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  1. 1

    Managing international waters in Africa: process and progress.

    Hirji R; Grey D

    In: International watercourses: enhancing cooperation and managing conflict. Proceedings of a World Bank seminar, edited by Salman M.A. Salman, Laurence Boisson de Chazournes. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1998. 77-99. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 414)

    This technical report chapter addresses issues of management of transboundary watercourses (TWs) in Africa. Examples are given of a two-tiered approach that is being used in Southern Africa, Lake Victoria, and the Volta Basin. Stresses have occurred due to uncoordinated use of resources and imbalances in capacity. Lessons learned are identified for the three cases as well as the implications for developing joint management of the Nile River. Africa has an abundance of TWs and countries making mutually exclusive claims for international water basins. Sustainable development of the region's water resources requires joint management of shared river basins. The main issues of the three cases are access to and control over water resource use. Major stakeholders of the Volta River Basin are Ghana and Burkina Faso with 88% of control and major economic dependency. Water demand has increased. Lake Victoria is a source of survival for thousands of rural settlements in three countries. The lake ecosystem supports a variety of economic activity, recreation, and biological resources. The ecosystem suffers threats to biodiversity, water pollution, wetlands degradation, and damaging effects from the water hyacinth. Southern Africa is a water scarce region with many international basins. Regional issues in Africa are water scarcity, drought, and watershed degradation. The World Bank supports the development of joint management of water resources in these three cases, each of which is described. Balanced levels of knowledge and information are important among riparians in order to build capacity and reach achievable goals. Dialogue must be sustained and trust needs to be established. Mutual benefits attract riparians and sustain dialogue.
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  2. 2

    Elements of a legal strategy for managing international watercourses: the Aral Sea basin.

    Boisson de Chazournes L

    In: International watercourses: enhancing cooperation and managing conflict. Proceedings of a World Bank seminar, edited by Salman M.A. Salman, Laurence Boisson de Chazournes. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1998. 65-76. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 414)

    This technical report chapter is devoted to a discussion of legal management issues of watercourses in the Aral Sea Basin: program goals, a 1992 cooperative agreement, regional institutions for reinforcing cooperation, and annual bilateral and multilateral agreements. There is a need to strengthen the water management legal framework. Donors could play a role in providing technical and financial assistance, as crucial factors in development and implementation of legal strategies. Other tools for improving transboundary water-related environmental concerns include the Nukus Declaration (1995) and the UN Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses (TWs) (1996). Central Asian states have not ratified the UN Convention but the principle of "the polluter pays" and public participation of all key stakeholders are important for developing strategies for efficient water use. The ecosystem protection approach of the Helsinki Convention would be useful for protection of the deltas of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers and for prevention of desertification in this region. The Central Asian Republics recognize the need to strengthen the existing institutional and legal regulatory framework and to adapt to new demands. However, institutional legal instruments need to be integrated. The countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan adopted an Aral Sea Basin Program in January 1994. The aim is to stabilize the environment of the Aral Sea Basin, to rehabilitate the Disaster Zone, to improve the management of TWs, and to build capacity to assist riparian states in cooperation and adoption of a sustainable regional policy.
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  3. 3

    UNFPA fifth country programme of assistance to Kenya, 1997 to 2001. Strengthening reproductive health planning and management capacity of Ministry of Health.

    United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA]

    [Unpublished] 1998 Feb. [3], 43, [25] p.

    This proposal describes a reproductive health (RH) program during 1997-2001 in Kenya that is supported by the UN Population Fund (UNFPA). The program builds upon prior achievements and lessons learned and supports the Ministry of Health (MOH) in efforts to strengthen the MOH's RH planning and management capacity. The project aims to strengthen institutional capacity; increase access and quality of integrated RH services; and address issues of safe motherhood, sexual and RH of adolescents and youth, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS, and IEC. It is expected that by 2001, 38% of service delivery points will have been strengthened with integrated RH services. 6% of other services will be upgraded for closing the distance within 5 km to services among 25% of women who lack such access. The maternal mortality ratio will be reduced by 20%. Perinatal morbidity and mortality rates will be reduced by 30%. Contraceptive prevalence will be increased by 20% in selected districts and Nairobi slums. Adolescents should have more accurate and appropriate information, counseling, and services. The program should have increased community awareness of STIs and HIV/AIDS, counseling, and health facilities for reducing transmission of STIs. IEC should have been intensified by 2001. This proposal includes a description of the logical framework, the background-justification, project goals, strategies, institutional framework, advance preparations, government follow-up, UNFPA assistance and input, projected budget, justification of government input, and other related activities and funding.
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  4. 4

    The Bank's relations with NGOs: issues and directions (incorporating "Cooperation between the World Bank and NGOs: FY97 Progress Report").

    World Bank. Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network. Social Development. NGO Unit

    Washington, D.C., World Bank, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network, Social Development, 1998 Aug 11. [3], 17, 19, [10] p. (Social Development Paper No. 28)

    This report gives an overview of World Bank (WB) and nongovernmental organization (NGO) relations, offers some lessons learned, and identifies emerging issues. This report also incorporates the views of the Executive Directors which were made at the Board Seminar on WB-NGO relations held in March 1998. WB-NGO partnerships have had successful "project" outcomes. There are concerns about WB-NGO involvement in government policy issues. The discussion focuses on five specific issues: 1) confidence in the criteria for selection of appropriate NGOs for collaboration, with clear knowledge of the local NGO context, and with consideration of government prerogatives; 2) the WB must clarify the role of NGOs in commenting on draft policies; 3) improve disclosure of information; 4) disseminate the WB's views on the funding of NGO activities; and 5) the WB should understand more clearly the role of civil society in development and the relationship of NGOs to other civil groups. The WB must continue to build community support for development programs and policies. NGOs face constraints, such as: limited financial and managerial expertise and institutional capacity; gaps between stated goals and actual operations; limited sustainability; a lack of inter-organizational coordination; and limited economic or development expertise. WB-NGO partnerships have enhanced the capacity to target and involve poor, vulnerable groups in projects and to achieve gender equity. The WB must balance government knowledge and consent with openness to a range of stakeholders and then make independent, professional, and well-informed judgments.
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  5. 5

    New projects signed.

    VIETNAM POPULATION NEWS. 1998 Jul-Sep; (8):5-7.

    This article identifies four new projects that were funded for 1997-2000 in Viet Nam. The projects focus on capacity building for contraceptive distribution, support for national education and training in reproductive health and population development (RH/PD), promotion of male participation in RH/PD, and strengthened national capacity for RH. Funding is provided by UNFPA and the government of Viet Nam. This 30-month project aims to complete a systematic review and revision of existing national population policies, to improve knowledge among key program managers of national family planning program at all levels, to revise population and development information, and to meet people's needs for RH services. Services include family planning, prevention of sexually transmitted diseases, social marketing of contraceptives, and community based distribution. Additional funding will support a program to provide contraceptive services and information to adolescents. The project supports the Women's Union and the Peasant's Union in working to incorporate a gender-based approach in RH and family planning policies. The Ministry of Health will receive financial support for developing an RH policy that will advise programs, organize technical support for RH programs, establish an RH information management system, strengthen management training, and improve research capacity.
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