Your search found 11 Results
New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1996 Jan. 34 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 746)This paper accepts the premise that positive sum games exist in all dimensions of North-South economic contacts but that the management of conflicts concerning the distribution of the gains requires careful attention. It then proceeds to analyze the current state of play and the character of these conflicts in each of the main arenas, focussing heavily on trade, but also discussing public and private capital movements, technology transfer and intellectual property rights issues and labor mobility. It concludes with a discussion of possible changes in international institutions and governance. (author's)
New Haven, Connecticut, Yale University, Economic Growth Center, 1994 Oct. 30 p. (Center Discussion Paper No. 712)This paper attempts to assess the World Bank's record of performance as principal lender, generator of ideas and purveyor of advice. It also examines its internal structure, its method of operation and its relations with the other actors on the development stage. Given the recently increased flows of private capital to the middle income countries, on the one hand, and the increased need for IDA money, on the other, we see a need for a redefinition of the Bank's central role. Moreover, we find the dominance of country and global lending targets, along with the absence of meaningful decentralization and capillary action between the conceptual and operating wings of the institution to be the main obstacles to better performance. On the occasion of the fiftieth anniversary of Bretton Woods we then turn to offering some suggestions for the future. These include a more open and participatory approach with respect to non-Bank ideas, non-Bank lenders and the borrowing countries. We also suggest that the internal personnel promotion culture of the Bank constitutes an important dimension of the problem to be overcome. (author's)
UN Chronicle. 1989 Sep; 26(3): p..The Committee--a group of expert economic advisers to the United Nations serving in their personal capacity-- said that in the 1990s, development efforts in the developing world ought to focus on four interrelated areas-- acceleration of economic growth, human resources development, reduction in the number of people suffering from absolute poverty, and controlling the deterioration of the physical environment. Industrialized countries should place greater emphasis on economic expansion to accelerate world-wide economic growth in the 1990s, the Committee stated. Those countries should also reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade, and ensure the developing world access to their markets. The United States must eliminate its massive trade deficit; it must also absorb a significant proportion of the savings of the rest of the world. (excerpt)
Micro-finance in rural communities in Southern Africa. Country and pilot site case studies, policy issues and recommendations.
Pretoria, South Africa, Human Sciences Research Council, 2002. , 170 p.While micro-finance in its various forms has helped to make loan capital more accessible to low-income rural communities, much remains to be done to increase its outreach, impact and sustainability. The essential objective of this study is to make well-researched recommendations for IRDP policy and strategy to enable the micro-finance agents that it will shortly be appointing to maximize improvements in these key indicators in the three pilot sites. Chapter 1 outlines the institutional context and terms of reference of the report and briefly discusses its timeframe, methodology, value and limitations. Chapters 2 and 3 depict, on the one hand, the demand for financial services in the three pilot sites and, on the other, access to micro-finance in the respective communities. In Chapter 4 an account is given of the essential nature and capabilities of microfinance, of recent developments in this regard, of fundamental lessons from international experience and of best practices in a rural context. Chapter 5 identifies the key sets of policy issues facing, in the first instance, public policy makers seeking to promote micro-finance development and, in the second, donors/investors/wholesalers seeking to support individual micro-finance retailers. It then applies the findings of Chapter 4 to the three on-the-ground pictures sketched out in Chapters 2 and 3 to arrive at some initial and very tentative recommendations for policy for the IRDP in the respective pilot sites. (excerpt)
In: All of us. Births and a better life: population, development and environment in a globalized world. Selections from the pages of the Earth Times, edited by Jack Freeman and Pranay Gupte. New York, New York, Earth Times Books, 1999. 278-80.The 1944 Bretton Woods agreement, which set up the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to launch reconstruction after World War II and fight off any renewal of the Great Depression, has achieved its purpose. The world's economy has multiplied, and international exchanges have reached an unimagined level, beyond the capacity of any government to manage. However, that very success and the technology of financial transactions have brought new problems. There are calls for a new international architecture, a new Bretton Woods to take account of what has changed and draw up new rules and procedures to accommodate changes. Nevertheless, several arguments opposing the change in financial architecture have been made, including the case that governments should have no mandate to interfere in the market. To reduce this dilemma, a conference needs to be held to study and discuss the possibilities.
MICRO-NET. 1998 Jun; 1(1):9.There are approximately 25 million refugees worldwide. Including people who are internally displaced, there are approximately 50 million total refugees worldwide. The UN High Commissioner for Refugees' (UNHCR) mandate is to protect and find solutions for refugees. While resettlement in a third country is becoming increasingly difficult to achieve, other possible solutions include local integration with the possibility of self-sufficiency, and the repatriation and reintegration of refugees once it becomes safe for them to return home. UNHCR plays an important role in promoting self-reliance. While previous efforts have focused upon job creation, job placement, and education, the merits of providing microcredit are increasingly becoming recognized. Refugees face constraints in their ability to procure microcredit from governments and banks. Although UNHCR is not a development agency, it can initiate schemes for self-reliance during the early days of an emergency, then let other agencies such as IFAD and UNDP take over. Nongovernmental organizations are UNHCR's main partners in the search for solutions to refugee situations. Although UNHCR is working on guidelines and promoting training, new models on the use of microfinance for refugees are needed.
MICRO-NET. 1998 Jun; 1(1):3, 8.The author endorses a microcredit campaign designed to reach 100 million of the world's most poor families through the provision of credit for self-employment and other financial and business services, especially for the women of those families, by 2005. The implementation of this campaign reflects a growing consensus in the international community of the priority need to address poverty. Furthermore, the campaign is a timely initiative which applies a business approach to a global humanitarian problem. Focusing upon the provision of microfinance services to the most poor, filling a gap left by traditional lending institutions, and promoting an especially effective and promising way to eradicate poverty, the Microcredit Summit plays an important role in a grassroots approach to eradicate poverty. Access to credit presents the target population with a special opportunity to achieve economic independence. Although often considered risky, microcredit is actually characterized by repayment rates currently estimated at 95%. Due to the positive potential of microcredit programs, the UN is incorporating components of such schemes into many of its programs and activities.
RURAL SOCIOLOGY. 1989 Fall; 54(3):327-38.A cross-sectional analysis using data from 36 countries with tropical forests found in the 1982 Food and Agriculture Organization and United Nations Environment Programme deforestation study was conducted to examined the role population growth and capital availability play in deforestation. The unweighted analysis using data from all 36 countries found population growth to significantly account for the variations in tropical deforestation (p<.05); its significance was even greater when data from Guinea-Bissau was removed from the analysis (p<.01). Rural population growth contributed directly to deforestation by increasing the population which clears the land and indirectly by increasing the demand for wood products (p<.001). Gross national product (GNP) did not play a substantial role in deforestation in the unweighted analyses, but it did in the weighted analyses (p<.01). Since the weighted analyses exaggerated the significance of countries with large rain forests, this result suggested an interaction between forest size and the effects of capital availability on deforestation. Moreover, the correlation between GNP per capita and the area deforested for the 8 countries with the largest tropical forests stood at .575 compared with .011 for the 28 countries with small forests. Wood and agricultural exports did not account much for the variation in the extent of deforestation. the demand for tropical hardwoods did not contribute much to the rapid deforestation in African and Latin American countries, buy did in the Southeast Asian countries. Export agriculture did not account for deforestation in African and Amazon basin countries, but did play a role in deforestation in Central America. It is concluded that the efficacy of policies to preserve rain forests will depend on the size of the forest.
[The controversies over population growth and economic development] Die Kontroversen um Bevolkerungswachstum und wirtschaftliche Entwicklung.
In: Probleme und Chancen demographischer Entwicklung in der dritten Welt, edited by Gunter Steinmann, Klaus F. Zimmermann, and Gerhard Heilig. New York, New York/Berlin, Germany, Federal Republic of, Springer-Verlag, 1988. 19-35.This paper presents a broad review of the major theoretical and political viewpoints concerning population growth and economic development. The western nations represent one side of the controversy; based on their experience with population growth in their former colonies, the western countries attempted to accelerate development by means of population control. The underlying economic reason for this approach is that excess births interfere with public and private savings and thus reduce the amount of capital available for development investment. A parallel assumption on the social side is that families had more children than they actually desired and that it was only proper to furnish families with contraceptives in order to control unwanted pregnancies. The competing point of view maintains that forcing the pace of development would unleash productive forces and stimulate better distribution of wealth by increasing social pressures on governments. The author traces the interaction between these two viewpoints and shows how the Treaty of Bucharest in 1974 marked a compromise between the two population policies and formed the basis for the activities of the population agencies of UN. The author then considers the question of whether European development can serve as a model for the present day 3rd World. The large differences between the sizes of age cohorts and the pressure that these differences exert upon internal population movements and the availability of food and housing is more important than the raw numbers alone.
New York, New York, Oxford University Press, 1985. 243 p.This report focuses on the contribution that international capital makes to economic development. While paying close attention to the events of the recent past, it also places the use of foreign capital in a broader and longer-term perspective. Using this perspective, the Report shows how countries at different stages of development have used external finance productively; how the institutional and policy environment affects the volume and composition of financial flows to developing countries; and how the international community has dealt with financial crises. A recurring theme of the Report is that countries in debt-servicing difficulties are not necessarily those with the largest debts or those that have suffered the biggest external shocks. The Report stresses that international flows of capital can promote global economic efficiency and can allow deficit countries to strike the right balance between reducing their deficits and financing them. A historical perspective on the role of international finance in economic development is presented, followed by an assessment of policies of industrial economies from the perspective of developing countries. The importance of developing countries' policies in deriving benefits from foreign capital is considered. Issues in managing capital flows are presented. The Report then discusses the main mechanisms through which foreign capital flows to developing countries. An overview of the international financial system and its relations with developing countries are presented. Issues in official development finance are examined. The evolving relationship between the developing countries and international capital markets is outlined. Possibilities for a bigger role for direct and portfolio investment in developing countries are examined. The Report concludes that the developing countries will have a continuing need for external finance. It demonstrates that many of the policies required to attract external finance and promote economic growth are either being implemented or planned already. A prosperous and stable world can become a reality if each country follows the route outlined.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1980 Aug. 166 p.This report examines some of the difficulties and prospects faced by developing countries in continuing their social and economic development and tackling poverty for the next 5-10 years. The 1st part of the report is about the economic policy choices facing both developing and richer countries and about the implications of these choices for growth. The 2nd part of the report reviews other ways to reduce poverty such as focusing on human development (education and training, health and nutrition, and fertility reduction). Throughout the report economic projections for developing countries have been carried out, drawing on the World Bank's analysis of what determines country and regional growth. Oil-exporting countries will face greater economic growth; their average GNP per person could grow 3-3.5% in the 1980s. Oil-importing countries will develop slower or fall to 1.8%/year. Poverty in oil-importing developing countries could grow at about 2.4% GNP/person and by 1990 there would be 80 million fewer people in absolute poverty. Factors which will contribute to the economic problems of developing countries are trade (import/export), energy, and capital flow. The progress of developing countries depends on internal policies and initiatives concerning investment and production efficiency, human development and population. Not only can human development increase growth but it can help to reduce absolute poverty.