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Strengthening health systems to respond to women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence: a manual for health managers.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2017. 172 p.This manual is intended for health managers at all levels of the health systems. The manual is based on the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline Responding to intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women: WHO clinical and policy guidelines, 2013. Those guidelines inform this manual and its companion clinical handbook for healthcare providers, Health care for women subjected to intimate partner violence or sexual violence, 2014. The manual draws on the WHO health systems building blocks as outlined in Everybody’s business: strengthening health systems to improve health outcomes: WHO’s framework for action..
Strengthening the capacity of community health workers to deliver care for sexual, reproductive, maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2015. 20 p.Government institutions, United Nations agencies, and global partners have been repositioning the role that community health workers (CHWs) can play in increasing access to essential quality health services in the context of national primary health care and universal health coverage. Given the growing momentum and interest in training CHWs, the United Nations health agencies (H4+) have developed this technical brief to orient country programme managers and global partners as to key elements for strengthening the capacity of CHWs, including health system and programmatic considerations, core competencies, and evidence-informed interventions for CHWs along the SR/MNCAH continuum of care. These key elements need to be adapted and contextualized by countries to reflect the structure, gaps, and opportunities of the national primary health care system, the interaction between the health sector with other sectors, and the specific roles and competencies that CHWs already have within that system. These key elements should also guide H4+ members and partners to take a joint and harmonized approach to supporting countries in their capacity-development efforts. Annex 1 lists SR/MNCAH interventions that CHWs can perform based on the best available evidence and existing WHO guidance.
Design and initial implementation of the WHO FP umbrella project - to strengthen contraceptive services in the sub Saharan Africa.
Reproductive Health. 2017 Jun 15; 14(1):1-6.BACKGROUND: Strengthening contraceptive services in sub Saharan Africa is critical to achieve the FP 2020 goal of enabling 120 million more women and girls to access and use contraceptives by 2020 and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) targets of universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services including family planning by 2030. METHOD: The World Health Organization (WHO) and partners have designed a multifaceted project to strengthen health systems to reduce the unmet need of contraceptive and family planning services in sub Saharan Africa. The plan leverages global, regional and national partnerships to facilitate and increase the use of evidence based WHO guidelines with a specific focus on postpartum family planning. The four key approaches undertaken are i) making WHO Guidelines adaptable & appropriate for country use ii) building capacity of WHO regional/country staff iii) providing technical support to countries and iv) strengthening partnerships for introduction and implementation of WHO guidelines. This paper describes the project design and elaborates the multifaceted approaches required in initial implementation to strengthen contraceptive services. CONCLUSION: The initial results from this project reflect that simultaneous application these approaches may strengthen contraceptive services in Sub Saharan Africa and ensure sustainability of the efforts. The lessons learned may be used to scale up and expand services in other countries.
Towards a grand convergence for child survival and health: A strategic review of options for the future building on lessons learnt from IMNCI.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2016 Nov. 78 p.This strategic review provides direction to the global child health community on how to better assist countries to deliver the best possible strategies to help each child survive and thrive. Over the past quarter century, child mortality has more than halved, dropping from 91 to 43 deaths per 1000 live births between 1990 and 2015. Yet in 2015 an estimated 5.9 million children still died before reaching their fifth birthday, most from conditions that are readily preventable or treatable with proven, cost-effective interventions. The review took as its departure point the implementation of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI), developed by WHO and UNICEF in 1995 as a premier strategy to promote health and provide preventive and curative services for children under five in countries with greater than 40 deaths per 1000 live births. It includes contributions from over 90 countries and hundreds of experts in child health and related areas, with 32 specifically commissioned pieces of analysis. The final product represents a collaboration of child health experts worldwide, working together to examine past lessons and propose an agenda to stimulate momentum for improving care for children.
WHO Global Forum for Government Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officers, 18-19 May 2016, Geneva, Switzerland. The future of nursing and midwifery workforce in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals and universal health coverage. Forum statement.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2016.  p.The goal of the World Health Organization and its Member States is to achieve the highest attainable levels of health for all people. A number of health development approaches have been directed toward this goal from primary health care in the 70’s through to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and the current Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The commitment made by Member States to universal health coverage reinforces the need for strengthened nursing and midwifery contribution to achieve good health outcomes. Although many countries still have nursing and midwifery workforce shortages, we the Government Chief Nursing and Midwifery Officers recognize that in addition to increasing our numbers, more must be done in order to realize these professions full potential. Consequently, we acknowledge the importance of ensuring the quality, acceptability, relevance and sustainability of our future nursing and midwifery workforce. Strengthening nursing and midwifery services in our respective countries is possible by using the latest evidence-based knowledge and relevant technologies to create policies and management systems that support practice and leadership which deliver quality services to individuals and communities within the distinctiveness of our health systems. In the context of this Forum and in support of the Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 and the Global Strategic Directions for Strengthening Nursing and Midwifery 2016-2020, we commit ourselves to: a) Strengthening governance and accountability, b) Maximizing capacity and capability and realising the potential of the nursing and midwifery workforce and c) Mobilizing political will, commitment and investments for nursing and midwifery.
Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030. Draft 1.0. Submitted to the Executive Board (138th Session).
[Unpublished] .  p.In May 2014, the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA67.24 on Follow-up of the Recife Political Declaration on Human Resources for Health: renewed commitments towards universal health coverage. In paragraph 4(2) of that resolution, Member States requested the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO) to develop and submit a new global strategy for human resources for health (HRH) for consideration by the Sixty-ninth World Health Assembly. 2. Development of the draft Global Strategy was informed by a process launched in late 2013 by Member States and constituencies represented on the Board of the Global Health Workforce Alliance, a hosted partnership within WHO. Over 200 experts from all WHO regions contributed to consolidating the evidence around a comprehensive health labour market framework for universal health coverage (UHC). A synthesis paper was published in February 2015(1) and informed the initial version of the draft Global Strategy. 3. An extensive consultation process on the draft version was launched in March 2015. This resulted in inputs from Member States and relevant constituencies such as civil society and health care professional associations. The process also benefited from discussions in the WHO regional committees, technical consultations, online forums and a briefing session to Member States’ permanent missions to the United Nations (UN) in Geneva. Feedback and guidance from the consultation process are reflected in the draft Global Strategy, which was also aligned with, and informed by the draft framework on integrated people-centred health services. 4. The Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 is primarily aimed at planners and policy-makers of WHO Member States, but its contents are of value to all relevant stakeholders in the health workforce area, including public and private sector employers, professional associations, education and training institutions, labour unions, bilateral and multilateral development partners, international organizations, and civil society. 5. Throughout this document, it is recognized that the concept of universal health coverage may have different connotations in countries and regions of the world. In particular, in the WHO Regional Office for the Americas, universal health coverage is part of the broader concept of universal access to health care.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research, 2009.  p.Over 2008, wide global consultation revealed considerable interest and frustration among researchers, funders and policy-makers around our limited understanding of what works in health systems strengthening. In this current Flagship Report we introduce and discuss the merits of employing a systems thinking approach in order to catalyze conceptual thinking regarding health systems, system-level interventions, and evaluations of health system strengthening. The Report sets out to answer the following broad questions: What is systems thinking and how can researchers and policy-makers apply it? How can we use this perspective to better understand and exploit the synergies among interventions to strengthen health systems? How can systems thinking contribute to better evaluations of these system-level interventions? This Report argues that a stronger systems perspective among designers, implementers, stewards and funders is a critical component in strengthening overall health-sector development in low- and middle-income countries. (Excerpt)
Improving performance of IDSR at district and facility levels: experiences in Tanzania and Ghana in making IDSR operational.
Bethesda, Maryland, Abt Associates, Partners for Health Reform Plus, 2006 Sep.  p. (USAID Contract No. HRN-C-00-00-00019-00)Recognition of the need for effective disease surveillance and response is growing worldwide due to increased risks of infectious diseases associated with population mobility, globalization, and emerging and resurging diseases. The Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy, promoted and supported by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Africa (AFRO), has been adopted throughout the region's 46 countries to strengthen surveillance systems such that they inform public health decisions and disease control actions. This document describes the efforts of the Partners for Health Reformplus (PHRplus) project in Ghana and Tanzania to support improvements in the performance of IDSR. Ghana and Tanzania sought to address concurrently the technical, organizational and workforce issues that could impede IDSR performance. The most notable improvements were seen in reporting, analysis, and interpretation of surveillance data. Strengthening and maintaining IDSR performance, however, is also dependent the following: ensuring on-going supervision and follow-up; ensuring IDSR visibility and leadership at all levels; understanding the links between IDSR and health system decentralization; and addressing structural barriers to IDSR that are a function of the overall health system. (author's)
Lancet. 2006 Apr 8; 367(9517):1193-1208.The Disease Control Priorities Project (DCPP), a joint project of the Fogarty International Center of the US National Institutes of Health, the WHO, and The World Bank, was launched in 2001 to identify policy changes and intervention strategies for the health problems of low-income and middle-income countries. Nearly 500 experts worldwide compiled and reviewed the scientific research on a broad range of diseases and conditions, the results of which are published this week. A major product of DCPP, Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries, 2nd edition (DCP2), focuses on the assessment of the cost-effectiveness of health-improving strategies (or interventions) for the conditions responsible for the greatest burden of disease. DCP2 also examines crosscutting issues crucial to the delivery of quality health services, including the organisation, financial support, and capacity of health systems. Here, we summarise the key messages of the project. (author's)
Accelerating progress towards the attainment of international reproductive health goals. A framework for implementing the WHO Global Reproductive Health Strategy.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Reproductive Health and Research, 2006.  p. (WHO/RHR/06.3)The World Health Organization's first global Reproductive Health Strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly in May 2004 (WHA57.12). The Strategy was developed through extensive consultations in all WHO regions with representatives from ministries of health, professional associations, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), United Nations partner agencies and other key stakeholders. The Strategy recognizes the crucial role of sexual and reproductive health in social and economic development in all communities. It aims to improve sexual and reproductive health and targets five core elements: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combating sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, reproductive tract infections (RTIs), cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. (excerpt)
Resourcing global health: a conference of the Global Network of WHO for Nursing and Midwifery Development, Glasgow, Scotland, June 2006.
Midwifery. 2006 Sep; 22(3):200-203.With the focus of the World Health Report 2006 Working for health together firmly on the issue of human resources in health, the subject is officially placed among those at the top of the international agenda. The debates at this conference, held June 7--9 and hosted by the WHO Collaborating Centre (WHOCC) for Nursing & Midwifery Education, Research & Practice, based in Glasgow Caledonian University's School of Nursing, Midwifery and Community Health, were therefore highly topical and drew significant speakers from both the host country Scotland and 20-plus other nations. The conference was held in conjunction with the Royal College of Midwives (RCM) and the Royal College of Nursing (RCN). (excerpt)
Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2006 Jul; 84(7):506.June 2006 marks the 25th anniversary of a report of five cases of Pneumocystis carinii (now jirovecii) pneumonia in men who have sex with men, heralding the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Over 65 million infections with the causative agent, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have now caused at least 25 million deaths. Following recognition at the XI International Conference on AIDS in 1996, that combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) dramatically improves survival, various initiatives have helped to bring treatment to people with HIV/AIDS in developing countries. Although the target of treating 3 m people by the end of 2005 (WHO's "3 by 5" initiative) was not reached, about 1.3 m people now receive ART in low- and middle-income countries. Major lessons from the initiative include the utility of country-owned targets in mobilizing efforts and promoting accountability, the need for extensive partnerships to scale up activities, the importance of identifying and resolving health systems constraints, the challenges of ensuring equity, and the synergy between treatment initiatives and a simultaneous scaling-up of HIV prevention. (excerpt)
Ethical and programmatic challenges in antiretroviral scaling-up in Malawi: challenges in meeting the World Health Organization's "Treating 3 Million by 2005" Initiative goals.
Croatian Medical Journal. 2004; 45(4):415-421.The Fifty-seventh World Health Assembly's (WHA's) resolution on the "scaling up of treatment and care within a coordinated and comprehensive response to HIV/AIDS" is welcomed globally, and even more so in Sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of the people currently in need of antiretroviral therapy do not have access to it. The WHA identified, among others, the following areas which should be pursued by member states and the World Health Organization (WHO): trained human resources, equity in access to treatment, development of health systems, and the integration of nutrition into the comprehensive response to HIV/AIDS. The WHO Director-General was requested to "provide a progress report on the implementation of this resolution to the Fifty-eighth World Health Assembly." Much of what happens between now and that time depends on the actions of the WHO and the member states and also on the contribution of the international community to the fight against HIV/AIDS. Much of what is to be done will be based on what is available now in terms of practice, human resources, and programs. This paper explores the WHA's resolution, especially regarding the scaling up of antiretroviral therapy, taking Malawi as the case study, to identify the challenges that a Southern African country may be facing which will eventually influence whether the initiative to "Treat 3 Million by 2005" ("3 by 5") will be achieved or not. The challenges southern countries may be facing are presented in this paper not in order to undermine the initiative but to create an awareness of these factors and initiate the appropriate action which would surmount the challenges and achieve the goals set. (author's)
Health Promotion International. 2005; 20(1):1-6.Millions of young people in the developing world never achieve two decades of life, let alone seven, and so it is with mixed feelings that Health Promotion International celebrates its 20th birthday this issue. Much has been written and said about the antecedents and milestones of the health promotion phenomenon, but what is clear from history is that any rapidly growing movement or organization needs to re-invigorate its purpose for existence as well as build its capacity for success. This is vital if health promotion is to be truly a response to both national and global challenges. The forthcoming Bangkok Conference and foreshadowed Bangkok Conference will seek to fill this gap. (excerpt)
BMJ. British Medical Journal. 2005 Nov 12; 331(7525):1104.By 2010, poor developing countries will continue to suffer from a shortfall in supplies of low cost antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for patients with HIV/AIDS unless rational measures are taken quickly, a top World Health Organization official has warned. “We’re going to reach a crisis in terms of supply very very soon . . . of [antiretrovirals] throughout the developing world because the scale-up is happening very very quickly,” Dr Jim Yong Kim, WHO’s outgoing director for HIV/AIDS, told the BMJ. The issue now for the public health world, he said, in the aftermath of the recent summit of the G8 (the world’s most industrialised countries) in Scotland, was that a potential eight to 10 million people will need treatment. In July, the leaders of the G8 agreed at the Gleneagles summit “to provide as close as possible to universal treatment for AIDS by 2010.” (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2005.  p.AIDS Medicines and Diagnostics Service is a network that aims to increase access to good quality and effective treatments for HIV/AIDS by improving supply of antiretroviral medicines and diagnostics in developing countries. Goals: To ensure that the supply of quality commodities is never an obstacle to expanding treatment, care and support; To use improved commodity supply to catalyze rapid expansion of treatment, to promote equity, and to support prevention. (excerpt)
Preventing violence: a guide to implementing the recommendations of the World Report on Violence and Health.
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], Department of Injuries and Violence Protection, 2004.  p.Interpersonal violence is violence between individuals or small groups of individuals. It is an insidious and frequently deadly social problem and includes child maltreatment, youth violence, intimate partner violence, sexual violence and elder abuse. It takes place in the home, on the streets and in other public settings, in the workplace, and in institutions such as schools, hospitals and residential care facilities. The direct and indirect financial costs of such violence are staggering, as are the social and human costs that cause untold damage to the economic and social fabric of communities. With the publication in 2002 of the World report on violence and health, an initial sense of the global extent of the interpersonal violence problem was provided, and the central yet frequently overlooked role of the health sector in preventing such violence and treating its victims was made explicit. The report clearly showed that investing in multi-sectoral strategies for the prevention of interpersonal violence is not only a moral imperative but also makes sound scientific, economic, political and social sense, and that health sector leadership is both appropriate and essential given the clear public health dimensions of the problem and its solutions. The report also reviewed the increasing evidence that primary prevention efforts which target the root causes and situational determinants of interpersonal violence are both effective and cost-effective. In support of such approaches, the report recommended six country-level activities, namely: 1. Increasing the capacity for collecting data on violence. 2. Researching violence – its causes, consequences and prevention. 3. Promoting the primary prevention of violence. 4. Promoting gender and social equality and equity to prevent violence. 5. Strengthening care and support services for victims. 6. Bringing it all together – developing a national action plan of action. (excerpt)
Africa Renewal. 2005 Apr; 19(1): p..When a reporter first met seven-year-old Bongani in a hardscrabble shantytown near Johannesburg in 2003, it was evident the child was dying. He was too weak for school, stunted and racked by diarrhoea. There was little question that he, like his deceased parents, was infected with the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. It seemed equally certain that he would soon lie in a tiny grave next to theirs -- joining the 370,000 South Africans who died from the disease that year. But when the journalist, Mr. Martin Plaut of the BBC, returned a year later, he found a healthy, laughing Bongani poring over his lesson book. “The transformation,” Mr. Plaut wrote last December, “was remarkable.” That transformation -- and the difference between life and death for Bongani and a growing number of people living with HIV and AIDS in Africa -- has resulted from access to anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs) that attack the virus and can dramatically reduce AIDS deaths. For years high costs severely limited their use in Africa. The Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that only about 50,000 of the 4 million Africans in urgent need of the drugs were able to obtain them in 2002. But with prices dropping in the face of demands for treatment access and competition from generic copies of the patented medications, the politics and economics of AIDS treatment have finally begun to shift. (excerpt)
Strategy to accelerate progress towards the attainment of international development goals and targets related to reproductive health.
Reproductive Health Matters. 2005; 13(25):11-18.Reproductive and sexual ill-health account for 20% of the global burden of ill-health for women, and 14% for men. The strategy presented in this document is the World Health Organization’s first global strategy on reproductive health. It was adopted by the 57th World Health Assembly (WHA) in May 2004. Five priority aspects of reproductive and sexual health are targeted: improving antenatal, delivery, postpartum and newborn care; providing high-quality services for family planning, including infertility services; eliminating unsafe abortion; combatting sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, reproductive tract infections, cervical cancer and other gynaecological morbidities; and promoting sexual health. The strategy was developed as a result of extensive consultations in all regions with representatives from ministries of health, professional associations, non-governmental organizations, United Nations partners and other key stakeholders. It lays out actions needed for accelerating progress towards the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other international goals and targets relating to reproductive health, especially those from the International Conference on Population and Development in 1994 and its five-year follow-up. ‘‘The strong endorsement of this strategy by the WHA represents an unequivocal message that countries are committed to do all they can to achieve the goals and targets of the ICPD Programme of Action adopted in 1994.’’ (author's)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of Child and Adolescent Health and Development, 2001.  p. (WHO/FCH/CAH/01.12)CAH has continued to strengthen catalytic linkages with other WHO departments, UN agencies, bilateral agencies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), private voluntary organizations and foundations. These partners play an important role in assessing the need for strategies for child and adolescent health and development and in supporting their implementation. Strong collaboration exists with a range of partners inside and outside WHO. It is through these partnerships that CAH is able to build capacity and extend the application of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) and adolescent health and development interventions. This progress report provides an informative summary of the work of the Department midway through the current biennium. Chapter 1 describes the Department’s global priorities in child and adolescent health, and efforts to address them. Chapters 2–4 summarize the year’s work in three topic areas—promoting a safe and supportive environment, improving health service delivery, and monitoring and evaluation. The final chapter describes collaboration with partners and continuing efforts to expand capacity for sound public health programming at all levels. A full programme report will be prepared at the close of the 2000–2001 biennium. The CAH staff in Headquarters, in the Regional Offices and in countries invite you to read this report, make suggestions, and join us in our efforts to mobilize the global community in promoting the health of children and adolescents. In addition, we would like to take this opportunity to thank those who have provided support to our activities, both technical and financial. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2004 Apr 15. 15 p. (A57/13)By resolution WHA55.19, the Health Assembly requested the Director-General “to develop a strategy for accelerating progress towards attainment of international development goals and targets related to reproductive health … .” A progress report setting out the key elements of the strategy and summarizing the Executive Board’s comments thereon was reviewed and noted by the Fifty-sixth World Health Assembly. In order to ensure maximum involvement of Member States and other interested parties in the development of the strategy, four regional consultations were held: for the South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions jointly (Colombo, 2-4 June 2003), for the European Region (Copenhagen, 5-7 June 2003), the Region of the Americas (Washington, DC, 11-13 June 2003), and jointly for the African and Eastern Mediterranean Regions (Harare, 7-9 July 2003). The aim of these meetings was two-fold: to review country-level experiences and lessons learnt in implementing reproductive health strategies, policies and programmes; and to review, and make recommendations on, the draft global reproductive health strategy. WHO subsequently convened a meeting of experts (Geneva, 18 and 19 September 2003) to provide final input into the draft strategy. The resulting text is annexed. The draft strategy was considered by the Board at its 113th session in January 2004. The Board adopted resolution EB113.R11, which contained a further resolution recommending the Fifty-seventh World Health Assembly, inter alia, to endorse the strategy. (excerpt)
Expanding capacity for operations research in reproductive health: summary report of a consultative meeting, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, December 10-11, 2001.
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2003.  p.A major issue in providing health care is to ensure that the recipients of reproductive health services and technology—clients—optimally benefit from these services. Over the next decade, operations research will be a crucial tool for evaluating and developing new programmes. The tools or guidelines for addressing mortality and morbidity, improving reproductive health, and preventing and managing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are available. However, programme managers need ways to show how to deploy these tools in the most effective and cost-effective manner. Operations research plays a key role in providing this evidence and guiding the process. However, this complex research will require collaboration from scientists and institutions from a wide range of fields, including epidemiology, biomedicine, economics, and the social sciences. The challenge of this collaboration is to develop an evidence-based culture among providers, programme managers, and policy-makers. Its ultimate goal is to contribute to improved delivery of reproductive health services. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2001 Jun. 29 p.The World Health Organization as an intergovernmental specialised agency has the task and challenge to support its member governments in strengthening their capacity to steer their health systems. This figures prominently in the recent World Health Report, in which stewardship is ranked as the most important of the health system functions. In the Report, stewardship is defined as a “function of a government responsible for the welfare of the population, and concerned about the trust and legitimacy with which its activities are viewed by the citizenry”. This overview on capacity building covers the recent thinking on the issue and provides information relevant to strengthening capacities also in the stewardship role of the governments. This paper is written primarily to the participants of a WHO project which aims to develop, in partnership with countries, ways to support senior policy makers and managers of health systems. Major developments have taken place in capacity building during the 1990s. Most information on the topic is recent and appears in grey literature. This overview aims to present the current knowledge on the concepts and practice in capacity building. The first part of the document discusses some major changes in the international thinking. The second part links the concepts and frameworks to the state of the art in practising capacity building. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, Department of HIV / AIDS, . 19 p.Globally, up to 100 000 people need to be trained for their contribution to achieving the 3 by 5 target– including those involved in managing and delivering antiretroviral treatment services, those working on testing and counselling and other entry points to antiretroviral treatment and the many community treatment supporters assisting people living with HIV/AIDS who are receiving medication. The challenge is enormous, and the impact of HIV/AIDS on the workforce is exacerbating the already difficult situation. This document outlines a strategic plan for WHO to support the development, strengthening and sustaining of the workforce necessary to radically scale up and maintain antiretroviral treatment. The strategic approach is based on the understanding that achieving this goal critically depends on joint efforts between communities, countries and international organizations. It builds on the experience of successful capacity-building efforts and harnesses existing expertise to strengthen training capacity at the regional and country level in the context of an emergency response. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, WHO, 2003.  p. (WHO/HIV/2003.14)Globally up to 100 000 people need to be trained for their contribution to making 3 by 5 possible—including those involved in the management and delivery of anti-retroviral treatment (ART) services, those working on testing and counselling and other entry points to ART, and the many community treatment supporters assisting people living with HIV/AIDS who are receiving medication. The challenge is enormous, and the impact of HIV/AIDS on the workforce is exacerbating the already difficult situation. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a ‘Human Capacity-Building Plan' that proposes a set of unprecedented steps by which WHO, together with partners, will help countries to develop and sustain the workforce necessary to achieve 3 by 5. It addresses five critical elements for building and sustaining human capacity at the country level. (excerpt)