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Chapel Hill, North Carolina, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Carolina Population Center, MEASURE Evaluation, 2017 Jan. 18 p. (Working Paper WP-17-171; USAID Cooperative Agreement No. AID-OAA-L-14-00004)In 2011, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) published its Evaluation Policy. The policy emphasizes the need to conduct more evaluations of its programs to ensure greater accountability and learning, and it outlines best practices and requirements for conducting evaluations. Since releasing the policy, USAID has commissioned an increasing number of evaluations of its programs. The importance of evaluations for international public health programs has been long recognized, with demand for such evaluations coming from both internal and external sources. Donors or those external to program implementation seek evidence of accomplishments and accountability for resources spent, whereas those involved in program implementation seek evidence to inform and improve program design. Within USAID, the need for more evaluations was driven by the understanding that evaluations provide information and analysis that prevent mistakes from being repeated and increase the likelihood of greater yield from future investments. Finally, there is overall recognition that evaluations should be of high quality and driven by demand, and that results should be communicated to relevant stakeholders. Despite the increased demand for evaluations, there is limited evaluation capacity in many countries where international development programs are implemented. Before strategies to strengthen evaluation capacity can be implemented, it is important first to assess existing evaluation capacity and develop action plans accordingly. We conducted a review of existing assessment tools and guidance documents related to assessing organizations’ capacity to carry out evaluations of international public health programs in order to determine the adequacy of those materials. Here, we summarize the key findings of our review of the literature and provide recommendations for the development of future tools and guidance documents.
New York, Evaluation Office, United Nations Population Fund [UNFPA], 2016 Apr. 105 p.The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of UNFPA in the field of family planning during the period covered by the Strategic Plan 2008-2013 and to provide learning to inform the implementation of the current UNFPA Family Planning Strategy Choices not chance (2012-2020). The evaluation provided an overall independent assessment of UNFPA interventions in the area of family planning and identified key lessons learned for the current and future strategies. The particular emphasis of this evaluation was on learning with a view to informing the implementation of the UNFPA family planning strategy Choices not chance 2012-2020, as well as other related interventions and programmes, such as the Global Programme to Enhance Reproductive Health Commodity Security (GPRHCS- 2013-2020). The evaluation constituted an important contribution to the mid-term review of UNFPA strategic plan 2014-2017. The evaluation features five country case study reports: Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Ethiopia, and Zimbabwe.
Civil society involvement in rapid assessment, analysis and action planning (RAAAP) for orphans and vulnerable children. An independent review.
London, England, UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development, 2005 Jul. 63 p. (Orphans and Vulnerable Children)The Rapid Assessment, Analysis, and Action Planning (RAAAP) Initiative for orphans and other vulnerable children (OVC) was launched by UNICEF, USAID, UNAIDS, and WFP in November 2003. The first round of RAAAPs were carried out in 16 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa in 2004. The purpose of the RAAAP is to undertake an analysis of the situation of OVC and the response in each country, and then, based on this analysis, to produce a national plan of action to scale up and improve the quality of the response to OVC. This plan is then ratified by the government and provides a unifying framework that brings together the activities of all the different stakeholders under a set of common objectives and strategies. This includes all interventions for OVC, including activities of national and local government, donors and civil society organisations (CSOs). The first round of the RAAAP process consisted of a desk study, additional data collection and analysis in country, and a stakeholder workshop to validate the findings and draw up the OVC National Plan of Action. The process was led and coordinated by a national steering group which consisted of the government ministry with responsibility for OVC, other relevant government ministries and departments, development partners including UNICEF, USAID, UNAIDS and WFP and representatives of civil society organisations (CSO). The involvement of different stakeholders in the analysis and planning process is critical for ensuring their ownership of the resulting action plan. (excerpt)
Geneva, Switzerland, World Health Organization [WHO], 2001 Jun. 29 p.The World Health Organization as an intergovernmental specialised agency has the task and challenge to support its member governments in strengthening their capacity to steer their health systems. This figures prominently in the recent World Health Report, in which stewardship is ranked as the most important of the health system functions. In the Report, stewardship is defined as a “function of a government responsible for the welfare of the population, and concerned about the trust and legitimacy with which its activities are viewed by the citizenry”. This overview on capacity building covers the recent thinking on the issue and provides information relevant to strengthening capacities also in the stewardship role of the governments. This paper is written primarily to the participants of a WHO project which aims to develop, in partnership with countries, ways to support senior policy makers and managers of health systems. Major developments have taken place in capacity building during the 1990s. Most information on the topic is recent and appears in grey literature. This overview aims to present the current knowledge on the concepts and practice in capacity building. The first part of the document discusses some major changes in the international thinking. The second part links the concepts and frameworks to the state of the art in practising capacity building. (excerpt)
In: International watercourses: enhancing cooperation and managing conflict. Proceedings of a World Bank seminar, edited by Salman M.A. Salman, Laurence Boisson de Chazournes. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1998. 77-99. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 414)This technical report chapter addresses issues of management of transboundary watercourses (TWs) in Africa. Examples are given of a two-tiered approach that is being used in Southern Africa, Lake Victoria, and the Volta Basin. Stresses have occurred due to uncoordinated use of resources and imbalances in capacity. Lessons learned are identified for the three cases as well as the implications for developing joint management of the Nile River. Africa has an abundance of TWs and countries making mutually exclusive claims for international water basins. Sustainable development of the region's water resources requires joint management of shared river basins. The main issues of the three cases are access to and control over water resource use. Major stakeholders of the Volta River Basin are Ghana and Burkina Faso with 88% of control and major economic dependency. Water demand has increased. Lake Victoria is a source of survival for thousands of rural settlements in three countries. The lake ecosystem supports a variety of economic activity, recreation, and biological resources. The ecosystem suffers threats to biodiversity, water pollution, wetlands degradation, and damaging effects from the water hyacinth. Southern Africa is a water scarce region with many international basins. Regional issues in Africa are water scarcity, drought, and watershed degradation. The World Bank supports the development of joint management of water resources in these three cases, each of which is described. Balanced levels of knowledge and information are important among riparians in order to build capacity and reach achievable goals. Dialogue must be sustained and trust needs to be established. Mutual benefits attract riparians and sustain dialogue.
In: International watercourses: enhancing cooperation and managing conflict. Proceedings of a World Bank seminar, edited by Salman M.A. Salman, Laurence Boisson de Chazournes. Washington, D.C., World Bank, 1998. 65-76. (World Bank Technical Paper No. 414)This technical report chapter is devoted to a discussion of legal management issues of watercourses in the Aral Sea Basin: program goals, a 1992 cooperative agreement, regional institutions for reinforcing cooperation, and annual bilateral and multilateral agreements. There is a need to strengthen the water management legal framework. Donors could play a role in providing technical and financial assistance, as crucial factors in development and implementation of legal strategies. Other tools for improving transboundary water-related environmental concerns include the Nukus Declaration (1995) and the UN Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses (TWs) (1996). Central Asian states have not ratified the UN Convention but the principle of "the polluter pays" and public participation of all key stakeholders are important for developing strategies for efficient water use. The ecosystem protection approach of the Helsinki Convention would be useful for protection of the deltas of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers and for prevention of desertification in this region. The Central Asian Republics recognize the need to strengthen the existing institutional and legal regulatory framework and to adapt to new demands. However, institutional legal instruments need to be integrated. The countries of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan adopted an Aral Sea Basin Program in January 1994. The aim is to stabilize the environment of the Aral Sea Basin, to rehabilitate the Disaster Zone, to improve the management of TWs, and to build capacity to assist riparian states in cooperation and adoption of a sustainable regional policy.
The Bank's relations with NGOs: issues and directions (incorporating "Cooperation between the World Bank and NGOs: FY97 Progress Report").
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network, Social Development, 1998 Aug 11. , 17, 19,  p. (Social Development Paper No. 28)This report gives an overview of World Bank (WB) and nongovernmental organization (NGO) relations, offers some lessons learned, and identifies emerging issues. This report also incorporates the views of the Executive Directors which were made at the Board Seminar on WB-NGO relations held in March 1998. WB-NGO partnerships have had successful "project" outcomes. There are concerns about WB-NGO involvement in government policy issues. The discussion focuses on five specific issues: 1) confidence in the criteria for selection of appropriate NGOs for collaboration, with clear knowledge of the local NGO context, and with consideration of government prerogatives; 2) the WB must clarify the role of NGOs in commenting on draft policies; 3) improve disclosure of information; 4) disseminate the WB's views on the funding of NGO activities; and 5) the WB should understand more clearly the role of civil society in development and the relationship of NGOs to other civil groups. The WB must continue to build community support for development programs and policies. NGOs face constraints, such as: limited financial and managerial expertise and institutional capacity; gaps between stated goals and actual operations; limited sustainability; a lack of inter-organizational coordination; and limited economic or development expertise. WB-NGO partnerships have enhanced the capacity to target and involve poor, vulnerable groups in projects and to achieve gender equity. The WB must balance government knowledge and consent with openness to a range of stakeholders and then make independent, professional, and well-informed judgments.
Washington, D.C., World Bank, Environmentally and Socially Sustainable Development Network, Social Development, 1996 Feb. , v, 59 p. (Social Development Paper No. 12)This report defines types of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and identifies strategies for identifying participatory NGOs. It also discusses capacity building, the tension between service delivery and capacity building, the potential to increase the scale of activity among NGOs, project or process development, and linkages between NGOs and government. The World Bank now aims to foster more participatory community-based development among development-oriented NGOs trying to reduce poverty. Development-oriented NGOs tend to have the strongest grassroots links and the greatest experience reaching disadvantaged groups with innovative methods. The World Bank has historically ignored participatory processes. The challenge is to locate NGOs willing to collaborate and those that have sufficient capacity to meet goals; to support the participatory character of NGOs; and to help reduce friction in styles with the operations of the World Bank and governments. Highly participatory NGOs tend to work on a very small scale. Another challenge is to build the institutional capacity of NGO partners. The usual management training is unsuitable and insufficient for NGO needs. History, politics, and ideology define the differences in links between governments and NGOs. Partners may be constrained by government attitudes and regulations. The cases confirm the importance of a clear, shared understanding of partner NGO roles; a flexible, staged process of collaboration; opportunities for strong, relatively homogenous common interest-based groups; a supportive, nonintrusive state context; and a shared view and willingness to cooperate among major donors.