with emphasis on Amazonia.

    Goodland R

    In: Race to save the tropics. Ecology and economics for a sustainable future, edited by Robert Goodland. Washington, D.C., Island Press, 1990. 171-89.

    Sustainability denotes well-being, intergenerational equity, minimal use of exhaustible mineral reserves, slow depletion of nonrenewable energy resources allowing an orderly societal transition to renewable energy sources, and agricultural sustainability. Many parts of the world have already surpassed their carrying capacity. To effectively apply environmental management to economic development, decision makers must understand the fundamental relationship among growth, equality, and ethics. Liberation of women and reduction of excess consumption by the rich are needed to achieve environmental sustainability. We have been able to solve some environmental problems once they have reached a crisis stage by investing money into their solution. Prevention is the only means to address irreversible environmental effects, however. The major reason for biodiversity loss is destruction of tropical forests which support 50% of the world's 5-30 million species on 7% of the land area. A large percentage of the biodiversity in the Philippines, Haiti, El Salvador, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and parts of India is already gone. Some corporations have begun to respond responsibility to the environment. In 1987 the largest investor in economic development in developing countries, the World Bank, implemented environmental policies for all programs. The Bank normally refuses to finance projects designed to convert wildlands of special concern, e.g. to national parks. Projects concerning wildlands other than those of special concern should only occur on already converted land. A more open decision making process is required to justify any deviations from the above policies. If wildlands development is defended, the project should just convert less valuable wildlands. Financing preservation of another wildland is required for any conversion of wildlands not of special concern. If a project does not involve conversion of wildlands, the Bank requires the preservation of wildlands for their environmental services alone.
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  12. 12
    099916

    Statement of Antigua and Barbuda.

    Hurst LA

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [5] p.

    In his address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the leader of the delegation from Antigua and Barbuda noted that every civilization has nourished the seed of its own destruction, and that modern civilization, with its desire for development, is no exception. Humanity must decide whether to continue to foster the unequal distribution of financial resources or to adopt a more equitable global economy and to foster a small population which consumes less. The view of Antigua and Barbuda is that the ICPD's mission is to plot the course of human history and to avoid disaster by removing the seeds of destruction from modern civilization. Even small nations like Antique and Barbuda must limit population growth or face the destruction of natural resources, especially since the population-reducing avenue of emigration is closing. Specific efforts which have been made include providing adequate training and education to young women who formerly would have left school because of a pregnancy or who left school prematurely. In addition, the islands have had great success in reducing the percentage of births to adolescent mothers, largely through the cooperative work of nongovernmental organizations and the Ministry of Health. The human race must overcome controversy and cynicism to find new ways of ensuring that our population size and development choices will not destroy our planet.
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  13. 13
    100047

    Statement of Fiji.

    Nacola RJ

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [4] p.

    In his address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, the Minister for Regional Development and Multi-Ethnic Affairs of Fiji reported that Fiji is an island nation consisting of over 330 islands spread over 230,000 sq. km of ocean. Fiji had 770,000 inhabitants, with 50% being indigenous people and 44% of Indian descent. Fiji shares global concerns about population and development and became concerned about its own rapid population growth in the early 1960s when annual growth reached 3.3%. Thus, one of the most successful family planning (FP) programs in the world was instituted in 1962, and the growth rate declined to 2.1% by 1976, 1.9 by 1986, and stands at 1% today (this figure also reflects substantial emigration from Fiji). Fiji's FP program has always been noncoercive and universally available regardless of marital state. Service providers are knowledgeable about all artificial and natural methods of contraception and provide choices to clients. Fiji's goal is to maintain a growth rate below 2% per year. Fiji's population policies are integrated with a variety of educational, employment, health, and welfare measures and seek to improve the status of women and involve youth in the development process. A primary concern in Fiji is the provision of meaningful employment for its young people and increasing population pressures on its fragile island ecosystems. Global warming and associated climatic changes threaten the very existence of the low-lying islands. Fiji has great expectations about the ability of the international community to address these very serious problems and has itself committed an increasing amount of resources to programs to promote sustainable population and development.
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  14. 14
    100046

    Statement of Ethiopia.

    Layne T

    [Unpublished] 1994. Presented at the International Conference on Population and Development [ICPD], Cairo, Egypt, September 5-13, 1994. [5] p.

    In his address to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Prime Minister of the Transitional Government of Ethiopia reported that his country adopted its population policy in 1993. The problem of rapid population growth is critical in Ethiopia which has difficulty meeting basic human needs. Much of the problem in Ethiopia was caused by the policies of the military government which reigned for 17 years and which excluded the efforts of the private sector to help build a nation. Rapid population growth is causing such environmental pressure as increasing population/land ratios, over-cultivation of arable land, and acceleration of soil degradation. Social services such as education, employment, health, and housing have also felt the strain. The transitional government is now moving to a market economy which can benefit from investment. Ethiopia's new population policy calls for a decrease in the total fertility rate from 7.7 to 4.0 by the year 2015 by raising contraceptive prevalence from 4 to 44% in the same period. The policy takes an integrated approach and includes measures which call for improvements in education, employment, health, and social security as well as in the status of women, youth, and the elderly. Policies are also in place to reduce the rural-urban gap in economic and social opportunities and to stimulate a decentralized grassroots participation in development efforts. Ethiopia's population plan of action recognizes the important role of information, education, and communication and the necessity to improve the quality and scope of family planning services, research, and training with the help of the private sector. Ethiopia believes that the successful implementation of the ICPD's Programme of Action will require the commitment not only of national resource but also a pooling of global resources while recognizing the cultural and social realities of individual states.
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  15. 15
    100001

    The Cairo plan [editorial]

    Brown LR

    WORLD WATCH. 1994 Nov-Dec; 7(6):2.

    The Plan of Action which arose from the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development calls for stabilizing the population of the world at 7.8 billion by the year 2050. This plan reflects the sense of urgency born of a knowledge that the resources of the world are already being strained by human demands. For example, marine biologists believe that the ocean fisheries would sustain a catch of 100 million tons a year. This level was reached in 1989. If the biologists are correct, the seafood catch per person will continue to decline until population stabilizes, and seafood prices will continue to increase. Water use from underground aquifers is already exceeding aquifer recharge rates leading to a fall in water tables. Therefore, world irrigation growth has slowed significantly. In addition, farmers have fully exploited the capacity of some crops to benefit from fertilization in major food producing areas of North America, Europe, and China. Thus, the only way that the needs of 90 million additional people each year will be met will be by reducing total per capital consumption. The Plan of Action is ambitious and right on target. Its first goal is to meet the family planning needs of the 120 million women who do not have access to services. It also acknowledges the fact that gender inequality is a leading cause of high fertility and calls for increased educational opportunities for girls.
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  16. 16
    093444

    No daily bread ... or butter, for that matter.

    POPULI. 1994 Feb; 21(2):6.

    The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has predicted that serious food shortages looming in at least 20 countries will result in starvation and malnutrition of millions of people. Global cereal production dropped by 4% in 1993, boosting prices on world markets. FAO asked for increased food aid to Africa after several states suffered reductions in their harvests in 1993, and their stocks were depleted to precariously low levels. Political strife in Angola, Burundi, Liberia, Mozambique, Rwanda, and Sierra Leone forced farmers off their lands and jeopardized their harvests. In other areas of fighting, notably Bosnia and the Caucasus region, nearly 1 million people mare expected to need emergency food aid to avert starvation. Afghanistan and Tajikistan also face food shortages, as does Iraq, where the nutritional status of the population is declining. World cereal production dropped to an estimated 1.88 billion tons, and a minimum increase of about 65 million tons or 3% of total production is needed to forestall further depletion in 1994. Worldwatch institute has warned that the growth in global production of food is undergoing a massive slowdown. Oceanic fisheries have not expanded output since 1989 after multiplying catches more than four-fold since 1950. According to UN estimates, all 17 of the world's major fisheries have exceeded their limits and 9 are in decline. Per capita seafood catch dropped 9% from 1989 to 1993. Asia has produced more rice every year, however, consumption has surpassed production 3 years in a row prior to 1994. In 1993, the world price of rice doubled. It is uncertain whether Asian rice farmers will be able to expand production to catch up with consumption and build up depleted stocks. Farmers are unlikely to be capable of continued expansion of production to feed the projected additions to the world's population.
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  17. 17
    092019

    Synthesis of the expert group meetings convened as part of the substantive preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development.

    POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):3-18.

    As part of the preparation for the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development to be sponsored by the UN in Cairo, 6 expert groups were convened to consider 1) population growth; 2) population policies and programs; 3) population, development, and the environment; 4) migration; 5) the status of women; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. Each group included 15 experts representing a full range of relevant scientific disciplines and geographic regions. Each meeting lasted 5 days and included a substantive background paper prepared by the Population Division as well as technical papers. Each meeting concluded with the drafting of between 18 and 37 recommendations (a total of 162). The meeting on population, the environment, and development focused on the implications of current trends in population and the environment for sustained economic growth and sustainable development. The meeting on population policies and programs observed that, since 1984, there has been a growing convergence of views about population growth among the nations of the world and that the stabilization of world population as soon as possible is now an internationally recognized goal. The group on population and women identified practical steps that agencies could take to empower women in order to achieve beneficial effects on health, population trends, and development. The meeting on FP, health, and family well-being reviewed policy-oriented issues emerging from the experience of FP programs. The meeting on population growth and development reviewed trends and prospects of population growth and age structure and their consequences for global sustainability. The population distribution and migration experts appraised current trends and their interrelationship with development. In nearly all of the group meetings, common issues emerged. Concern was universally voiced for sustainable development and sustained economic growth, relevance of past experience, human rights, the status of women, the family, accessibility and quality of services, the special needs of subpopulations, AIDS, the roles of governments and nongovernmental organizations, community participation, research and data collection, and international cooperation.
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  18. 18
    092021

    Introduction. Review of the six expert group meetings.

    POPULATION BULLETIN OF THE UNITED NATIONS. 1993; (34-35):1.

    On July 26, 1991, the Economic and Social Council resolved to convene an International Conference on Population and Development under the auspices of the UN. To prepare for the conference, 6 expert group meetings were held to address the following issues: 1) population growth, demographic changes, and the interaction between demographic variables and socioeconomic development; 2) population policies and programs, emphasizing the mobilization of resources for developing countries; 3) the interrelationships between population, development, and the environment; 4) changes in the distribution of population; 5) the relationship between enhancing the status of women and population dynamics; and 6) family planning programs, health, and family well-being. A synthesis of these meetings is presented in the 34/35 issue of "Population Bulletin" (1993).
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  19. 19
    092928

    State of the world 1994. A Worldwatch Institute report on progress toward a sustainable society.

    Brown LR; Durning AT; Flavin C; French HF; Lenssen N; Lowe MD; Misch A; Postel S; Renner M; Weber P

    New York, New York, W.W. Norton, 1994. xvi, 265 p.

    A net 1.5 billion people have been added to world population since the first UN-sponsored International Conference on Population and Development held in Bucharest 20 years ago. 78% of world population lives in developing countries and poverty is widespread around the globe. Papers contained in this report consider some of the critical issues which will face delegates to the 1994 international conference scheduled for September in Cairo. It is of paramount importance that efforts be made to reduce levels of poverty along with population growth and current high rates of resource consumption. The text also considers how the World Bank might be redirected toward efforts to achieve a sustainable society. Different sections consider the Earth's carrying capacity, redesigning the forest economy, safeguarding oceans, reshaping the power industry, reinventing transport, using computers for the environment, assessing environmental health risks, cleaning up after the arms race, rebuilding the World Bank, and food insecurity. Chart and graph data from the report are available on diskette.
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  20. 20
    083174

    Population: the critical decade.

    Camp SL

    FOREIGN POLICY. 1993 Spring; (90):126-44.

    World population is growing by 1 billion people every 11 years. The decade of the 1990s presents the last chance to stabilize human populations by the middle of the 21st century, through humane and voluntary measures, at something less than double the current world population of 5.4 billion. At the 1984 UN International Conference on Population (held in Mexico City), the official delegation of the US presented a White House-drafted statement that declared population, growth a neutral phenomenon and labeled government policies to deal with it an overreaction. The US policy reversal at Mexico City was followed, later in 1984, by a decision to end 17 years of US support for the International Planned Parenthood Federation and then, in 1986, by the withdrawal of all support from the UN Population Fund. More than 95% of future growth will occur in the developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The majority of developing countries outside of East Asia still have annual population growth rates of between 2.5 and 3.5%. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization estimates that without major conservation efforts, developing countries could experience an almost 30% decline in agricultural productivity by the end of the next century, when their populations may have increased 4- to 6-fold. In sub-Saharan Africa, with food production growing at 2% and population growing at 3%, per capita food production has dropped 15-20% since 1970. In the Asian and Latin American countries, the number of current and prospective contraceptive users is approaching an average 75% of fertile-age couples. For most developing countries, including Colombia, Mexico, South Korea. Thailand, and Tunisia, organized family planning programs have accounted for 40-50% of the fertility decreases to date, according to regression analysis. In the fall of 1991, when a new foreign aid authorization could not be passed, 58% of Americans wanted the US government to resume support of the UN Population Fund.
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  21. 21
    075247

    Environment, population and sustainable development.

    Conable BB

    [Unpublished] 1989. 7 p.

    The World Bank President at a meeting of the World Resources Institute in 1989 addressed the issues of World Bank accomplishments, public awareness, industrial nations' responsibilities, and the link of poverty to population and the environment. Collective responsibility is urged. The cumulative effect of human activity will determine the fate of the planet. The World Bank has created a central Environment Department. Staff assigned full time to environmental issues has increased to 65 over 3 years. Environmental Issues Papers have been prepared for the most active borrowers, which in August 1989 included 70 countries. The Environmental Technical Assistance Program has US$5 million to distribute for environmental projects. Regional studies in an Asian urban environmental clean up and a Mediterranean environmental project were initiated and jointly funded with the European Investment Bank. By June 30, 1989, more than 100 projects with environmental components will be approved for funding, which is 35% of total yearly projects. 60% of all agricultural projects funded have environmental components. Funding for forestry projects is expected to double to US$950 million in the next 3 years, and US$1.3 million will be lent for environmental projects. Bringing environmental awareness to developing countries has been made difficult be fears that advanced countries are trying to impede economic development and to interfere with foreign sovereignty. Collective responsibility has not been agreed upon. Industrialized countries must be prepared to accept and remedy their own environmental shortcomings. 71% of industrial emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) comes from North America and Western Europe, which has only 8.2% of the world's population. Meanwhile, 7% of CO2 emissions come from developing countries, which have 70% of the world's population. The US produces 5 tons of CO2/person, while the world average is 1 ton/person. The US exports agricultural chemicals that are hazardous to human health. The US leads all industrial nations, except Canada, in energy use/unit of production of goods and services. 33% of all chlorofluorocarbons are released in the US. The population growth rate has a serious and life-threatening impact on human life. Natural resource constraints will limit growth. The solution is to provide family planning and expand the carrying capacities right now.
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  22. 22
    075496

    Desertification in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of West Africa.

    Gorse JE; Steeds DR

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1987. xi, 62 p. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 61)

    The problem of desertification in the Sahelian and Sudanian Zones (SSZ) of West Africa is addressed. Desertification is defined as the process of sustained decline in biological productivity of arid and semiarid land. Desertification is complex and poorly understood and is caused by the interaction between drought and human abuse. Better management is a viable long term solution. In the SSZ, there is variable rainfall and low fertility soil, and resources are overexploited by humans. The focus of discussion is on defining the nature of the problems and the geographic features of the SSZ; the problem is complex and multifaceted and includes population pressure. The nature of and pressures on traditional production systems (agrosylvicultural, agrosylvipastoral, and sylvopastoral) are described as well as the carrying capacities of traditional production systems. Past development activities and common weaknesses of development activities are reviewed with reference to the agricultural, livestock, and forestry sectors. The elements of a strategy for better resources management are delineated. Some general observations are made. Actions are defined with reference to pressure on 1) carrying capacity (CC) in areas where the ratio of population (RP) does not exceed CC, where RP slightly exceeds OC, and where RP greatly exceeds CC; the issue of irrigation increasing carrying capacity is dealt with. Other elements are 2) upgrading competence in research and training, 3) reducing demand (population and wood), and 4) the policy environment (land law and incentives). Implications for actions are indicated for the members of the Comite Inter-Etats de Lutte contre la Secheresse dans le Sahel, governments, financiers in general, and for the World Bank group in particular. A statistical appendix is provided with information on land distribution, soil suitability, population and distribution by a number of factors, and carrying capacity. Elementary erosion techniques and research orientations also are provided.
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  23. 23
    081215

    Somalia and the overpopulation connection.

    Rohe JF

    FOCUS. 1993; 3(1):22-3.

    Somalia's Operation Restore Hope has been reported in the media as successful in alleviating starvation and human suffering. The perspective missing from these media presentations of conditions in Somalia is the impact of population growth on famine or war conditions. In mid-1992 Somalia had an annual population growth rate of 2.9%, which means a doubling in 24 years. The birth rate is 6.6 children per woman, which is twice the world average of 3.3. The current fertility level contributes a net increase of 657 people per day or an additional 240,000 mouths to feed per year. The question is raised as to whether foreign agencies will be ready to provide humanitarian aid in 24 years or earlier, when food shortages appear again. The evidence points to the notion that Somalia has surpassed its carrying capacity, or the ability to support its population without degrading the physical, ecological, cultural, and social environment. Civil war and drought have exacerbated an already starving country. The question is also raised about when foreign aid will recognize problems of sustainability or carrying capacity. Good intentions may underlie the short-term policy of advocating foreign food aid, but in the long run the result may be unsuccessful. The situation in Somalia represents a failure to recognize that there are limits to resources and population is rapidly increasing. Current policy prevents the integration of food aid with birth control programs and prevents incentives to encourage participation. Ignoring the population growth component means contributing to even greater human suffering.
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  24. 24
    079150

    Population, resources and the environment. Report of the Secretary-General.

    United Nations. Secretary-General

    In: The population debate: dimensions and perspectives. Papers of the World Population Conference, Bucharest, 1974. Volume I. New York, New York, United Nations, 1975. 77-123. (Population Studies, No. 57; ST/ESA/SER.A/57)

    The Secretary-General's commentary on the state of population growth, resources, and the environment examines the most important relationship. Conflicts in resource use and distribution and essential resources are identified: potential water and land resources for agriculture, availability of potential arable land, new technology, carrying capacity, capital needs, the imbalance between population and arable land, energy needs, agricultural modernization, nonfuel mineral resources, and energy resources. The relationship between rapid population growth and the environment may be one where man is indeed capable of reducing the environmental consequences to tolerable level through reallocation of resources. There a 3 sets of environmental problems: 1) those related to poverty and inadequate social and economic development; 2) those arising from the development process itself; and 3) those which could have a major impact on climate or environmental conditions and are not well understood. The environmental problems of developed countries pertain to high levels of energy use and the problems of affluence. In poor countries, environmental problems are caused by rapid population growth and urbanization, and poverty. Environmental destruction from mining and transportation are discussed along with the need for conversion to alternative forms of energy and reduction of polluting energy use. Developing countries' problems focus on water supply and waste disposal, the benefits of environmental improvement, and the global changes possible in climate, carbon dioxide emissions, and particulate matter in the atmosphere. "Hot spots" from fossil fuel combustion and nuclear fission are occurring; accurate data, improved analytical models, and international cooperation in monitoring and analysis is essential. Settlement patterns and the costs plus the internal organization of large urban areas are some of the problems examined. Rural development, rural-urban migration, and population redistribution are other issues of concern. Urban development and urban growth strategies reflect the potential need to curb urban migration and a new settlement system. Technology's impact on population, research gaps, and policy implications are revealed. Definitions of societal objectives are necessary before deciding what technology is needed.
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  25. 25
    075184

    Politically correct environmentalists.

    Mathews J

    WASHINGTON POST. 1992 Apr 12; C7.

    Ironically, the UN Earth Summit in Brazil will ignore the single most relevant environmental issue: Overpopulation, how many people the planet can realistically sustain. Over the next century, the current population of 5 billion people, will double and almost triple to between 9-14 billion. No matter what is accomplished environmentally in those 100 years, the 5-billion person margin will most likely make the difference between success and failure in providing most people with a reasonable standard of living. Developing and industrial countries argued over the importance of overpopulation and overconsumption, neither side wanting to admit internationally, problems they admitted domestically. Eventually, representatives of women limited population control language because they feared population control meant jeopardizing women's health, disguised genocide, or placed blame on women (the producers of babies). This small but noisy group representing women advised that the "politically correct" environmentalists should discuss health, education, and broad development issues, but this approach fails to specifically address the critical issue of family planning. Denying the importance of family planning only encourages governments to avoid an issue they are already disinclined to acknowledge, and further delays the inevitable day when the issue of "how many people can be sustained with what patterns of consumption" must be faced. While short-term goals between women and environmentalists differ, a wedge between them is wholly unnecessary because both groups share the same longterm goals. If failing to specifically address family planning and population growth, then at least the Summit has forced many to learn about issues not firmly on the international agenda.
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