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    075121

    Saving our planet: challenges and hopes. The state of the environment (1972-1992).

    United Nations Environment Programme [UNEP]

    Nairobi, Kenya, UNEP, 1992. [8], 200 p. (UNEP/GCSS.III/2)

    Current knowledge and issues between 1972-92 on the environment, development activities, human conditions and well being, perceptions and attitudes, and challenges and priorities for action are addressed. 10 major environmental issues are discussed: atmospheric pollution, ozone depletion, climate change, marine pollution, freshwater resources and water quality, land degradation and desertification, deforestation and degradation of forests, loss of biological diversity, environmental hazards, and toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes. Development activities that impinge on the environment are agriculture and food production, industry, energy use and production, transport, and tourism. The human conditions affected by management of population, the environment, and development are population growth, human settlements, human health, and peace and security. The historical changes that have occurred in 20 years are reported. Government's and individual's changes in perceptions and attitudes to environmental changes are also represented. 20 years after the Stockholm conference, there are still gaps in the understanding of the environment. Governments are limited in their ability to estimate the cost of repair, or to gauge the cost of failing to take rapid action to stop the degradation. There is a lack of confidence in the capacity of national and international managerial systems to apply what is known or to mobilize effective action. There has been a squandering of the world's stock of productive natural resources and a degradation of the environment; the geopolitical map has changed. The planning and implementation of development programs must change significantly; the global economy must be restructured. International cooperation is crucial. Multinational forums have not been successful in concrete action which promotes global economic recovery. National governments have been able to proceed from good intentions to more positive actions. There is growing concern about conflicts between international trade and environmental objectives. Regulatory measures by 1995 are needed for reforestation, marine pollution, hazardous waste removal, chemical risk assessment, environmental emergencies technology transfers, environmental impact assessment, and policies of environmental agreements which lead to major deterioration; by 2000 a means of compliance and verification of environmental treaties will be required. Goals for assessment and management are identified as well as the development of global costs for further degradation and additional resources.
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